434 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Biomedical Engineering[Journal]

Direct Cardiac Compression Devices to Augment Heart Biomechanics and Function.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 8;24:137-156. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

The treatment of end-stage heart failure has evolved substantially with advances in medical treatment, cardiac transplantation, and mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices such as left ventricular assist devices and total artificial hearts. However, current MCS devices are inherently blood contacting and can lead to potential complications including pump thrombosis, hemorrhage, stroke, and hemolysis. Attempts to address these issues and avoid blood contact led to the concept of compressing the failing heart from the epicardial surface and the design of direct cardiac compression (DCC) devices. Read More

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Mechanical Control of Cell Differentiation: Insights from the Early Embryo.

Celeste M Nelson

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 6;24:307-322. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Departments of Chemical & Biological Engineering and Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey USA; email:

Differentiation is the process by which a cell activates the expression of tissue-specific genes, downregulates the expression of potency markers, and acquires the phenotypic characteristics of its mature fate. The signals that regulate differentiation include biochemical and mechanical factors within the surrounding microenvironment. We describe recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the mechanical control mechanisms that regulate differentiation, with a specific emphasis on the differentiation events that build the early mouse embryo. Read More

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Cell Trafficking at the Intersection of the Tumor-Immune Compartments.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 6;24:275-305. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Institute for NanoBiotechnology, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences Oncology Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; email:

Migration is an essential cellular process that regulates human organ development and homeostasis as well as disease initiation and progression. In cancer, immune and tumor cell migration is strongly associated with immune cell infiltration, immune escape, and tumor cell metastasis, which ultimately account for more than 90% of cancer deaths. The biophysics and molecular regulation of the migration of cancer and immune cells have been extensively studied separately. Read More

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Derivation and Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Microfluidic Devices.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 4;24:231-248. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; email:

An integrative approach based on microfluidic design and stem cell biology enables capture of the spatial-temporal environmental evolution underpinning epigenetic remodeling and the morphogenetic process. We examine the body of literature that encompasses microfluidic applications where human induced pluripotent stem cells are derived starting from human somatic cells and where human pluripotent stem cells are differentiated into different cell types. We focus on recent studies where the intrinsic features of microfluidics have been exploited to control the reprogramming and differentiation trajectory at the microscale, including the capability of manipulating the fluid velocity field, mass transport regime, and controllable composition within micro- to nanoliter volumes in space and time. Read More

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Improving Antibody Therapeutics by Manipulating the Fc Domain: Immunological and Structural Considerations.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 1;24:249-274. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA; email:

Interactions between the crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain of antibodies and a plethora of cellular Fc receptors (FcRs) or soluble proteins form a critical link between humoral and innate immunity. In particular, the immunoglobulin G Fc domain is critical for the clearance of target cells by processes that include () cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, or complement lysis; () modulation of inflammation; () antigen presentation; () antibody-mediated receptor clustering; and () cytokine release. More than 30 Fc-engineered antibodies aimed primarily at tailoring these effects for optimal therapeutic outcomes are in clinical evaluation or have already been approved. Read More

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Cuffless Blood Pressure Measurement.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 1;24:203-230. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Macquarie Medical School, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; email:

Cuffless blood pressure (BP) measurement has become a popular field due to clinical need and technological opportunity. However, no method has been broadly accepted hitherto. The objective of this review is to accelerate progress in the development and application of cuffless BP measurement methods. Read More

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Deep Learning and Medical Image Analysis for COVID-19 Diagnosis and Prediction.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 22;24:179-201. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

School of Biomedical Engineering, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed dramatic challenges to health-care organizations worldwide. To combat the global crisis, the use of thoracic imaging has played a major role in the diagnosis, prediction, and management of COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe symptoms or with evidence of worsening respiratory status. In response, the medical image analysis community acted quickly to develop and disseminate deep learning models and tools to meet the urgent need of managing and interpreting large amounts of COVID-19 imaging data. Read More

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Technologies to Assess Drug Response and Heterogeneity in Patient-Derived Cancer Organoids.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 8;24:157-177. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

University of Wisconsin-Madison Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Patient-derived cancer organoids (PDCOs) are organotypic 3D cultures grown from patient tumor samples. PDCOs provide an exciting opportunity to study drug response and heterogeneity within and between patients. This research can guide new drug development and inform clinical treatment planning. Read More

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Biomaterials for Hemostasis.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 1;24:111-135. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; email:

Uncontrolled bleeding is a major problem in trauma and emergency medicine. While materials for trauma applications would certainly find utility in traditional surgical settings, the unique environment of emergency medicine introduces additional design considerations, including the need for materials that are easily deployed in austere environments. Ideally, these materials would be available off the shelf, could be easily transported, and would be able to be stored at room temperature for some amount of time. Read More

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Current Developments and Challenges of mRNA Vaccines.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 1;24:85-109. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA; email:

mRNA vaccines have brought about a great revolution in the vaccine fields owing to their simplicity and adaptability in antigen design, potential to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and demonstrated high efficacy, and rapid and low-cost production by using the same manufacturing platform for different mRNA vaccines. Multiple mRNA vaccines have been investigated for both infectious diseases and cancers, showing significant superiority to other types of vaccines. Although great success of mRNA vaccines has been achieved in the control of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, there are still multiple challenges for the future development of mRNA vaccines. Read More

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Regenerative Approaches for Chronic Wounds.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 28;24:61-83. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Chronic skin wounds are commonly found in older individuals who have impaired circulation due to diabetes or are immobilized due to physical disability. Chronic wounds pose a severe burden to the health-care system and are likely to become increasingly prevalent in aging populations. Various treatment approaches exist to help the healing process, although the healed tissue does not generally recapitulate intact skin but rather forms a scar that has inferior mechanical properties and that lacks appendages such as hair or sweat glands. Read More

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Regulation of Tumor Invasion by the Physical Microenvironment: Lessons from Breast and Brain Cancer.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 4;24:29-59. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

University of California, Berkeley-University of California, San Francisco Graduate Program in Bioengineering, Berkeley, California, USA; email:

The success of anticancer therapies is often limited by heterogeneity within and between tumors. While much attention has been devoted to understanding the intrinsic molecular diversity of tumor cells, the surrounding tissue microenvironment is also highly complex and coevolves with tumor cells to drive clinical outcomes. Here, we propose that diverse types of solid tumors share common physical motifs that change in time and space, serving as universal regulators of malignancy. Read More

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Detection and Monitoring of Viral Infections via Wearable Devices and Biometric Data.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2022 06 21;24:1-27. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Mounting clinical evidence suggests that viral infections can lead to detectable changes in an individual's normal physiologic and behavioral metrics, including heart and respiration rates, heart rate variability, temperature, activity, and sleep prior to symptom onset, potentially even in asymptomatic individuals. While the ability of wearable devices to detect viral infections in a real-world setting has yet to be proven, multiple recent studies have established that individual, continuous data from a range of biometric monitoring technologies can be easily acquired and that through the use of machine learning techniques, physiological signals and warning signs can be identified. In this review, we highlight the existing knowledge base supporting the potential for widespread implementation of biometric data to address existing gaps in the diagnosis and treatment of viral illnesses, with a particular focus on the many important lessons learned from the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Read More

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Biomedical Applications of Metal 3D Printing.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07;23:307-338

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Additive manufacturing's attributes include print customization, low per-unit cost for small- to mid-batch production, seamless interfacing with mainstream medical 3D imaging techniques, and feasibility to create free-form objects in materials that are biocompatible and biodegradable. Consequently, additive manufacturing is apposite for a wide range of biomedical applications including custom biocompatible implants that mimic the mechanical response of bone, biodegradable scaffolds with engineered degradation rate, medical surgical tools, and biomedical instrumentation. This review surveys the materials, 3D printing methods and technologies, and biomedical applications of metal 3D printing, providing a historical perspective while focusing on the state of the art. Read More

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Vascular Mechanobiology: Homeostasis, Adaptation, and Disease.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07;23:1-27

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA; email:

Cells of the vascular wall are exquisitely sensitive to changes in their mechanical environment. In healthy vessels, mechanical forces regulate signaling and gene expression to direct the remodeling needed for the vessel wall to maintain optimal function. Major diseases of arteries involve maladaptive remodeling with compromised or lost homeostatic mechanisms. Read More

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Biology and Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07;23:359-384

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the most selective endothelial barriers. An understanding of its cellular, morphological, and biological properties in health and disease is necessary to develop therapeutics that can be transported from blood to brain. In vivo models have provided some insight into these features and transport mechanisms adopted at the brain, yet they have failed as a robust platform for the translation of results into clinical outcomes. Read More

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Current Advances in Photoactive Agents for Cancer Imaging and Therapy.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07;23:29-60

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Photoactive agents are promising complements for both early diagnosis and targeted treatment of cancer. The dual combination of diagnostics and therapeutics is known as theranostics. Photoactive theranostic agents are activated by a specific wavelength of light and emit another wavelength, which can be detected for imaging tumors, used to generate reactive oxygen species for ablating tumors, or both. Read More

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Fluid Dynamics of Respiratory Infectious Diseases.

Lydia Bourouiba

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07;23:547-577

The Fluid Dynamics of Disease Transmission Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

The host-to-host transmission of respiratory infectious diseases is fundamentally enabled by the interaction of pathogens with a variety of fluids (gas or liquid) that shape pathogen encapsulation and emission, transport and persistence in the environment, and new host invasion and infection. Deciphering the mechanisms and fluid properties that govern and promote these steps of pathogen transmission will enable better risk assessment and infection control strategies, and may reveal previously underappreciated ways in which the pathogens might actually adapt to or manipulate the physical and chemical characteristics of these carrier fluids to benefit their own transmission. In this article, I review our current understanding of the mechanisms shaping the fluid dynamics of respiratory infectious diseases. Read More

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Cell and Tissue Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Liver Disease.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 11;23:517-546. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

Liver disease is an important clinical problem, impacting 600 million people worldwide. It is the 11th-leading cause of death in the world. Despite constant improvement in treatment and diagnostics, the aging population and accumulated risk factors led to increased morbidity due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. Read More

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Integrating Biomaterials and Genome Editing Approaches to Advance Biomedical Science.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 28;23:493-516. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA.

The recent discovery and subsequent development of the CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated protein 9) platform as a precise genome editing tool have transformed biomedicine. As these CRISPR-based tools have matured, multiple stages of the gene editing process and the bioengineering of human cells and tissues have advanced. Here, we highlight recent intersections in the development of biomaterials and genome editing technologies. Read More

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Modeling Immunity In Vitro: Slices, Chips, and Engineered Tissues.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 19;23:461-491. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

Modeling immunity in vitro has the potential to be a powerful tool for investigating fundamental biological questions, informing therapeutics and vaccines, and providing new insight into disease progression. There are two major elements to immunity that are necessary to model: primary immune tissues and peripheral tissues with immune components. Here, we systematically review progress made along three strategies to modeling immunity: ex vivo cultures, which preserve native tissue structure; microfluidic devices, which constitute a versatile approach to providing physiologically relevant fluid flow and environmental control; and engineered tissues, which provide precise control of the 3D microenvironment and biophysical cues. Read More

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Recent Advances in Aptamer-Based Biosensors for Global Health Applications.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 19;23:433-459. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA.

Since aptamers were first reported in the early 2000s, research on their use for the detection of health-relevant analytical targets has exploded. This review article provides a brief overview of the most recent developments in the field of aptamer-based biosensors for global health applications. The review provides a description of general aptasensing principles and follows up with examples of recent reports of diagnostics-related applications. Read More

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In Situ Programming of CAR T Cells.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 16;23:385-405. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

Gene therapy makes it possible to engineer chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to create T cells that target specific diseases. However, current approaches require elaborate and expensive protocols to manufacture engineered T cells ex vivo, putting this therapy beyond the reach of many patients who might benefit. A solution could be to program T cells in vivo. Read More

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Vascularized Microfluidics and Their Untapped Potential for Discovery in Diseases of the Microvasculature.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 16;23:407-432. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA; email:

Microengineering advances have enabled the development of perfusable, endothelialized models of the microvasculature that recapitulate the unique biological and biophysical conditions of the microcirculation in vivo. Indeed, at that size scale (<100 μm)-where blood no longer behaves as a simple continuum fluid; blood cells approximate the size of the vessels themselves; and complex interactions among blood cells, plasma molecules, and the endothelium constantly ensue-vascularized microfluidics are ideal tools to investigate these microvascular phenomena. Moreover, perfusable, endothelialized microfluidics offer unique opportunities for investigating microvascular diseases by enabling systematic dissection of both the blood and vascular components of the pathophysiology at hand. Read More

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Engineering Selectively Targeting Antimicrobial Peptides.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 14;23:339-357. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155, USA; email:

The rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacterial pathogens has necessitated the development of new therapeutics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of compounds with potentially attractive therapeutic properties, including the ability to target specific groups of bacteria. In nature, AMPs exhibit remarkable structural and functional diversity, which may be further enhanced through genetic engineering, high-throughput screening, and chemical modification strategies. Read More

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Simulating Outcomes of Cataract Surgery: Important Advances in Ophthalmology.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 13;23:277-306. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratorio de Óptica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain.

As the human eye ages, the crystalline lens stiffens (presbyopia) and opacifies (cataract), requiring its replacement with an artificial lens [intraocular lens (IOL)]. Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the world. The increase in IOL designs has not been paralleled in practice by a sophistication in IOL selection methods, which rely on limited anatomical measurements of the eye and the surgeon's interpretation of the patient's needs and expectations. Read More

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Quantitative Molecular Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Using Advanced Deep Learning Techniques.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 2;23:249-276. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Machine Learning, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

The widespread availability of high-performance computing and the popularity of artificial intelligence (AI) with machine learning and deep learning (ML/DL) algorithms at the helm have stimulated the development of many applications involving the use of AI-based techniques in molecular imaging research. Applications reported in the literature encompass various areas, including innovative design concepts in positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation, quantitative image reconstruction and analysis techniques, computer-aided detection and diagnosis, as well as modeling and prediction of outcomes. This review reflects the tremendous interest in quantitative molecular imaging using ML/DL techniques during the past decade, ranging from the basic principles of ML/DL techniques to the various steps required for obtaining quantitatively accurate PET data, including algorithms used to denoise or correct for physical degrading factors as well as to quantify tracer uptake and metabolic tumor volume for treatment monitoring or radiation therapy treatment planning and response prediction. Read More

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Red Blood Cell Hitchhiking: A Novel Approach for Vascular Delivery of Nanocarriers.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 31;23:225-248. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Red blood cell (RBC) hitchhiking is a method of drug delivery that can increase drug concentration in target organs by orders of magnitude. In RBC hitchhiking, drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) are adsorbed onto red blood cells and then injected intravascularly, which causes the NPs to transfer to cells of the capillaries in the downstream organ. RBC hitchhiking has been demonstrated in multiple species and multiple organs. Read More

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Circadian Effects of Drug Responses.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 31;23:203-224. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA; email:

Circadian rhythms describe physiological systems that repeat themselves with a cycle of approximately 24 h. Our understanding of the cellular and molecular origins of these oscillations has improved dramatically, allowing us to appreciate the significant role these oscillations play in maintaining physiological homeostasis. Circadian rhythms allow living organisms to predict and efficiently respond to a dynamically changing environment, set by repetitive day/night cycles. Read More

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Integrating Systems and Synthetic Biology to Understand and Engineer Microbiomes.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 07 29;23:169-201. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email:

Microbiomes are complex and ubiquitous networks of microorganisms whose seemingly limitless chemical transformations could be harnessed to benefit agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology. The spatial and temporal changes in microbiome composition and function are influenced by a multitude of molecular and ecological factors. This complexity yields both versatility and challenges in designing synthetic microbiomes and perturbing natural microbiomes in controlled, predictable ways. Read More

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