416 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Biomedical Engineering[Journal]

Cell and Tissue Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Liver Disease.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA; email:

Liver disease is an important clinical problem, impacting 600 million people worldwide. It is the 11th-leading cause of death in the world. Despite constant improvement in treatment and diagnostics, the aging population and accumulated risk factors led to increased morbidity due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. Read More

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Integrating Biomaterials and Genome Editing Approaches to Advance Biomedical Science.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA.

The recent discovery and subsequent development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) platform as a precise genome editing tool have transformed biomedicine. As these CRISPR-based tools have matured, multiple stages of the gene editing process and the bioengineering of human cells and tissues have advanced. Here, we highlight recent intersections in the development of biomaterials and genome editing technologies. Read More

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Modeling Immunity In Vitro: Slices, Chips, and Engineered Tissues.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

Modeling immunity in vitro has the potential to be a powerful tool for investigating fundamental biological questions, informing therapeutics and vaccines, and providing new insight into disease progression. There are two major elements to immunity that are necessary to model: primary immune tissues and peripheral tissues with immune components. Here, we systematically review progress made along three strategies to modeling immunity: ex vivo cultures, which preserve native tissue structure; microfluidic devices, which constitute a versatile approach to providing physiologically relevant fluid flow and environmental control; and engineered tissues, which provide precise control of the 3D microenvironment and biophysical cues. Read More

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Recent Advances in Aptamer-Based Biosensors for Global Health Applications.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA.

Since aptamers were first reported in the early 2000s, research on their use for the detection of health-relevant analytical targets has exploded. This review article provides a brief overview of the most recent developments in the field of aptamer-based biosensors for global health applications. The review provides a description of general aptasensing principles and follows up with examples of recent reports of diagnostics-related applications. Read More

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In Situ Programming of CAR T Cells.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

Gene therapy makes it possible to engineer chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to create T cells that target specific diseases. However, current approaches require elaborate and expensive protocols to manufacture engineered T cells ex vivo, putting this therapy beyond the reach of many patients who might benefit. A solution could be to program T cells in vivo. Read More

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Vascularized Microfluidics and Their Untapped Potential for Discovery in Diseases of the Microvasculature.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA; email:

Microengineering advances have enabled the development of perfusable, endothelialized models of the microvasculature that recapitulate the unique biological and biophysical conditions of the microcirculation in vivo. Indeed, at that size scale (<100 μm)-where blood no longer behaves as a simple continuum fluid; blood cells approximate the size of the vessels themselves; and complex interactions among blood cells, plasma molecules, and the endothelium constantly ensue-vascularized microfluidics are ideal tools to investigate these microvascular phenomena. Moreover, perfusable, endothelialized microfluidics offer unique opportunities for investigating microvascular diseases by enabling systematic dissection of both the blood and vascular components of the pathophysiology at hand. Read More

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Engineering Selectively Targeting Antimicrobial Peptides.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155, USA; email:

The rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacterial pathogens has necessitated the development of new therapeutics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of compounds with potentially attractive therapeutic properties, including the ability to target specific groups of bacteria. In nature, AMPs exhibit remarkable structural and functional diversity, which may be further enhanced through genetic engineering, high-throughput screening, and chemical modification strategies. Read More

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Simulating Outcomes of Cataract Surgery: Important Advances in Ophthalmology.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratorio de Óptica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain.

As the human eye ages, the crystalline lens stiffens (presbyopia) and opacifies (cataract), requiring its replacement with an artificial lens [intraocular lens (IOL)]. Cataract surgery is the most frequently performed surgical procedure in the world. The increase in IOL designs has not been paralleled in practice by a sophistication in IOL selection methods, which rely on limited anatomical measurements of the eye and the surgeon's interpretation of the patient's needs and expectations. Read More

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Quantitative Molecular Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Using Advanced Deep Learning Techniques.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Machine Learning, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.

The widespread availability of high-performance computing and the popularity of artificial intelligence (AI) with machine learning and deep learning (ML/DL) algorithms at the helm have stimulated the development of many applications involving the use of AI-based techniques in molecular imaging research. Applications reported in the literature encompass various areas, including innovative design concepts in positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation, quantitative image reconstruction and analysis techniques, computer-aided detection and diagnosis, as well as modeling and prediction of outcomes. This review reflects the tremendous interest in quantitative molecular imaging using ML/DL techniques during the past decade, ranging from the basic principles of ML/DL techniques to the various steps required for obtaining quantitatively accurate PET data, including algorithms used to denoise or correct for physical degrading factors as well as to quantify tracer uptake and metabolic tumor volume for treatment monitoring or radiation therapy treatment planning and response prediction. Read More

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Red Blood Cell Hitchhiking: A Novel Approach for Vascular Delivery of Nanocarriers.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

Red blood cell (RBC) hitchhiking is a method of drug delivery that can increase drug concentration in target organs by orders of magnitude. In RBC hitchhiking, drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) are adsorbed onto red blood cells and then injected intravascularly, which causes the NPs to transfer to cells of the capillaries in the downstream organ. RBC hitchhiking has been demonstrated in multiple species and multiple organs. Read More

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Circadian Effects of Drug Responses.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA; email:

Circadian rhythms describe physiological systems that repeat themselves with a cycle of approximately 24 h. Our understanding of the cellular and molecular origins of these oscillations has improved dramatically, allowing us to appreciate the significant role these oscillations play in maintaining physiological homeostasis. Circadian rhythms allow living organisms to predict and efficiently respond to a dynamically changing environment, set by repetitive day/night cycles. Read More

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Integrating Systems and Synthetic Biology to Understand and Engineer Microbiomes.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison,Wisconsin 53706, USA; email:

Microbiomes are complex and ubiquitous networks of microorganisms whose seemingly limitless chemical transformations could be harnessed to benefit agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology. The spatial and temporal changes in microbiome composition and function are influenced by a multitude of molecular and ecological factors. This complexity yields both versatility and challenges in designing synthetic microbiomes and perturbing natural microbiomes in controlled, predictable ways. Read More

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Procedural Telementoring in Rural, Underdeveloped, and Austere Settings: Origins, Present Challenges, and Future Perspectives.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Surgery and the Program in Trauma, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

Telemedicine is perhaps the most rapidly growing area in health care. Approximately 15 million Americans receive medical assistance remotely every year. Yet rural communities face significant challenges in securing subspecialist care. Read More

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Engineering Vascularized Organoid-on-a-Chip Models.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA; email:

Recreating human organ-level function in vitro is a rapidly evolving field that integrates tissue engineering, stem cell biology, and microfluidic technology to produce 3D organoids. A critical component of all organs is the vasculature. Herein, we discuss general strategies to create vascularized organoids, including common source materials, and survey previous work using vascularized organoids to recreate specific organ functions and simulate tumor progression. Read More

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Therapeutic Agent Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Focused Ultrasound.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada; email:

Specialized features of vasculature in the central nervous system greatly limit therapeutic treatment options for many neuropathologies. Focused ultrasound, in combination with circulating microbubbles, can be used to transiently and noninvasively increase cerebrovascular permeability with a high level of spatial precision. For minutes to hours following sonication, drugs can be administered systemically to extravasate in the targeted brain regions and exert a therapeutic effect, after which permeability returns to baseline levels. Read More

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Signaling, Deconstructed: Using Optogenetics to Dissect and Direct Information Flow in Biological Systems.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.

Cells receive enormous amounts of information from their environment. How they act on this information-by migrating, expressing genes, or relaying signals to other cells-comprises much of the regulatory and self-organizational complexity found across biology. The "parts list" involved in cell signaling is generally well established, but how do these parts work together to decode signals and produce appropriate responses? This fundamental question is increasingly being addressed with optogenetic tools: light-sensitive proteins that enable biologists to manipulate the interaction, localization, and activity state of proteins with high spatial and temporal precision. Read More

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Integrated Biophysical Modeling and Image Analysis: Application to Neuro-Oncology.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06;22:309-341

Oden Institute of Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA; email:

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors come with vastly heterogeneous histologic, molecular, and radiographic landscapes, rendering their precise characterization challenging. The rapidly growing fields of biophysical modeling and radiomics have shown promise in better characterizing the molecular, spatial, and temporal heterogeneity of tumors. Integrative analysis of CNS tumors, including clinically acquired multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and the inverse problem of calibrating biophysical models to mpMRI data, assists in identifying macroscopic quantifiable tumor patterns of invasion and proliferation, potentially leading to improved () detection/segmentation of tumor subregions and () computer-aided diagnostic/prognostic/predictive modeling. Read More

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Physiological Modeling and Simulation-Validation, Credibility, and Application.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06;22:185-206

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA; email:

In this review, we discuss the science of model validation as it applies to physiological modeling. There is widespread disagreement and ambiguity about what constitutes model validity. In areas in which models affect real-world decision-making, including within the clinic, in regulatory science, or in the design and engineering of novel therapeutics, this question is of critical importance. Read More

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Point-of-Care Devices to Detect Zika and Other Emerging Viruses.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06;22:371-386

Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

Rapid diagnostic tests (point-of-care devices) are critical components of informed patient care and public health monitoring (surveillance applications). We propose that among the many rapid diagnostics platforms that have been tested or are in development, lateral flow immunoassays and synthetic biology-based diagnostics (including CRISPR-based diagnostics) represent the best overall options given their ease of use, scalability for manufacturing, sensitivity, and specificity. This review describes the identification of lateral flow immunoassay monoclonal antibody pairs that detect and distinguish between closely related pathogens and that are used in combination with functionalized multicolored nanoparticles and computational methods to deconvolute data. Read More

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Micromechanobiology: Focusing on the Cardiac Cell-Substrate Interface.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06;22:257-284

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA; email:

Engineered, in vitro cardiac cell and tissue systems provide test beds for the study of cardiac development, cellular disease processes, and drug responses in a dish. Much effort has focused on improving the structure and function of engineered cardiomyocytes and heart tissues. However, these parameters depend critically on signaling through the cellular microenvironment in terms of ligand composition, matrix stiffness, and substrate mechanical properties-that is, matrix micromechanobiology. Read More

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Mitigating the Consequences of Subconcussive Head Injuries.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 29;22:387-407. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA.

Subconcussive head injury represents a pathophysiology that spans the expertise of both clinical neurology and biomechanical engineering. From both viewpoints, the terms injury and damage, presented without qualifiers, are synonymously taken to mean a tissue alteration that may be recoverable. For clinicians, concussion is evolving from a purely clinical diagnosis to one that requires objective measurement, to be achieved by biomedical engineers. Read More

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Elastin-Like Polypeptides for Biomedical Applications.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 28;22:343-369. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA; email:

Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are stimulus-responsive biopolymers derived from human elastin. Their unique properties-including lower critical solution temperature phase behavior and minimal immunogenicity-make them attractive materials for a variety of biomedical applications. ELPs also benefit from recombinant synthesis and genetically encoded design; these enable control over the molecular weight and precise incorporation of peptides and pharmacological agents into the sequence. Read More

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Computer-Aided Design of Microfluidic Circuits.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 28;22:285-307. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Neuro-Biomorphic Engineering Lab (NBEL), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, The Open University of Israel, Ra'anana 4353701, Israel; email:

Microfluidic devices developed over the past decade feature greater intricacy, increased performance requirements, new materials, and innovative fabrication methods. Consequentially, new algorithmic and design approaches have been developed to introduce optimization and computer-aided design to microfluidic circuits: from conceptualization to specification, synthesis, realization, and refinement. The field includes the development of new description languages, optimization methods, benchmarks, and integrated design tools. Read More

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Engineering Approaches for Addressing Opioid Use Disorder in the Community.

Paul M Griffin

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 7;22:207-229. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Regenstrief Center for Healthcare Engineering and Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Many communities in the United States are struggling to deal with the negative consequences of illicit opioid use. Effectively addressing this epidemic requires the coordination and support of community stakeholders in a change process with common goals and objectives, continuous engagement with individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) through their treatment and recovery journeys, application of systems engineering principles to drive process change and sustain it, and use of a formal evaluation process to support a learning community that continuously adapts. This review presents strategies to improve OUD treatment and recovery with a focus on engineering approaches grounded in systems thinking. Read More

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Three-Dimensional Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy in Whole-Cell and Tissue Specimens.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 3;22:155-184. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA; email:

Super-resolution microscopy techniques are versatile and powerful tools for visualizing organelle structures, interactions, and protein functions in biomedical research. However, whole-cell and tissue specimens challenge the achievable resolution and depth of nanoscopy methods. We focus on three-dimensional single-molecule localization microscopy and review some of the major roadblocks and developing solutions to resolving thick volumes of cells and tissues at the nanoscale in three dimensions. Read More

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Hemodynamics of Cerebral Aneurysms: Connecting Medical Imaging and Biomechanical Analysis.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 25;22:231-256. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.

In the last two decades, numerous studies have conducted patient-specific computations of blood flow dynamics in cerebral aneurysms and reported correlations between various hemodynamic metrics and aneurysmal disease progression or treatment outcomes. Nevertheless, intra-aneurysmal flow analysis has not been adopted in current clinical practice, and hemodynamic factors usually are not considered in clinical decision making. This review presents the state of the art in cerebral aneurysm imaging and image-based modeling, discussing the advantages and limitations of each approach and focusing on the translational value of hemodynamic analysis. Read More

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Sparse Data-Driven Learning for Effective and Efficient Biomedical Image Segmentation.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 13;22:127-153. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA; email:

Sparsity is a powerful concept to exploit for high-dimensional machine learning and associated representational and computational efficiency. Sparsity is well suited for medical image segmentation. We present a selection of techniques that incorporate sparsity, including strategies based on dictionary learning and deep learning, that are aimed at medical image segmentation and related quantification. Read More

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Transgenic and Diet-Enhanced Silk Production for Reinforced Biomaterials: A Metamaterial Perspective.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 11;22:79-102. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

Silk fibers, which are protein-based biopolymers produced by spiders and silkworms, are fascinating biomaterials that have been extensively studied for numerous biomedical applications. Silk fibers often have remarkable physical and biological properties that typical synthetic materials do not exhibit. These attributes have prompted a wide variety of silk research, including genetic engineering, biotechnological synthesis, and bioinspired fiber spinning, to produce silk proteins on a large scale and to further enhance their properties. Read More

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4D Flow with MRI.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 10;22:103-126. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA; email:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important tool for the clinical evaluation of patients with cardiac and vascular diseases. Since its introduction in the late 1980s, quantitative flow imaging with MRI has become a routine part of standard-of-care cardiothoracic and vascular MRI for the assessment of pathological changes in blood flow in patients with cardiovascular disease. More recently, time-resolved flow imaging with velocity encoding along all three flow directions and three-dimensional (3D) anatomic coverage (4D flow MRI) has been developed and applied to enable comprehensive 3D visualization and quantification of hemodynamics throughout the human circulatory system. Read More

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The New Age of Cell-Free Biology.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2020 06 9;22:51-77. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Departments of Mechanical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, and the Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email:

The cell-free molecular synthesis of biochemical systems is a rapidly growing field of research. Advances in the Human Genome Project, DNA synthesis, and other technologies have allowed the in vitro construction of biochemical systems, termed cell-free biology, to emerge as an exciting domain of bioengineering. Cell-free biology ranges from the molecular to the cell-population scales, using an ever-expanding variety of experimental platforms and toolboxes. Read More

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