667 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Cell And Developmental Biology[Journal]


Protein Quality Control and Lipid Droplet Metabolism.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:115-139

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

Lipid droplets (LDs) are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that consist of a core of neutral lipids encircled by a phospholipid monolayer decorated with proteins. As hubs of cellular lipid and energy metabolism, LDs are inherently involved in the etiology of prevalent metabolic diseases such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The functions of LDs are regulated by a unique set of associated proteins, the LD proteome, which includes integral membrane and peripheral proteins. Read More

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October 2020

Human Embryogenesis: A Comparative Perspective.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:411-440

Human Embryo and Stem Cell Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London NW1 1AT, United Kingdom; email:

Understanding human embryology has historically relied on comparative approaches using mammalian model organisms. With the advent of low-input methods to investigate genetic and epigenetic mechanisms and efficient techniques to assess gene function, we can now study the human embryo directly. These advances have transformed the investigation of early embryogenesis in nonrodent species, thereby providing a broader understanding of conserved and divergent mechanisms. Read More

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October 2020

Foreword.

Authors:
Ruth Lehmann

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:v-vi

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October 2020

Developing Therapies for Neurodegenerative Disorders: Insights from Protein Aggregation and Cellular Stress Responses.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:165-189

UK Dementia Research Institute at the University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0AH, United Kingdom; email:

As the world's population ages, neurodegenerative disorders are poised to become the commonest cause of death. Despite this, they remain essentially untreatable. Characterized pathologically both by the aggregation of disease-specific misfolded proteins and by changes in cellular stress responses, to date, therapeutic approaches have focused almost exclusively on reducing misfolded protein load-notably amyloid beta (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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October 2020

B Cell Immunosenescence.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:551-574

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA; email:

Innate and adaptive immune responses decline with age, leading to greater susceptibility to infectious diseases and reduced responses to vaccines. Diseases are more severe in old than in young individuals and have a greater impact on health outcomes such as morbidity, disability, and mortality. Aging is characterized by increased low-grade chronic inflammation, so-called inflammaging, that represents a link between changes in immune cells and a number of diseases and syndromes typical of old age. Read More

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October 2020

Synthetic Developmental Biology: Understanding Through Reconstitution.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:339-357

Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

Reconstitution is an experimental strategy that seeks to recapitulate biological events outside their natural contexts using a reduced set of components. Classically, biochemical reconstitution has been extensively applied to identify the minimal set of molecules sufficient for recreating the basic chemistry of life. By analogy, reconstitution approaches to developmental biology recapitulate aspects of developmental events outside an embryo, with the goal of revealing the basic genetic circuits or physical cues sufficient for recreating developmental decisions. Read More

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October 2020

The Lineage Before Time: Circadian and Nonclassical Clock Influences on Development.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:469-509

Chronobiology and Sleep Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Diverse factors including metabolism, chromatin remodeling, and mitotic kinetics influence development at the cellular level. These factors are well known to interact with the circadian transcriptional-translational feedback loop (TTFL) after its emergence. What is only recently becoming clear, however, is how metabolism, mitosis, and epigenetics may become organized in a coordinated cyclical precursor signaling module in pluripotent cells prior to the onset of TTFL cycling. Read More

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October 2020

Mitochondrial Quality Control and Restraining Innate Immunity.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:265-289

Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Maintaining mitochondrial health is essential for the survival and function of eukaryotic organisms. Misfunctioning mitochondria activate stress-responsive pathways to restore mitochondrial network homeostasis, remove damaged or toxic proteins, and eliminate damaged organelles via selective autophagy of mitochondria, a process termed mitophagy. Failure of these quality control pathways is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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October 2020

F-Actin Cytoskeleton Network Self-Organization Through Competition and Cooperation.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:35-60

Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; email:

Many fundamental cellular processes such as division, polarization, endocytosis, and motility require the assembly, maintenance, and disassembly of filamentous actin (F-actin) networks at specific locations and times within the cell. The particular function of each network is governed by F-actin organization, size, and density as well as by its dynamics. The distinct characteristics of different F-actin networks are determined through the coordinated actions of specific sets of actin-binding proteins (ABPs). Read More

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October 2020

Cellular, Molecular, and Physiological Adaptations of Hibernation: The Solution to Environmental Challenges.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 8;36:315-338. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA; email:

Thriving in times of resource scarcity requires an incredible flexibility of behavioral, physiological, cellular, and molecular functions that must change within a relatively short time. Hibernation is a collection of physiological strategies that allows animals to inhabit inhospitable environments, where they experience extreme thermal challenges and scarcity of food and water. Many different kinds of animals employ hibernation, and there is a spectrum of hibernation phenotypes. Read More

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October 2020

Msp1/ATAD1 in Protein Quality Control and Regulation of Synaptic Activities.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 4;36:141-164. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

Mitochondrial function depends on the efficient import of proteins synthesized in the cytosol. When cells experience stress, the efficiency and faithfulness of the mitochondrial protein import machinery are compromised, leading to homeostatic imbalances and damage to the organelle. Yeast Msp1 (mitochondrial sorting of proteins 1) and mammalian ATAD1 (ATPase family AAA domain-containing 1) are orthologous AAA proteins that, fueled by ATP hydrolysis, recognize and extract mislocalized membrane proteins from the outer mitochondrial membrane. Read More

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October 2020

Structural Biology of RNA Polymerase II Transcription: 20 Years On.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 21;36:1-34. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Molecular Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; email:

Gene transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is the first step in the expression of the eukaryotic genome and a focal point for cellular regulation during development, differentiation, and responses to the environment. Two decades after the determination of the structure of Pol II, the mechanisms of transcription have been elucidated with studies of Pol II complexes with nucleic acids and associated proteins. Here we provide an overview of the nearly 200 available Pol II complex structures and summarize how these structures have elucidated promoter-dependent transcription initiation, promoter-proximal pausing and release of Pol II into active elongation, and the mechanisms that Pol II uses to navigate obstacles such as nucleosomes and DNA lesions. Read More

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October 2020

Parkinson's: A Disease of Aberrant Vesicle Trafficking.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 4;36:237-264. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, Sir James Black Centre, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, United Kingdom; email:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a leading cause of neurodegeneration that is defined by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and the accumulation of protein aggregates called Lewy bodies (LBs). The unequivocal identification of Mendelian inherited mutations in 13 genes in PD has provided transforming insights into the pathogenesis of this disease. The mechanistic analysis of several PD genes, including α-synuclein (α-syn), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), and Parkin, has revealed central roles for protein aggregation, mitochondrial damage, and defects in endolysosomal trafficking in PD neurodegeneration. Read More

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October 2020

The Role of Immune Factors in Shaping Fetal Neurodevelopment.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 28;36:441-468. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA.

Fetal neurodevelopment in utero is profoundly shaped by both systemic maternal immunity and local processes at the maternal-fetal interface. Immune pathways are a critical participant in the normal physiology of pregnancy and perturbations of maternal immunity due to infections during this period have been increasingly linked to a diverse array of poor neurological outcomes, including diseases that manifest much later in postnatal life. While experimental models of maternal immune activation (MIA) have provided groundbreaking characterizations of the maternal pathways underlying pathogenesis, less commonly examined are the immune factors that serve pathogen-independent developmental functions in the embryo and fetus. Read More

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October 2020

Processing Temporal Growth Factor Patterns by an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Network Dynamically Established in Space.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 21;36:359-383. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Systemic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, 44227 Dortmund, Germany; email:

The proto-oncogenic epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is a tyrosine kinase whose sensitivity and response to growth factor signals that vary over time and space determine cellular behavior within a developing tissue. The molecular reorganization of the receptors on the plasma membrane and the enzyme-kinetic mechanisms of phosphorylation are key determinants that couple growth factor binding to EGFR signaling. To enable signal initiation and termination while simultaneously accounting for suppression of aberrant signaling, a coordinated coupling of EGFR kinase and protein tyrosine phosphatase activity is established through space by vesicular dynamics. Read More

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October 2020

Nuclear Membrane Rupture and Its Consequences.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 21;36:85-114. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Division of Basic Sciences and Human Biology, The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA; email:

The nuclear envelope is often depicted as a static barrier that regulates access between the nucleus and the cytosol. However, recent research has identified many conditions in cultured cells and in vivo in which nuclear membrane ruptures cause the loss of nuclear compartmentalization. These conditions include some that are commonly associated with human disease, such as migration of cancer cells through small spaces and expression of nuclear lamin disease mutations in both cultured cells and tissues undergoing nuclear migration. Read More

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October 2020

Cellular Mechanisms of NETosis.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 14;36:191-218. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Cell and Developmental Biology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Neutrophils are critical to innate immunity, including host defense against bacterial and fungal infections. They achieve their host defense role by phagocytosing pathogens, secreting their granules full of cytotoxic enzymes, or expelling neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) during the process of NETosis. NETs are weblike DNA structures decorated with histones and antimicrobial proteins released by activated neutrophils. Read More

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October 2020

Pediatric Allergic Diseases, Food Allergy, and Oral Tolerance.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 7;36:511-528. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Paediatric Allergy Research Group, Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom; email:

Pediatric allergic disease is a significant health concern worldwide, and the prevalence of childhood eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy continues to increase. Evidence to support specific interventions for the prevention of eczema, asthma, and allergic rhinitis is limited, and no consensus on prevention strategies has been reached. Randomized controlled trials investigating the prevention of food allergy via oral tolerance induction and the early introduction of allergenic foods have been successful in reducing peanut and egg allergy prevalence. Read More

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October 2020

Shaping Organs: Shared Structural Principles Across Kingdoms.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 6;36:385-410. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Mechanobiology Institute and Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411; email:

Development encapsulates the morphogenesis of an organism from a single fertilized cell to a functional adult. A critical part of development is the specification of organ forms. Beyond the molecular control of morphogenesis, shape in essence entails structural constraints and thus mechanics. Read More

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October 2020

Scaling of Subcellular Structures.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 30;36:219-236. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA; email:

As cells grow, the size and number of their internal organelles increase in order to keep up with increased metabolic requirements. Abnormal size of organelles is a hallmark of cancer and an important aspect of diagnosis in cytopathology. Most organelles vary in either size or number, or both, as a function of cell size, but the mechanisms that create this variation remain unclear. Read More

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October 2020

Integrating Chemistry and Mechanics: The Forces Driving Axon Growth.

Authors:
Kristian Franze

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 30;36:61-83. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom; email:

The brain is our most complex organ. During development, neurons extend axons, which may grow over long distances along well-defined pathways to connect to distant targets. Our current understanding of axon pathfinding is largely based on chemical signaling by attractive and repulsive guidance cues. Read More

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October 2020

The Source and Dynamics of Adult Hematopoiesis: Insights from Lineage Tracing.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 24;36:529-550. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Pathology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; email:

The generation of all blood cell lineages (hematopoiesis) is sustained throughout the entire life span of adult mammals. Studies using cell transplantation identified the self-renewing, multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as the source of hematopoiesis in adoptive hosts and delineated a hierarchy of HSC-derived progenitors that ultimately yield mature blood cells. However, much less is known about adult hematopoiesis as it occurs in native hosts, i. Read More

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October 2020

Combinatorial Control of Plant Specialized Metabolism: Mechanisms, Functions, and Consequences.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10 19;36:291-313. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052 Ghent, Belgium; email:

Plants constantly perceive internal and external cues, many of which they need to address to safeguard their proper development and survival. They respond to these cues by selective activation of specific metabolic pathways involving a plethora of molecular players that act and interact in complex networks. In this review, we illustrate and discuss the complexity in the combinatorial control of plant specialized metabolism. Read More

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October 2020

Neurovascular Interactions in the Nervous System.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2019 10;35:615-635

Neuro and Vascular Guidance, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, University of Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; email:

Molecular cross talk between the nervous and vascular systems is necessary to maintain the correct coupling of organ structure and function. Molecular pathways shared by both systems are emerging as major players in the communication of the neuronal compartment with the endothelium. Here we review different aspects of this cross talk and how vessels influence the development and homeostasis of the nervous system. Read More

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October 2019

Multitasking: Dual Leucine Zipper-Bearing Kinases in Neuronal Development and Stress Management.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2019 10;35:501-521

Department of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA; email:

The dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK) and leucine zipper-bearing kinase (LZK) are evolutionarily conserved MAPKKKs of the mixed-lineage kinase family. Acting upstream of stress-responsive JNK and p38 MAP kinases, DLK and LZK have emerged as central players in neuronal responses to a variety of acute and traumatic injuries. Recent studies also implicate their function in astrocytes, microglia, and other nonneuronal cells, reflecting their expanding roles in the multicellular response to injury and in disease. Read More

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October 2019

Lipid Dynamics at Contact Sites Between the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Other Organelles.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2019 10;35:85-109

Section on Molecular Signal Transduction, Program for Developmental Neuroscience, Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Phospholipids are synthesized primarily within the endoplasmic reticulum and are subsequently distributed to various subcellular membranes to maintain the unique lipid composition of specific organelles. As a result, in most cases, the steady-state localization of membrane phospholipids does not match their site of synthesis. This raises the question of how diverse lipid species reach their final membrane destinations and what molecular processes provide the energy to maintain the lipid gradients that exist between various membrane compartments. Read More

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October 2019

Plant Cell Polarity: Creating Diversity from Inside the Box.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2019 10;35:309-336

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5020, USA; email:

Cell polarity in plants operates across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales to control processes from acute cell growth to systemic hormone distribution. Similar to other eukaryotes, plants generate polarity at both the subcellular and tissue levels, often through polarization of membrane-associated protein complexes. However, likely due to the constraints imposed by the cell wall and their extremely plastic development, plants possess novel polarity molecules and mechanisms highly tuned to environmental inputs. Read More

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October 2019

Comparing Sensory Organs to Define the Path for Hair Cell Regeneration.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2019 10 25;35:567-589. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA; email:

Deafness or hearing deficits are debilitating conditions. They are often caused by loss of sensory hair cells or defects in their function. In contrast to mammals, nonmammalian vertebrates robustly regenerate hair cells after injury. Read More

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October 2019

A Polarizing Issue: Diversity in the Mechanisms Underlying Apico-Basolateral Polarization In Vivo.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2019 10 28;35:285-308. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Polarization along an apico-basolateral axis is a hallmark of epithelial cells and is essential for their selective barrier and transporter functions, as well as for their ability to provide mechanical resiliency to organs. Loss of polarity along this axis perturbs development and is associated with a wide number of diseases. We describe three steps involved in polarization: symmetry breaking, polarity establishment, and polarity maintenance. Read More

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October 2019