201 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Chemical And Biomolecular Engineering[Journal]


Colloidal Materials for 3 D Printing.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; email:

In recent years, 3D printing has led to a disruptive manufacturing revolution that allows complex architected materials and structures to be created by directly joining sequential layers into designed 3D components. However, customized feedstocks for specific 3D printing techniques and applications are limited or nonexistent, which greatly impedes the production of desired structural or functional materials. Colloids, with their stable biphasic nature, have tremendous potential to satisfy the requirements of various 3D printing methods owing to their tunable electrical, optical, mechanical, and rheological properties. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030133DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

Does Chemical Engineering Research Have a Reproducibility Problem?

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100, USA; email:

Concerns have been raised in multiple scientific fields in recent years about the reproducibility of published results. Systematic efforts to examine this issue have been undertaken in biomedicine and psychology, but less is known about this important issue in the materials-oriented research that underpins much of modern chemical engineering. Here, we relate a dramatic historical episode from our own institution to illustrate the implications of performing reproducible research and describe two case studies based on literature analysis to provide concrete information on the reproducibility of modern materials-oriented research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030323DOI Listing

Toward Sustainable Chemical Engineering: The Role of Process Systems Engineering.

Authors:
Bhavik R Bakshi

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; email:

Products from chemical engineering are essential for human well-being, but they also contribute to the degradation of ecosystem goods and services that are essential for sustaining all human activities. To contribute to sustainability, chemical engineering needs to address this paradox by developing chemical products and processes that meet the needs of present and future generations. Unintended harm of chemical engineering has usually appeared outside the discipline's traditional system boundary due to shifting of impacts across space, time, flows, or disciplines, and exceeding nature's capacity to supply goods and services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030332DOI Listing

On Radical-Induced Ignition in Combustion Systems.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

This article reviews recent theoretical developments on incipient ignition induced by radical runaway in systems described by detailed chemistry. Employing eigenvalue analysis, we first analyze the canonical explosion limits of mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen, yielding explicit criteria that well reproduce their characteristic Z-shaped response in the pressure-temperature plot. Subsequently, we evaluate the role of hydrogen addition to the explosion limits of mixtures of oxygen with either carbon monoxide or methane, demonstrating and quantifying its strong catalytic effect, especially for the carbon monoxide mixtures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030141DOI Listing

Thermodynamic Principles for the Design of Polymers for Drug Formulations.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Institut für Technische Thermodynamik und Kältetechnik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany; email:

Polymers play an essential role in drug formulation and production of medical devices, implants, and diagnostics. Following drug discovery, an appropriate formulation is selected to enable drug delivery. This task can be exceedingly challenging owing to the large number of potential delivery methods and formulation and process variables that can interact in complex ways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030304DOI Listing

Pretreatment Processes of Biomass for Biorefineries: Current Status and Prospects.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

BioEcoUVa, Research Institute on Bioeconomy, Group of High-Pressure Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Vallodolid 47011, Spain; email:

This article seeks to be a handy document for the academy and the industry to get quickly up to speed on the current status and perspectives of biomass pretreatment for biorefineries. It is divided into two biomass sources: vegetal and animal. Vegetal biomass is the material produced by plants on land or in water (algae), consuming sunlight, CO, water, and soil nutrients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030354DOI Listing

Modeling Segregation in Granular Flows.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; email:

Accurate continuum models of flow and segregation of dense granular flows are now possible. This is the result of extensive comparisons, over the last several years, of computer simulations of increasing accuracy and scale, experiments, and continuum models, in a variety of flows and for a variety of mixtures. Computer simulations-discrete element methods (DEM)-yield remarkably detailed views of granular flow and segregation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030122DOI Listing

Harnessing Nature's Anaerobes for Biotechnology and Bioprocessing.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA; email: , , , , ,

Industrial biotechnology has the potential to decrease reliance on petroleum for fuel and bio-based chemical production and also enable valorization of waste streams. Anaerobic microorganisms thrive in resource-limited environments and offer an array of novel bioactivities in this regard that could revolutionize biomanufacturing, However, they have not been adopted for widespread industrial use owing to their strict growth requirements, limited number of strains available, difficulty in scale-up, and genetic intractability. This review provides an overview of current and future uses for anaerobes in biotechnology and bioprocessing in the postgenomics era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030340DOI Listing

Enabling Applications of Covalent Adaptable Networks.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA; email: , , , ,

The ability to behave in a fluidlike manner fundamentally separates thermoset and thermoplastic polymers. Bridging this divide, covalent adaptable networks (CANs) structurally resemble thermosets with permanent covalent crosslinks but are able to flow in a manner that resembles thermoplastic behavior only when a dynamic chemical reaction is active. As a consequence, the rheological behavior of CANs becomes intrinsically tied to the dynamic reaction kinetics and the stimuli that are used to trigger those, including temperature, light, and chemical stimuli, providing unprecedented control over viscoelastic properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060718-030217DOI Listing

Introduction.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06;9

Santa Barbara, CA Spring 2018.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ch-09-052418-100001DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

The Energy Future.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06;9:153-174

JDC Phosphate, Fort Meade, Florida 33841, USA.

The foreseeable energy future will be driven by economics of known technologies and the desire to reduce CO emissions to the atmosphere. Renewable energy options are compared with each other and with the use of fossil fuels with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Economic analysis is used to determine the best of several alternatives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084300DOI Listing

Continuous Manufacturing in Pharmaceutical Process Development and Manufacturing.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06;9:253-281

Small Molecule Design and Development, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research Laboratory, Indianapolis, Indiana 48525, USA; email: ,

The pharmaceutical industry has found new applications for the use of continuous processing for the manufacture of new therapies currently in development. The transformation has been encouraged by regulatory bodies as well as driven by cost reduction, decreased development cycles, access to new chemistries not practical in batch, improved safety, flexible manufacturing platforms, and improved product quality assurance. The transformation from batch to continuous manufacturing processing is the focus of this review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084355DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Molecular Modelling for Reactor Design.

Authors:
Frerich J Keil

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06;9:201-227

Department of Chemical Engineering, Hamburg University of Technology, D-21073 Hamburg, Germany; email:

Chemical reactor modelling based on insights and data on a molecular level has become reality over the last few years. Multiscale models describing elementary reaction steps and full microkinetic schemes, pore structures, multicomponent adsorption and diffusion inside pores, and entire reactors have been presented. Quantum mechanical (QM) approaches, molecular simulations (Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics), and continuum equations have been employed for this purpose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084141DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Microkinetic Analysis and Scaling Relations for Catalyst Design.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 11;9:413-450. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email: , ,

Microkinetic analysis plays an important role in catalyst design because it provides insight into the fundamental surface chemistry that controls catalyst performance. In this review, we summarize the development of microkinetic models and the inclusion of scaling relationships in these models. We discuss the importance of achieving stoichiometric and thermodynamic consistency in developing microkinetic models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084103DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Advances in Multicompartment Mesoporous Silica Micro/Nanoparticles for Theranostic Applications.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 4;9:389-411. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Vice-Chancellor's Office, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, United Kingdom; email:

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are promising functional nanomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, drug/gene delivery, and cancer therapy. This is due to their low density, low toxicity, high biocompatibility, large specific surface areas, and excellent thermal and mechanical stability. The past decade has seen rapid advances in the development of MSNs with multiple compartments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084225DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Nanoscale Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy Using Near-Field Probes.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 29;9:365-387. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA; email: ,

Light-matter interactions can provide a wealth of detailed information about the structural, electronic, optical, and chemical properties of materials through various excitation and scattering processes that occur over different length, energy, and timescales. Unfortunately, the wavelike nature of light limits the achievable spatial resolution for interrogation and imaging of materials to roughly λ/2 because of diffraction. Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) breaks this diffraction limit by coupling light to nanostructures that are specifically designed to manipulate, enhance, and/or extract optical signals from very small regions of space. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084150DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Shale Gas Implications for C-C Olefin Production: Incumbent and Future Technology.

Authors:
Eric E Stangland

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 29;9:341-364. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Corporate Research & Development, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan 48674, USA; email:

Substantial natural gas liquids recovery from tight shale formations has produced a significant boon for the US chemical industry. As fracking technology improves, shale liquids may represent the same for other geographies. As with any major industry disruption, the advent of shale resources permits both the chemical industry and the community an excellent opportunity to have open, foundational discussions on how both public and private institutions should research, develop, and utilize these resources most sustainably. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084345DOI Listing

Engineered Ribosomes for Basic Science and Synthetic Biology.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 28;9:311-340. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Interdisciplinary Biological Sciences Graduate Program, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; email:

The ribosome is the cell's factory for protein synthesis. With protein synthesis rates of up to 20 amino acids per second and at an accuracy of 99.99%, the extraordinary catalytic capacity of the bacterial translation machinery has attracted extensive efforts to engineer, reconstruct, and repurpose it for biochemical studies and novel functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084129DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Stable Radical Materials for Energy Applications.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 26;9:83-103. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Charles D. Davidson School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email: , ,

Although less studied than their closed-shell counterparts, materials containing stable open-shell chemistries have played a key role in many energy storage and energy conversion devices. In particular, the oxidation-reduction (redox) properties of these stable radicals have made them a substantial contributor to the progress of organic batteries. Moreover, the use of radical-based materials in photovoltaic devices and thermoelectric systems has allowed for these emerging molecules to have impacts in the energy conversion realm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-083945DOI Listing
June 2018
4 Reads

Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Cancer Treatments.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 26;9:105-127. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Translational Tissue Engineering Center, and Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA; email:

Polymeric nanoparticles have tremendous potential to improve the efficacy of therapeutic cancer treatments by facilitating targeted delivery to a desired site. The physical and chemical properties of polymers can be tuned to accomplish delivery across the multiple biological barriers required to reach diverse subsets of cells. The use of biodegradable polymers as nanocarriers is especially attractive, as these materials can be designed to break down in physiological conditions and engineered to exhibit triggered functionality when at a particular location or activated by an external source. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215694PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Critical Comparison of Structured Contactors for Adsorption-Based Gas Separations.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 26;9:129-152. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA; email: , , , , ,

Recent advances in adsorptive gas separations have focused on the development of porous materials with high operating capacity and selectivity, useful parameters that provide early guidance during the development of new materials. Although this material-focused work is necessary to advance the state of the art in adsorption science and engineering, a substantial problem remains: how to integrate these materials into a fixed bed to efficiently utilize the separation. Structured sorbent contactors can help manage kinetic and engineering factors associated with the separation, including pressure drop, sorption enthalpy effects, and external heat integration (for temperature swing adsorption, or TSA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084120DOI Listing

Biomolecular Ultrasound and Sonogenetics.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 26;9:229-252. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA; email:

Visualizing and modulating molecular and cellular processes occurring deep within living organisms is fundamental to our study of basic biology and disease. Currently, the most sophisticated tools available to dynamically monitor and control cellular events rely on light-responsive proteins, which are difficult to use outside of optically transparent model systems, cultured cells, or surgically accessed regions owing to strong scattering of light by biological tissue. In contrast, ultrasound is a widely used medical imaging and therapeutic modality that enables the observation and perturbation of internal anatomy and physiology but has historically had limited ability to monitor and control specific cellular processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086606PMC
June 2018
2 Reads
8.680 Impact Factor

Single- to Few-Layered, Graphene-Based Separation Membranes.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 23;9:17-39. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180, USA; email: ,

Two-dimensional, graphene-based materials have attracted great attention as a new membrane building block, primarily owing to their potential to make the thinnest possible membranes and thus provide the highest permeance for effective sieving, assuming comparable porosity to conventional membranes and uniform molecular-sized pores. However, a great challenge exists to fabricate large-area, single-layered graphene or graphene oxide (GO) membranes that have negligible undesired transport pathways, such as grain boundaries, tears, and cracks. Therefore, model systems, such as a single flake or nanochannels between graphene or GO flakes, have been studied via both simulations and experiments to explore the transport mechanisms and separation potential of graphene-based membranes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084046DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Crystal Engineering for Catalysis.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 23;9:283-309. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4004, USA; email:

Crystal engineering relies upon the ability to predictively control intermolecular interactions during the assembly of crystalline materials in a manner that leads to a desired (and predetermined) set of properties. Economics, scalability, and ease of design must be leveraged with techniques that manipulate the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystal nucleation and growth. It is often challenging to exact simultaneous control over multiple physicochemical properties, such as crystal size, habit, chirality, polymorph, and composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-083953DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Confined Flow: Consequences and Implications for Bacteria and Biofilms.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 21;9:175-200. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204, USA; email:

Bacteria overwhelmingly live in geometrically confined habitats that feature small pores or cavities, narrow channels, or nearby interfaces. Fluid flows through these confined habitats are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments colonized by bacteria. Moreover, these flows occur on time and length scales comparable to those associated with motility of bacteria and with the formation and growth of biofilms, which are surface-associated communities that house the vast majority of bacteria to protect them from host and environmental stresses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084006DOI Listing

Toward Constitutive Models for Momentum, Species, and Energy Transport in Gas-Particle Flows.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 19;9:61-81. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA; email:

As multiscale structures are inherent in multiphase flows, constitutive models employed in conjunction with transport equations for momentum, species, and energy are scale dependent. We suggest that this scale dependency can be better quantified through deep learning techniques and formulation of transport equations for additional quantities such as drift velocity and analogies for species, energy, and momentum transfer. How one should incorporate interparticle forces, which arise through van der Waals interaction, dynamic liquid bridges between wet particles, and tribocharging, in multiscale models warrants further study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084025DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

From Multiscale to Mesoscience: Addressing Mesoscales in Mesoregimes of Different Levels.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 19;9:41-60. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China; email: ,

This review covers three decades of research on mesoscale phenomena in chemical engineering, from the energy minimization multiscale (EMMS) model specific for gas-solid fluidization to a general principle of compromise in competition between dominant mechanisms, leading to the proposed concept of mesoscience. First, the concept of mesoscales is reviewed with respect to their commonality, diversity, and misunderstanding in different fields. Then, the evolution from the EMMS model to the EMMS principle common to all mesoscales is described to show the rationale of mesoscience referring to both mesoscales and mesoregimes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-084249DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

An Autobiography of Ronald W. Rousseau.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2018 06 1;9:1-16. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100, USA; email:

This article provides a synopsis of my professional career, from the decision to study chemical engineering to leadership of one of the top academic programs in that field. I describe how I chose to devote my research to phenomena associated with crystallization as practiced for separation and purification and then made the transition to leader of an academic program. Embedded in the coverage are descriptions of research advances coming from exploration of secondary nucleation, especially how collisions of crystals in supersaturated environments dominate the behavior of industrially relevant crystallization processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060817-083921DOI Listing

Driving Forces for Nonnative Protein Aggregation and Approaches to Predict Aggregation-Prone Regions.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06;8:139-159

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716; email:

Nonnative protein aggregation is the process by which otherwise folded, monomeric proteins are converted to stable aggregates composed of protein chains that have undergone some degree of unfolding. Often, a conformational change is needed to allow certain sequences of amino acids-so-called aggregation-prone regions (APRs)-to form stable interprotein contacts such as β-sheet structures. In addition to APRs that are needed to stabilize aggregates, other factors or driving forces are also important in inducing aggregation in practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101404DOI Listing
June 2017
26 Reads

Artificially Engineered Protein Polymers.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06;8:549-575

Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139; email:

Modern polymer science increasingly requires precise control over macromolecular structure and properties for engineering advanced materials and biomedical systems. The application of biological processes to design and synthesize artificial protein polymers offers a means for furthering macromolecular tunability, enabling polymers with dispersities of ∼1.0 and monomer-level sequence control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101620DOI Listing
June 2017
11 Reads

Biocatalytic Nanocomposites for Combating Bacterial Pathogens.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06;8:87-113

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180; email:

Bacterial infections remain a major public health concern. However, broad-spectrum antibiotics largely target redundant mechanisms of bacterial survival and lead to gained resistance owing to microbial evolution. New methods are needed to attack bacterial infections, and we have only begun to seek out nature's vast arsenal of antimicrobial weapons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101612DOI Listing
June 2017
7 Reads

Introduction.

Authors:
John Prausnitz

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06;8

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ch-08-060617-100001DOI Listing

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Velocity Mapping in Chemical Engineering Applications.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06;8:227-247

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA, United Kingdom; email: ,

This review aims to illustrate the diversity of measurements that can be made using magnetic resonance techniques, which have the potential to provide insights into chemical engineering systems that cannot readily be achieved using any other method. Perhaps the most notable advantage in using magnetic resonance methods is that both chemistry and transport can be followed in three dimensions, in optically opaque systems, and without the need for tracers to be introduced into the system. Here we focus on hydrodynamics and, in particular, applications to rheology, pipe flow, and fixed-bed and gas-solid fluidized bed reactors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061114-123222DOI Listing
June 2017
11 Reads

At Light Speed: Advances in Optogenetic Systems for Regulating Cell Signaling and Behavior.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06;8:13-39

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332; email: ,

Cells are bombarded by extrinsic signals that dynamically change in time and space. Such dynamic variations can exert profound effects on behaviors, including cellular signaling, organismal development, stem cell differentiation, normal tissue function, and disease processes such as cancer. Although classical genetic tools are well suited to introduce binary perturbations, new approaches have been necessary to investigate how dynamic signal variation may regulate cell behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5747958PMC
June 2017
57 Reads

Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06;8:335-357

Reliance Technology Group, Reliance Industries Limited, Ghansoli, Navi Mumbai-400701, India; email: , , ,

Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101630DOI Listing
June 2017
8 Reads

Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06;8:445-471

Lehrstuhl für Chemische Reaktionstechnik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany; email:

Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101334DOI Listing
June 2017
7 Reads

The Selectivity Challenge in Organic Solvent Nanofiltration: Membrane and Process Solutions.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 16;8:473-497. Epub 2017 May 16.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London, United Kingdom; email: , ,

Recent development of organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) materials has been overwhelmingly directed toward tight membranes with ultrahigh permeance. However, emerging research into OSN applications is suggesting that improved separation selectivity is at least as important as further increases in membrane permeance. Membrane solutions are being proposed to improve selectivity, mostly by exploiting solute/solvent/membrane interactions and by fabricating tailored membranes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101325DOI Listing

A Single-Molecule View of Genome Editing Proteins: Biophysical Mechanisms for TALEs and CRISPR/Cas9.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 10;8:577-597. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801; email:

Exciting new advances in genome engineering have unlocked the potential to radically alter the treatment of human disease. In this review, we discuss the application of single-molecule techniques to uncover the mechanisms behind two premier classes of genome editing proteins: transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas). These technologies have facilitated a striking number of gene editing applications in a variety of organisms; however, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms governing the DNA editing properties of these systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101603DOI Listing
June 2017
13 Reads

Nanoscale Aggregation in Acid- and Ion-Containing Polymers.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 26;8:499-523. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6272; email:

In this review we summarize recent efforts in understanding nano-aggregation in acid- and ion-containing polymer systems. The acid and ionic groups have specific interactions that drive aggregation and alter polymer behavior at the nano-, micro-, and bulk length scales. Advancements in synthetic methods, characterization techniques, and computer simulations have enabled researchers to better understand the morphologies and dynamics, particularly at the nanoscale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101531DOI Listing
June 2017
29 Reads

High-Throughput Automation in Chemical Process Development.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 1;8:525-547. Epub 2017 May 1.

Chemical and Synthetic Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903; email: , , , , , , ,

High-throughput (HT) techniques built upon laboratory automation technology and coupled to statistical experimental design and parallel experimentation have enabled the acceleration of chemical process development across multiple industries. HT technologies are often applied to interrogate wide, often multidimensional experimental spaces to inform the design and optimization of any number of unit operations that chemical engineers use in process development. In this review, we outline the evolution of HT technology and provide a comprehensive overview of how HT automation is used throughout different industries, with a particular focus on chemical and pharmaceutical process development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101411DOI Listing
June 2017
30 Reads

Thermophysical Properties and Phase Behavior of Fluids for Application in Carbon Capture and Storage Processes.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 17;8:381-402. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; email:

Phase behavior and thermophysical properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with various other substances are very important for the design and operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes. The available empirical data are reviewed, together with some models for the calculation of these properties. The systems considered in detail are, first, mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and salts; second, carbon dioxide-rich nonelectrolyte mixtures; and third, mixtures of carbon dioxide with water and amines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101426DOI Listing

Multivariate Analysis and Statistics in Pharmaceutical Process Research and Development.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 17;8:403-426. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Chemical & Synthetics Development, Pharmaceutical Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901; email: ,

The application of statistics in pharmaceutical process research and development has evolved significantly over the past decades, motivated in part by the introduction of the Quality by Design paradigm, a landmark change in regulatory expectations for the level of scientific understanding associated with the manufacturing process. Today, statistical methods are increasingly applied to accelerate the characterization and optimization of new drugs created via numerous unit operations well known to the chemical engineering discipline. We offer here a review of the maturity in the implementation of design of experiment techniques, the increased incorporation of latent variable methods in process and material characterization, and the adoption of Bayesian methodology for process risk assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101418DOI Listing
June 2017
5 Reads

Atmospheric Aerosols: Clouds, Chemistry, and Climate.

Authors:
V Faye McNeill

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 17;8:427-444. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027; email:

Although too small to be seen with the human eye, atmospheric particulate matter has major impacts on the world around us, from our health to global climate. Understanding the sources, properties, and transformations of these particles in the atmosphere is among the major challenges in air quality and climate research today. Significant progress has been made over the past two decades in understanding atmospheric aerosol chemistry and its connections to climate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101538DOI Listing

Modular Chemical Process Intensification: A Review.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 7;8:359-380. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0373.

Modular chemical process intensification can dramatically improve energy and process efficiencies of chemical processes through enhanced mass and heat transfer, application of external force fields, enhanced driving forces, and combinations of different unit operations, such as reaction and separation, in single-process equipment. These dramatic improvements lead to several benefits such as compactness or small footprint, energy and cost savings, enhanced safety, less waste production, and higher product quality. Because of these benefits, process intensification can play a major role in industrial and manufacturing sectors, including chemical, pulp and paper, energy, critical materials, and water treatment, among others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101354DOI Listing
June 2017
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Engineering Microneedle Patches for Vaccination and Drug Delivery to Skin.

Authors:
Mark R Prausnitz

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 24;8:177-200. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100; email:

Microneedle patches (MNPs) contain arrays of solid needles measuring hundreds of microns in length that deliver drugs and vaccines into skin in a painless, easy-to-use manner. Optimal MNP design balances multiple interdependent parameters that determine mechanical strength, skin-insertion reliability, drug delivery efficiency, painlessness, manufacturability, and other features of MNPs that affect their performance. MNPs can be made by adapting various microfabrication technologies for delivery of small-molecule drugs, biologics, and vaccines targeted to the skin, which can have pharmacokinetic and immunologic advantages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101514DOI Listing
June 2017
3 Reads

Recent Developments and Challenges in Optimization-Based Process Synthesis.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 27;8:249-283. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Center for Advanced Process Decision Making, Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213; email:

This article first reviews recent developments in process synthesis and discusses some of the major challenges in the theory and practice in this area. Next, the article reviews key concepts in optimization-based conceptual design, namely superstructure representations, multilevel models, optimization methods, and modeling environments. A brief review of the synthesis of major subsystems and flowsheets is presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-080615-033546DOI Listing
June 2017
3 Reads
8.680 Impact Factor

Process Principles for Large-Scale Nanomanufacturing.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 27;8:201-226. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100; email:

Nanomanufacturing-the fabrication of macroscopic products from well-defined nanoscale building blocks-in a truly scalable and versatile manner is still far from our current reality. Here, we describe the barriers to large-scale nanomanufacturing and identify routes to overcome them. We argue for nanomanufacturing systems consisting of an iterative sequence of synthesis/assembly and separation/sorting unit operations, analogous to those used in chemicals manufacturing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101522DOI Listing
June 2017
1 Read

Design and Scaling Up of Microchemical Systems: A Review.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 3;8:285-305. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

The State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; email:

The past two decades have witnessed a rapid development of microreactors. A substantial number of reactions have been tested in microchemical systems, revealing the advantages of controlled residence time, enhanced transport efficiency, high product yield, and inherent safety. This review defines the microchemical system and describes its components and applications as well as the basic structures of micromixers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101443DOI Listing
June 2017
7 Reads

Aerogels in Chemical Engineering: Strategies Toward Tailor-Made Aerogels.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 3;8:307-334. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Institute of Thermal Separation Processes, Hamburg University of Technology, 21073 Hamburg, Germany; email:

The present review deals with recent advances in the rapidly growing field of aerogel research and technology. The major focus of the review lies in approaches that allow tailoring of aerogel properties to meet application-driven requirements. The decisive properties of aerogels are discussed with regard to existing and potential application areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101458DOI Listing
June 2017
3 Reads

Big Data Analytics in Chemical Engineering.

Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2017 06 27;8:63-85. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, Texas 77541; email:

Big data analytics is the journey to turn data into insights for more informed business and operational decisions. As the chemical engineering community is collecting more data (volume) from different sources (variety), this journey becomes more challenging in terms of using the right data and the right tools (analytics) to make the right decisions in real time (velocity). This article highlights recent big data advancements in five industries, including chemicals, energy, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food, and then discusses technical, platform, and culture challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-060816-101555DOI Listing
June 2017
20 Reads