374 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Biomedical Engineering[Journal]


The Meniscus in Normal and Osteoarthritic Tissues: Facing the Structure Property Challenges and Current Treatment Trends.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Stokes Laboratories, Bernal Institute, School of Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick V94 PC82, Ireland; email:

The treatment of meniscus injuries has recently been facing a paradigm shift toward the field of tissue engineering, with the aim of regenerating damaged and diseased menisci as opposed to current treatment techniques. This review focuses on the structure and mechanics associated with the meniscus. The meniscus is defined in terms of its biological structure and composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052547DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The Driving Force: Nuclear Mechanotransduction in Cellular Function, Fate, and Disease.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering and Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email: ,

Cellular behavior is continuously affected by microenvironmental forces through the process of mechanotransduction, in which mechanical stimuli are rapidly converted to biochemical responses. Mounting evidence suggests that the nucleus itself is a mechanoresponsive element, reacting to cytoskeletal forces and mediating downstream biochemical responses. The nucleus responds through a host of mechanisms, including partial unfolding, conformational changes, and phosphorylation of nuclear envelope proteins; modulation of nuclear import/export; and altered chromatin organization, resulting in transcriptional changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052139DOI Listing

Frontiers in Cryo Electron Microscopy of Complex Macromolecular Assemblies.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

University of British Colu mbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; email:

In recent years, cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) technology has been transformed with the development of better instrumentation, direct electron detectors, improved methods for specimen preparation, and improved software for data analysis. Analyses using single-particle cryo-EM methods have enabled determination of structures of proteins with sizes smaller than 100 kDa and resolutions of ∼2 Å in some cases. The use of electron tomography combined with subvolume averaging is beginning to allow the visualization of macromolecular complexes in their native environment in unprecedented detail. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052453DOI Listing

Skin-Mountable Biosensors and Therapeutics: A Review.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Miniaturization of electronic components and advances in flexible and stretchable materials have stimulated the development of wearable health care systems that can reflect monitor personal health status by health care professionals. New skin-mountable devices that offer seamless contact onto the human skin, even under large deformations by natural motions of the wearer, provide a route for both high-fidelity monitoring and patient-controlled therapy. This article provides an overview of several important aspects of skin-mountable devices and their applications in many medical settings and clinical practices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052315DOI Listing

Single-Cell Omics Analyses Enabled by Microchip Technologies.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA; email: , ,

The study of single-cell omics provides unique information regarding the heterogeneity of cellular populations at various levels of the central dogma of molecular biology. This knowledge facilitates a deeper understanding of how underlying molecular and architectural changes alter cell behavior, development, and disease processes. The emerging microchip-based tools for single-cell omics analysis are enabling the evaluation of cellular omics with high throughput, improved sensitivity, and reduced cost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052538DOI Listing

Programming Stimuli-Responsive Behavior into Biomaterials.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA; email:

Stimuli-responsive materials undergo triggered changes when presented with specific environmental cues. These dynamic systems can leverage biological signals found locally within the body as well as exogenous cues administered with spatiotemporal control, providing powerful opportunities in next-generation diagnostics and personalized medicine. Here, we review the synthetic and strategic advances used to impart diverse responsiveness to a wide variety of biomaterials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052324DOI Listing

Frontiers of Medical Robotics: From Concept to Systems to Clinical Translation.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

The Hamlyn Centre for Robotic Surgery, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom; email: ,

Medical robotics is poised to transform all aspects of medicine-from surgical intervention to targeted therapy, rehabilitation, and hospital automation. A key area is the development of robots for minimally invasive interventions. This review provides a detailed analysis of the evolution of interventional robots and discusses how the integration of imaging, sensing, and robotics can influence the patient care pathway toward precision intervention and patient-specific treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052502DOI Listing

Hydrogel-Based Strategies to Advance Therapies for Chronic Skin Wounds.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

3B's Research Group, I3B's: Research Institute on Biomaterials , Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho , and Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine , 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal; email: , , ,

Chronic skin wounds are the leading cause of nontraumatic foot amputations worldwide and present a significant risk of morbidity and mortality due to the lack of efficient therapies. The intrinsic characteristics of hydrogels allow them to benefit cutaneous healing essentially by supporting a moist environment. This property has long been explored in wound management to aid in autolytic debridement. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052422DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

The Biocompatibility Challenges in the Total Artificial Heart Evolution.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine Group, Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padua and Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, 35122 Padua, Italy; email: , ,

There are limited therapeutic options for final treatment of end-stage heart failure. Among them, implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) is an acceptable strategy when suitable donors are not available. TAH development began in the 1930s, followed by a dramatic evolution of the actuation mechanisms operating the mechanical pumps. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052432DOI Listing
February 2019

Prevention of Opioid Abuse and Treatment of Opioid Addiction: Current Status and Future Possibilities.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering and College of Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Prescription opioid medications have seen a dramatic rise in misuse and abuse, leading regulators and scientists to develop policies and abuse-deterrent technologies to combat the current opioid epidemic. These abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) are intended to deter physical and chemical tampering of opioid-based products, while still providing safe and effective delivery for therapeutic purposes. Even though formulations with varying abuse-deterrent technologies have been approved, questions remain about their effectiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052155DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Exploring Dynamics and Structure of Biomolecules, Cryoprotectants, and Water Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations: Implications for Biostabilization and Biopreservation.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Engineering in Medicine and BioMEMS Resource Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA; email: , ,

Successful stabilization and preservation of biological materials often utilize low temperatures and dehydration to arrest molecular motion. Cryoprotectants are routinely employed to help the biological entities survive the physicochemical and mechanical stresses induced by cold or dryness. Molecular interactions between biomolecules, cryoprotectants, and water fundamentally determine the outcomes of preservation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-060418-052130DOI Listing
December 2018

Energy-Based Tissue Fusion for Sutureless Closure: Applications, Mechanisms, and Potential for Functional Recovery.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06;20:1-20

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA; email:

As minimally invasive surgical techniques progress, the demand for efficient, reliable methods for vascular ligation and tissue closure becomes pronounced. The surgical advantages of energy-based vessel sealing exceed those of traditional, compression-based ligatures in procedures sensitive to duration, foreign bodies, and recovery time alike. Although the use of energy-based devices to seal or transect vasculature and connective tissue bundles is widespread, the breadth of heating strategies and energy dosimetry used across devices underscores an uncertainty as to the molecular nature of the sealing mechanism and induced tissue effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044702DOI Listing

Platelet Mechanotransduction.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06;20:253-275

Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta/Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA; email:

The vasculature is a dynamic environment in which blood platelets constantly survey the endothelium for sites of vessel damage. The formation of a mechanically coherent hemostatic plug to prevent blood loss relies on a coordinated series of ligand-receptor interactions governing the recruitment, activation, and aggregation of platelets. The physical biology of each step is distinct in that the recruitment of platelets depends on the mechanosensing of the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ib for the adhesive protein von Willebrand factor, whereas platelet activation and aggregation are responsive to the mechanical forces sensed at adhesive junctions between platelets and at the platelet-matrix interface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121215DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Bone Mechanical Properties in Healthy and Diseased States.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06;20:119-143

Orthopaedic and Developmental Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA; email:

The mechanical properties of bone are fundamental to the ability of our skeletons to support movement and to provide protection to our vital organs. As such, deterioration in mechanical behavior with aging and/or diseases such as osteoporosis and diabetes can have profound consequences for individuals' quality of life. This article reviews current knowledge of the basic mechanical behavior of bone at length scales ranging from hundreds of nanometers to tens of centimeters. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6053074PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Engineering the Mucus Barrier.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06;20:197-220

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

Mucus selectively controls the transport of molecules, particulate matter, and microorganisms to the underlying epithelial layer. It may be desirable to weaken the mucus barrier to enable effective delivery of drug carriers. Alternatively, the mucus barrier can be strengthened to prevent epithelial interaction with pathogenic microbes or other exogenous materials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463277PMC

From Nanowarming to Thermoregulation: New Multiscale Applications of Bioheat Transfer.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06;20:301-327

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA; email:

This review explores bioheat transfer applications at multiple scales from nanoparticle (NP) heating to whole-body thermoregulation. For instance, iron oxide nanoparticles are being used for nanowarming, which uniformly and quickly rewarms 50-80-mL (≤5-cm-diameter) vitrified systems by coupling with radio-frequency (RF) fields where standard convective warming fails. A modification of this approach can also be used to successfully rewarm cryopreserved fish embryos (∼0. Read More

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https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044532DOI Listing
June 2018
7 Reads

Arterial Venous Differentiation for Vascular Bioengineering.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 11;20:431-447. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA; email:

The development processes of arteries and veins are fundamentally different, leading to distinct differences in anatomy, structure, and function as well as molecular profiles. Understanding the complex interaction between genetic and epigenetic pathways, as well as extracellular and biomechanical signals that orchestrate arterial venous differentiation, is not only critical for the understanding of vascular diseases of arteries and veins but also valuable for vascular tissue engineering strategies. Recent research has suggested that certain transcriptional factors not only control arterial venous differentiation during development but also play a critical role in adult vessel function and disease processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121231DOI Listing

Physiology and Engineering of the Graded Interfaces of Musculoskeletal Junctions.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 11;20:403-429. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, and Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

The connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system can be grouped into fibrous, cartilaginous, and calcified tissues. While each tissue type has a distinct composition and function, the intersections between these tissues result in the formation of complex, composite, and graded junctions. The complexity of these interfaces is a critical aspect of their healthy function, but poses a significant challenge for their repair. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121113DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Inorganic Nanomaterials for Soft Tissue Repair and Regeneration.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 5;20:353-374. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6106, USA; email:

Inorganic nanomaterials have witnessed significant advances in areas of medicine including cancer therapy, imaging, and drug delivery, but their use in soft tissue repair and regeneration is in its infancy. Metallic, ceramic, and carbon allotrope nanoparticles have shown promise in facilitating tissue repair and regeneration. Inorganic nanomaterials have been employed to improve stem cell engraftment in cellular therapy, material mechanical stability in tissue repair, electrical conductivity in nerve and cardiac regeneration, adhesion strength in tissue approximation, and antibacterial capacity in wound dressings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044457DOI Listing

Structural DNA Nanotechnology: Artificial Nanostructures for Biomedical Research.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 4;20:375-401. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes synthetic or biologic DNA as designer molecules for the self-assembly of artificial nanostructures. The field is founded upon the specific interactions between DNA molecules, known as Watson-Crick base pairing. After decades of active pursuit, DNA has demonstrated unprecedented versatility in constructing artificial nanostructures with significant complexity and programmability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-120904DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Circulating Tumor Cells: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 14;20:329-352. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA; email:

Metastasis contributes to poor prognosis in many types of cancer and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Tumor cells metastasize to distant sites via the circulatory and lymphatic systems. In this review, we discuss the potential of circulating tumor cells for diagnosis and describe the experimental therapeutics that aim to target these disseminating cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-120947DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Synthetic Biology Approaches to Engineer Probiotics and Members of the Human Microbiota for Biomedical Applications.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 12;20:277-300. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155, USA; email:

An increasing number of studies have strongly correlated the composition of the human microbiota with many human health conditions and, in several cases, have shown that manipulating the microbiota directly affects health. These insights have generated significant interest in engineering indigenous microbiota community members and nonresident probiotic bacteria as biotic diagnostics and therapeutics that can probe and improve human health. In this review, we discuss recent advances in synthetic biology to engineer commensal and probiotic lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides for these purposes, and we provide our perspective on the future potential of these technologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6100750PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Advanced Endoscopic Navigation: Surgical Big Data, Methodology, and Applications.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 5;20:221-251. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada; email:

Interventional endoscopy (e.g., bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, laparoscopy, cystoscopy) is a widely performed procedure that involves either diagnosis of suspicious lesions or guidance for minimally invasive surgery in a variety of organs within the body cavity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-120917DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Facet Joints of the Spine: Structure-Function Relationships, Problems and Treatments, and the Potential for Regeneration.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 1;20:145-170. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92617, USA; email:

The zygapophysial joint, a diarthrodial joint commonly referred to as the facet joint, plays a pivotal role in back pain, a condition that has been a leading cause of global disability since 1990. Along with the intervertebral disc, the facet joint supports spinal motion and aids in spinal stability. Highly susceptible to early development of osteoarthritis, the facet is responsible for a significant amount of pain in the low-back, mid-back, and neck regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-120924DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Electrophysiological Source Imaging: A Noninvasive Window to Brain Dynamics.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 1;20:171-196. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Purdue Institute of Integrative Neuroscience, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906, USA.

Brain activity and connectivity are distributed in the three-dimensional space and evolve in time. It is important to image brain dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive measurements associated with complex neural activations and interactions that encode brain functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-120853DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Targeted and Nontargeted α-Particle Therapies.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 18;20:73-93. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.

α-Particle irradiation of cancerous tissue is increasingly recognized as a potent therapeutic option. We briefly review the physics, radiobiology, and dosimetry of α-particle emitters, as well as the distinguishing features that make them unique for radiopharmaceutical therapy. We also review the emerging clinical role of α-particle therapy in managing cancer and recent studies on in vitro and preclinical α-particle therapy delivered by antibodies, other small molecules, and nanometer-sized particles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-120931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5988956PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Synthetic Biology: Immunotherapy by Design.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 18;20:95-118. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Biological Design Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA; email:

Cellular immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of human disease. Clinical evidence suggests that T cell immunotherapies have the potential to combat cancers that evade traditional immunotherapy. Despite promising results, adverse effects leading to fatalities have left scientists seeking tighter control over these therapies, which is reflected in the growing body of synthetic biology literature focused on developing tightly controlled, context-independent parts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121147DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Engineering Approaches to Study Cellular Decision Making.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 12;20:49-72. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA; email: ,

In their native environment, cells are immersed in a complex milieu of biochemical and biophysical cues. These cues may include growth factors, the extracellular matrix, cell-cell contacts, stiffness, and topography, and they are responsible for regulating cellular behaviors such as adhesion, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. The decision-making process used to convert these extracellular inputs into actions is highly complex and sensitive to changes both in the type of individual cue (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327838PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Engineering Hydrogel Microenvironments to Recapitulate the Stem Cell Niche.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2018 06 8;20:21-47. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; email:

Stem cells are a powerful resource for many applications including regenerative medicine, patient-specific disease modeling, and toxicology screening. However, eliciting the desired behavior from stem cells, such as expansion in a naïve state or differentiation into a particular mature lineage, remains challenging. Drawing inspiration from the native stem cell niche, hydrogel platforms have been developed to regulate stem cell fate by controlling microenvironmental parameters including matrix mechanics, degradability, cell-adhesive ligand presentation, local microstructure, and cell-cell interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-120954DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

Endogenous Bioelectric Signaling Networks: Exploiting Voltage Gradients for Control of Growth and Form.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06;19:353-387

Allen Discovery Center, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155; email:

Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071114-040647DOI Listing
June 2017
6 Reads

Microsphere-Based Scaffolds in Regenerative Engineering.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06;19:135-161

Stephenson School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019; email:

Microspheres have long been used in drug delivery applications because of their controlled release capabilities. They have increasingly served as the fundamental building block for fabricating scaffolds for regenerative engineering because of their ability to provide a porous network, offer high-resolution control over spatial organization, and deliver growth factors/drugs and/or nanophase materials. Because they provide physicochemical gradients via spatiotemporal release of bioactive factors and nanophase ceramics, microspheres are a desirable tool for engineering complex tissues and biological interfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044712DOI Listing

FEBio: History and Advances.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06;19:279-299

Department of Bioengineering and Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112; email:

The principal goal of the FEBio project is to provide an advanced finite element tool for the biomechanics and biophysics communities that allows researchers to model mechanics, transport, and electrokinetic phenomena for biological systems accurately and efficiently. In addition, because FEBio is geared toward the research community, the code is designed such that new features can be added easily, thus making it an ideal tool for testing novel computational methods. Finally, because the success of a code is determined by its user base, integral goals of the FEBio project have been to offer support and outreach to our community; to provide mechanisms for dissemination of results, models, and data; and to encourage interaction between users. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141040PMC
June 2017
5 Reads

Energy Harvesting from the Animal/Human Body for Self-Powered Electronics.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06;19:85-108

Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

Living subjects (i.e., humans and animals) have abundant sources of energy in chemical, thermal, and mechanical forms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044517DOI Listing
June 2017
8 Reads

Mammalian Synthetic Biology: Engineering Biological Systems.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06;19:249-277

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708; email: ,

The programming of new functions into mammalian cells has tremendous application in research and medicine. Continued improvements in the capacity to sequence and synthesize DNA have rapidly increased our understanding of mechanisms of gene function and regulation on a genome-wide scale and have expanded the set of genetic components available for programming cell biology. The invention of new research tools, including targetable DNA-binding systems such as CRISPR/Cas9 and sensor-actuator devices that can recognize and respond to diverse chemical, mechanical, and optical inputs, has enabled precise control of complex cellular behaviors at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-0715
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044649DOI Listing
June 2017
5 Reads

Advances in Imaging Brain Metabolism.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06;19:485-515

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Research Center, and Quantitative Neuroscience with Magnetic Resonance Core Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520; email:

Metabolism is central to neuroimaging because it can reveal pathways by which neuronal and glial cells use nutrients to fuel their growth and function. We focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods used in brain metabolic studies. O-MRS and P-MRS, respectively, provide rates of oxygen use and ATP synthesis inside mitochondria, whereas F-MRS enables measurement of cytosolic glucose metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044450DOI Listing

Regulation of Energy Homeostasis After Gastric Bypass Surgery.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06;19:459-484

Center for Engineering in Medicine, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and Shriners Burn Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; email:

The obesity epidemic continues to escalate each year in the United States more than anywhere else in the world. The existing pharmaceutical and other nonsurgical treatments for morbid obesity produce suboptimal physiologic outcomes compared with those of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. RYGB has been the gold standard of bariatric surgery because the beneficial long-term outcomes, which include sustainable weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) resolution, are far superior to those obtained with other bariatric surgeries. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-0718
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071813-105140DOI Listing
June 2017
7 Reads

Bioinspired Hydrogels to Engineer Cancer Microenvironments.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06;19:109-133

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins Physical Sciences-Oncology Center and Institute for NanoBioTechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218; email:

Recent research has demonstrated that tumor microenvironments play pivotal roles in tumor development and metastasis through various physical, chemical, and biological factors, including extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, matrix remodeling, oxygen tension, pH, cytokines, and matrix stiffness. An emerging trend in cancer research involves the creation of engineered three-dimensional tumor models using bioinspired hydrogels that accurately recapitulate the native tumor microenvironment. With recent advances in materials engineering, many researchers are developing engineered tumor models, which are promising platforms for the study of cancer biology and for screening of therapeutic agents for better clinical outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5784262PMC
June 2017
3 Reads

Design Approaches to Myocardial and Vascular Tissue Engineering.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 3;19:389-414. Epub 2017 May 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; email: , ,

Engineered tissues represent an increasingly promising therapeutic approach for correcting structural defects and promoting tissue regeneration in cardiovascular diseases. One of the challenges associated with this approach has been the necessity for the replacement tissue to promote sufficient vascularization to maintain functionality after implantation. This review highlights a number of promising prevascularization design approaches for introducing vasculature into engineered tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044641DOI Listing
June 2017
7 Reads

Multiscale Modeling of Muscular-Skeletal Systems.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 26;19:435-457. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139; email:

Multiscale modeling of muscular-skeletal systems-the materials and structures that help organisms support themselves and move-is a rapidly growing field of study that has contributed key elements to the understanding of these systems, especially from a multiscale perspective. The systems, including materials such as bone and muscle, have hierarchical structures ranging from the nano- to the macroscale, and it is difficult to understand their macroscopic behaviors, both physiological and pathological, without knowledge of their hierarchical structures and properties. In this review, we discuss the methods of multiscale modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044555DOI Listing
June 2017
12 Reads

Thrombus Formation at High Shear Rates.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 24;19:415-433. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332; email: ,

The final common pathway in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke is occlusion of blood flow from a thrombus forming under high shear rates in arteries. A high-shear thrombus forms rapidly and is distinct from the slow formation of coagulation that occurs in stagnant blood. Thrombosis at high shear rates depends primarily on the long protein von Willebrand factor (vWF) and platelets, with hemodynamics playing an important role in each stage of thrombus formation, including vWF binding, platelet adhesion, platelet activation, and rapid thrombus growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044539DOI Listing
June 2017
2 Reads

Emerging Frontiers of Neuroengineering: A Network Science of Brain Connectivity.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 27;19:327-352. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

UCSB Brain Imaging Center and Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106.

Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural interactions (synapses, white matter tracts) as edges in that graph. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005206PMC
June 2017
7 Reads

Objective Assessment of Surgical Technical Skill and Competency in the Operating Room.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 27;19:301-325. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Malone Center for Engineering in Healthcare, Department of Computer Science, The Johns Hopkins University Whiting School of Engineering, Baltimore, Maryland 21218; email:

Training skillful and competent surgeons is critical to ensure high quality of care and to minimize disparities in access to effective care. Traditional models to train surgeons are being challenged by rapid advances in technology, an intensified patient-safety culture, and a need for value-driven health systems. Simultaneously, technological developments are enabling capture and analysis of large amounts of complex surgical data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5555216PMC
June 2017
10 Reads

Epigenetic Regulation: A New Frontier for Biomedical Engineers.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 6;19:195-219. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093; email: ,

Gene expression in mammalian cells depends on the epigenetic status of the chromatin, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, promoter-enhancer interactions, and noncoding RNA-mediated regulation. The coordinated actions of these multifaceted regulations determine cell development, cell cycle regulation, cell state and fate, and the ultimate responses in health and disease. Therefore, studies of epigenetic modulations are critical for our understanding of gene regulation mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044720DOI Listing
June 2017
11 Reads

Glutaminolysis: A Hallmark of Cancer Metabolism.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 8;19:163-194. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Laboratory for Systems Biology of Human Diseases, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005.

Glutamine is the most abundant circulating amino acid in blood and muscle and is critical for many fundamental cell functions in cancer cells, including synthesis of metabolites that maintain mitochondrial metabolism; generation of antioxidants to remove reactive oxygen species; synthesis of nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), purines, pyrimidines, and fatty acids for cellular replication; and activation of cell signaling. In light of the pleiotropic role of glutamine in cancer cells, a comprehensive understanding of glutamine metabolism is essential for the development of metabolic therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer cells. In this article, we review oncogene-, tumor suppressor-, and tumor microenvironment-mediated regulation of glutamine metabolism in cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044546DOI Listing
June 2017
7 Reads

Deep Learning in Medical Image Analysis.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 9;19:221-248. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea; email:

This review covers computer-assisted analysis of images in the field of medical imaging. Recent advances in machine learning, especially with regard to deep learning, are helping to identify, classify, and quantify patterns in medical images. At the core of these advances is the ability to exploit hierarchical feature representations learned solely from data, instead of features designed by hand according to domain-specific knowledge. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-0715
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5479722PMC
June 2017
5 Reads

Assessing Cartilage Biomechanical Properties: Techniques for Evaluating the Functional Performance of Cartilage in Health and Disease.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 2;19:27-55. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; email:

Osteoarthritis (OA) affects millions of people and results in weakened hyaline cartilage due to overloading. During joint articulation, hyaline cartilage must withstand high loads while maintaining low friction to prevent wear and tissue loss. Thus, cartilage compressive stiffness and the coefficient of friction are important indicators of the tissue's functional performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044525DOI Listing
June 2017
10 Reads

Sulfation of Glycosaminoglycans and Its Implications in Human Health and Disorders.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 2;19:1-26. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

3B's Research Group: Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho and Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal; email: , ,

Sulfation is a dynamic and complex posttranslational modification process. It can occur at various positions within the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) backbone and modulates extracellular signals such as cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions; different sulfation patterns have been identified for the same organs and cells during their development. Because of their high specificity in relation to function, GAG sulfation patterns are referred to as the sulfation code. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044610DOI Listing
June 2017
2 Reads

Overcoming Immune Dysregulation with Immunoengineered Nanobiomaterials.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2017 06 9;19:57-84. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208.

The immune system is governed by an immensely complex network of cells and both intracellular and extracellular molecular factors. It must respond to an ever-growing number of biochemical and biophysical inputs by eliciting appropriate and specific responses in order to maintain homeostasis. But as with any complex system, a plethora of false positives and false negatives can occur to generate dysregulated responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071516-044603DOI Listing
June 2017
9 Reads

Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2016 07;18:387-412

Center for Computational Imaging and Personalized Diagnostics; Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Urology, Pathology, Radiology, Radiation Oncology, General Medical Sciences, Electrical Engineering, and Computer Science; and Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106; email:

Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-112415-114722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5533658PMC
July 2016
4 Reads

Optical-Based Analysis of Soft Tissue Structures.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2016 07;18:357-85

Department of Biomedical Engineering.

Fibrous structures are an integral and dynamic feature of soft biological tissues that are directly related to the tissues' condition and function. A greater understanding of mechanical tissue behavior can be gained through quantitative analyses of structure alone, as well as its integration into computational models of soft tissue function. Histology and other nonoptical techniques have traditionally dominated the field of tissue imaging, but they are limited by their invasiveness, inability to provide resolution on the micrometer scale, and dynamic information. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-0711
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071114-040625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5537381PMC
July 2016
2 Reads