695 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Cell And Developmental Biology[Journal]


Physiological Functions of Intracellular Protein Degradation.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin, Germany; email:

While cellular proteins were initially thought to be stable, research over the last decades has firmly established that intracellular protein degradation is an active and highly regulated process: Lysosomal, proteasomal, and mitochondrial degradation systems were identified and found to be involved in a staggering number of biological functions. Here, we provide a global overview of the diverse roles of cellular protein degradation using seven categories: homeostasis, regulation, quality control, stoichiometry control, proteome remodeling, immune surveillance, and baseline turnover. Using selected examples, we outline how proteins are degraded and why this is functionally relevant. Read More

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Eukaryotic Cell Size Control and Its Relation to Biosynthesis and Senescence.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA; email:

The most fundamental feature of cellular form is size, which sets the scale of all cell biological processes. Growth, form, and function are all necessarily linked in cell biology, but we often do not understand the underlying molecular mechanisms nor their specific functions. Here, we review progress toward determining the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell size in yeast, animals, and plants, as well as progress toward understanding the function of cell size regulation. Read More

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Adhesion-Based Self-Organization in Tissue Patterning.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; email:

Since the proposal of the differential adhesion hypothesis, scientists have been fascinated by how cell adhesion mediates cellular self-organization to form spatial patterns during development. The search for molecular tool kits with homophilic binding specificity resulted in a diverse repertoire of adhesion molecules. Recent understanding of the dominant role of cortical tension over adhesion binding redirects the focus of differential adhesion studies to the signaling function of adhesion proteins to regulate actomyosin contractility. Read More

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Mechanochemical Principles of Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Cells and Tissues.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS, Developmental Biology Institute of Marseille (IBDM - UMR7288), and Turing Centre for Living Systems, Marseille, France [the IBDM and Turing Center are both run jointly by the university and the CNRS (Centre national de la recherche scientifique)].

Patterns are ubiquitous in living systems and underlie the dynamic organization of cells, tissues, and embryos. Mathematical frameworks have been devised to account for the self-organization of biological patterns, most famously the Turing framework. Patterns can be defined in space, for example, to form stripes; in time, such as during oscillations; or both, to form traveling waves. Read More

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Motor Cooperation During Mitosis and Ciliogenesis.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Davis, California, USA; email:

Cilia and mitotic spindles are microtubule (MT)-based, macromolecular machines that consecutively assemble and disassemble during interphase and M phase of the cell cycle, respectively, and play fundamental roles in how eukaryotic cells swim through a fluid, sense their environment, and divide to reproduce themselves. The formation and function of these structures depend on several types of cytoskeletal motors, notably MT-based kinesins and dyneins, supplemented by actin-based myosins, which may function independently or collaboratively during specific steps in the pathway of mitosis or ciliogenesis. System-specific differences in these pathways occur because, instead of conforming to a simple one motor-one function rule, ciliary and mitotic motors can be deployed differently by different cell types. Read More

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The Plant Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; email:

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) represents a large multisubunit E3-ubiquitin ligase complex that controls the unidirectional progression through the cell cycle by the ubiquitination of specific target proteins, marking them for proteasomal destruction. Although the APC/C's role is largely conserved among eukaryotes, its subunit composition and target spectrum appear to be species specific. In this review, we focus on the plant APC/C complex, whose activity correlates with different developmental processes, including polyploidization and gametogenesis. Read More

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A Tale of Three Systems: Toward a Neuroimmunoendocrine Model of Obesity.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;37:549-573

Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, United Kingdom; email:

The prevalence of obesity is on the rise. What was once considered a simple disease of energy imbalance is now recognized as a complex condition perpetuated by neuro- and immunopathologies. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the neuroimmunoendocrine mechanisms underlying obesity. Read More

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October 2021

Molecular Mechanisms of Sexually Dimorphic Nervous System Patterning in Flies and Worms.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;37:519-547

Department of Biological Sciences and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; email:

Male and female brains display anatomical and functional differences. Such differences are observed in species across the animal kingdom, including humans, but have been particularly well-studied in two classic animal model systems, the fruit fly and the nematode . Here we summarize recent advances in understanding how the worm and fly brain acquire sexually dimorphic features during development. Read More

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October 2021

Glycocalyx Curving the Membrane: Forces Emerging from the Cell Exterior.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;37:257-283

Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

Morphological transitions are typically attributed to the actions of proteins and lipids. Largely overlooked in membrane shape regulation is the glycocalyx, a pericellular membrane coat that resides on all cells in the human body. Comprised of complex sugar polymers known as glycans as well as glycosylated lipids and proteins, the glycocalyx is ideally positioned to impart forces on the plasma membrane. Read More

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October 2021

From Cell Types to an Integrated Understanding of Brain Evolution: The Case of the Cerebral Cortex.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 20;37:495-517. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA; email:

With the discovery of the incredible diversity of neurons, Cajal and coworkers laid the foundation of modern neuroscience. Neuron types are not only structural units of nervous systems but also evolutionary units, because their identities are encoded in the genome. With the advent of high-throughput cellular transcriptomics, neuronal identities can be characterized and compared systematically across species. Read More

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October 2021

Calcium Signaling Mechanisms Across Kingdoms.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 10;37:311-340. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

Calcium (Ca) is a unique mineral that serves as both a nutrient and a signal in all eukaryotes. To maintain Ca homeostasis for both nutrition and signaling purposes, the tool kit for Ca transport has expanded across kingdoms of eukaryotes to encode specific Ca signals referred to as Ca signatures. In parallel, a large array of Ca-binding proteins has evolved as specific sensors to decode Ca signatures. Read More

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October 2021

The Visual Opsin Gene Repertoires of Teleost Fishes: Evolution, Ecology, and Function.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 5;37:441-468. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Queensland, Australia; email:

Visual opsin genes expressed in the rod and cone photoreceptor cells of the retina are core components of the visual sensory system of vertebrates. Here, we provide an overview of the dynamic evolution of visual opsin genes in the most species-rich group of vertebrates, teleost fishes. The examination of the rich genomic resources now available for this group reveals that fish genomes contain more copies of visual opsin genes than are present in the genomes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Read More

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October 2021

Dynamic Nutrient Signaling Networks in Plants.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 5;37:341-367. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Molecular Biology and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA; email:

Nutrients are vital to life through intertwined sensing, signaling, and metabolic processes. Emerging research focuses on how distinct nutrient signaling networks integrate and coordinate gene expression, metabolism, growth, and survival. We review the multifaceted roles of sugars, nitrate, and phosphate as essential plant nutrients in controlling complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of dynamic signaling networks. Read More

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October 2021

Biophysical and Quantitative Principles of Centrosome Biogenesis and Structure.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 27;37:43-63. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal; email:

The centrosome is a main orchestrator of the animal cellular microtubule cytoskeleton. Dissecting its structure and assembly mechanisms has been a goal of cell biologists for over a century. In the last two decades, a good understanding of the molecular constituents of centrosomes has been achieved. Read More

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October 2021

Nonmuscle Myosin II Regulation Directs Its Multiple Roles in Cell Migration and Division.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 27;37:285-310. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Molecular Mechanisms Program, Centro de Investigación del Cáncer and Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain; email:

Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) is a multimeric protein complex that generates most mechanical force in eukaryotic cells. NMII function is controlled at three main levels. The first level includes events that trigger conformational changes that extend the complex to enable its assembly into filaments. Read More

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October 2021

Beyond Casual Resemblance: Rigorous Frameworks for Comparing Regeneration Across Species.

Authors:
Mansi Srivastava

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 21;37:415-440. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

The majority of animal phyla have species that can regenerate. Comparing regeneration across animals can reconstruct the molecular and cellular evolutionary history of this process. Recent studies have revealed some similarity in regeneration mechanisms, but rigorous comparative methods are needed to assess whether these resemblances are ancestral pathways (homology) or are the result of convergent evolution (homoplasy). Read More

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October 2021

The Fertilization Enigma: How Sperm and Egg Fuse.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 21;37:391-414. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP), Vienna BioCenter (VBC), 1030 Vienna, Austria; email:

Fertilization is a multistep process that culminates in the fusion of sperm and egg, thus marking the beginning of a new organism in sexually reproducing species. Despite its importance for reproduction, the molecular mechanisms that regulate this singular event, particularly sperm-egg fusion, have remained mysterious for many decades. Here, we summarize our current molecular understanding of sperm-egg interaction, focusing mainly on mammalian fertilization. Read More

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October 2021

A New Infectious Unit: Extracellular Vesicles Carrying Virus Populations.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 16;37:171-197. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Laboratory of Host-Pathogen Dynamics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Viral egress and transmission have long been described to take place through single free virus particles. However, viruses can also shed into the environment and transmit as populations clustered inside extracellular vesicles (EVs), a process we had first called vesicle-mediated en bloc transmission. These membrane-cloaked virus clusters can originate from a variety of cellular organelles including autophagosomes, plasma membrane, and multivesicular bodies. Read More

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October 2021

The Genomics and Cell Biology of Host-Beneficial Intracellular Infections.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 9;37:115-142. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Biodesign Center for Mechanisms of Evolution, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA; email:

Microbes gain access to eukaryotic cells as food for bacteria-grazing protists, for host protection by microbe-killing immune cells, or for microbial benefit when pathogens enter host cells to replicate. But microbes can also gain access to a host cell and become an important-often required-beneficial partner. The oldest beneficial microbial infections are the ancient eukaryotic organelles now called the mitochondrion and plastid. Read More

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October 2021

Mechanical Patterning in Animal Morphogenesis.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 9;37:469-493. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel; email:

Morphogenesis is one of the most remarkable examples of biological pattern formation. Despite substantial progress in the field, we still do not understand the organizational principles responsible for the robust convergence of the morphogenesis process across scales to form viable organisms under variable conditions. Achieving large-scale coordination requires feedback between mechanical and biochemical processes, spanning all levels of organization and relating the emerging patterns with the mechanisms driving their formation. Read More

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October 2021

Spatial Organization of Chromatin: Emergence of Chromatin Structure During Development.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 6;37:199-232. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

Nuclei are central hubs for information processing in eukaryotic cells. The need to fit large genomes into small nuclei imposes severe restrictions on genome organization and the mechanisms that drive genome-wide regulatory processes. How a disordered polymer such as chromatin, which has vast heterogeneity in its DNA and histone modification profiles, folds into discernibly consistent patterns is a fundamental question in biology. Read More

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October 2021

Mechanobiology of T Cell Activation: To Catch a Bond.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 2;37:65-87. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA; email:

T cell activation is a critical event in the adaptive immune response, indispensable for cell-mediated and humoral immunity as well as for immune regulation. Recent years have witnessed an emerging trend emphasizing the essential role that physical force and mechanical properties play at the T cell interface. In this review, we integrate current knowledge of T cell antigen recognition and the different models of T cell activation from the perspective of mechanobiology, focusing on the interaction between the T cell receptor (TCR) and the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) antigen. Read More

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October 2021

Components and Mechanisms of Nuclear Mechanotransduction.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 2;37:233-256. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

The cell nucleus is best known as the container of the genome. Its envelope provides a barrier for passive macromolecule diffusion, which enhances the control of gene expression. As its largest and stiffest organelle, the nucleus also defines the minimal space requirements of a cell. Read More

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October 2021

Cell Biology of Canonical Wnt Signaling.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 1;37:369-389. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Biological Chemistry, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1662, USA; email:

Wnt signaling has multiple functions beyond the transcriptional effects of β-catenin stabilization. We review recent investigations that uncover new cell physiological effects through the regulation of Wnt receptor endocytosis, Wnt-induced stabilization of proteins (Wnt-STOP), macropinocytosis, increase in lysosomal activity, and metabolic changes. Many of these growth-promoting effects of canonical Wnt occur within minutes and are independent of new protein synthesis. Read More

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October 2021

Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of Bacterial Rod Shape Formation and Regulation.

Authors:
Ethan C Garner

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 29;37:1-21. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; email:

One of the most common bacterial shapes is a rod, yet we have a limited understanding of how this simple shape is constructed. While only six proteins are required for rod shape, we are just beginning to understand how they self-organize to build the micron-sized enveloping structures that define bacterial shape out of nanometer-sized glycan strains. Here, we detail and summarize the insights gained over the last 20 years into this complex problem that have been achieved with a wide variety of different approaches. Read More

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October 2021

Self-Organization of Cellular Units.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 29;37:23-41. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

The purpose of this review is to explore self-organizing mechanisms that pattern microtubules (MTs) and spatially organize animal cell cytoplasm, inspired by recent experiments in frog egg extract. We start by reviewing conceptual distinctions between self-organizing and templating mechanisms for subcellular organization. We then discuss self-organizing mechanisms that generate radial MT arrays and cell centers in the absence of centrosomes. Read More

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October 2021

Mechanisms of Selective Autophagy.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 21;37:143-169. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Molecular Cancer Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway; email:

Selective autophagy is the lysosomal degradation of specific intracellular components sequestered into autophagosomes, late endosomes, or lysosomes through the activity of selective autophagy receptors (SARs). SARs interact with autophagy-related (ATG)8 family proteins via sequence motifs called LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs in vertebrates and Atg8-interacting motifs (AIMs) in yeast and plants. SARs can be divided into two broad groups: soluble or membrane bound. Read More

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October 2021

Promoters and Antagonists of Phagocytosis: A Plastic and Tunable Response.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 10 21;37:89-114. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Program in Cell Biology, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada; email:

Recent observations indicate that, rather than being an all-or-none response, phagocytosis is finely tuned by a host of developmental and environmental factors. The expression of key phagocytic determinants is regulated via transcriptional and epigenetic means that confer memory on the process. Membrane traffic, the cytoskeleton, and inside-out signaling control the activation of phagocytic receptors and their ability to access their targets. Read More

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October 2021

Protein Quality Control and Lipid Droplet Metabolism.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2020 10;36:115-139

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; email:

Lipid droplets (LDs) are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that consist of a core of neutral lipids encircled by a phospholipid monolayer decorated with proteins. As hubs of cellular lipid and energy metabolism, LDs are inherently involved in the etiology of prevalent metabolic diseases such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The functions of LDs are regulated by a unique set of associated proteins, the LD proteome, which includes integral membrane and peripheral proteins. Read More

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October 2020