147 results match your criteria Annual Review Of Animal Biosciences[Journal]


Introduction.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb;7

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-av-07-120518-100001DOI Listing
February 2019

Tigers of the World: Genomics and Conservation.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb;7:521-548

The State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; email:

Of all the big cats, or perhaps of all the endangered wildlife, the tiger may be both the most charismatic and most well-recognized flagship species in the world. The rapidly changing field of molecular genetics, particularly advances in genome sequencing technologies, has provided new tools to reconstruct what characterizes a tiger. Here we review how applications of molecular genomic tools have been used to depict the tiger's ancestral roots, phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic history, morphological diversity, and genetic patterns of diversification on both temporal and geographical scales. Read More

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February 2019
5 Reads

Spermatogonial Stem Cell Transplantation: Insights and Outlook for Domestic Animals.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb;7:385-401

School of Molecular Biosciences, Center for Reproductive Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA; email:

The demand for food will increase to an unprecedented level over the next 30 years owing to human population expansion, thus necessitating an evolution that improves the efficiency of livestock production. Genetic gain to improve production traits of domestic animal populations is most effectively achieved via selective use of gametes from animals deemed to be elite, and this principle has been the basis of selective breeding strategies employed by humans for thousands of years. In modern-day animal agriculture, artificial insemination (AI) has been the staple of selective breeding programs, but it has inherent limitations for applications in beef cattle and pig production systems. Read More

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February 2019

1000 Bull Genomes Project to Map Simple and Complex Genetic Traits in Cattle: Applications and Outcomes.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 3;7:89-102. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Agriculture Victoria Research, AgriBio, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia.

The 1000 Bull Genomes Project is a collection of whole-genome sequences from 2,703 individuals capturing a significant proportion of the world's cattle diversity. So far, 84 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2.5 million small insertion deletions have been identified in the collection, a very high level of genetic diversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-115024DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Multiple Facets of Marine Invertebrate Conservation Genomics.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 28;7:473-497. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA; email: ,

Conservation genomics aims to preserve the viability of populations and the biodiversity of living organisms. Invertebrate organisms represent 95% of animal biodiversity; however, few genomic resources currently exist for the group. The subset of marine invertebrates includes the most ancient metazoan lineages and possesses codes for unique gene products and possible keys to adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-115034DOI Listing
February 2019

New Approaches for Genome Assembly and Scaffolding.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 28;7:17-40. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA; email: ,

Affordable, high-throughput DNA sequencing has accelerated the pace of genome assembly over the past decade. Genome assemblies from high-throughput, short-read sequencing, however, are often not as contiguous as the first generation of genome assemblies. Whereas early genome assembly projects were often aided by clone maps or other mapping data, many current assembly projects forego these scaffolding data and only assemble genomes into smaller segments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-115344DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Smart Animal Agriculture: Application of Real-Time Sensors to Improve Animal Well-Being and Production.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 28;7:403-425. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production Systems, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland; email:

Consumption of animal products such as meat, milk, and eggs in first-world countries has leveled off, but it is rising precipitously in developing countries. Agriculture will have to increase its output to meet demand, opening the door to increased automation and technological innovation; intensified, sustainable farming; and precision livestock farming (PLF) applications. Early indicators of medical problems, which use sensors to alert cattle farmers early concerning individual animals that need special care, are proliferating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-114851DOI Listing
February 2019

Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG): Current Achievements and Roadmap.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 02 14;7:65-88. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA; email:

Functional annotation of genomes is a prerequisite for contemporary basic and applied genomic research, yet farmed animal genomics is deficient in such annotation. To address this, the FAANG (Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes) Consortium is producing genome-wide data sets on RNA expression, DNA methylation, and chromatin modification, as well as chromatin accessibility and interactions. In addition to informing our understanding of genome function, including comparative approaches to elucidate constrained sequence or epigenetic elements, these annotation maps will improve the precision and sensitivity of genomic selection for animal improvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-114913DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

New Insights on Intermediary Metabolism for a Better Understanding of Nutrition in Teleosts.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 12;7:195-220. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

INRA, University of Pau & Pays de l'Adour, E2S UPPA, UMR1419 Nutrition, Metabolisme, Aquaculture, Aquapôle, F-64310 Saint-Pée-sur-Nivelle, France; email:

The rapid development of aquaculture production throughout the world over the past few decades has led to the emergence of new scientific challenges to improve fish nutrition. The diet formulations used for farmed fish have been largely modified in the past few years. However, bottlenecks still exist in being able to suppress totally marine resources (fish meal and fish oil) in diets without negatively affecting growth performance and flesh quality. Read More

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February 2019
12 Reads

Meeting Global Feed Protein Demand: Challenge, Opportunity, and Strategy.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 12;7:221-243. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; email:

Feed protein supplements are one of the most expensive and limiting feed ingredients. This review offers a comprehensive analysis of how the expected expansion of animal production, driven by the rising world population and living standards for more animal-sourced foods, is creating a global shortage of feed protein supply. Because ruminants, chickens, and pigs contribute to 96% of the global supply of animal protein and aquaculture is growing fast, means of meeting the feed protein requirements of these species are elaborated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-030117-014838DOI Listing
February 2019

Canine Cancer Genomics: Lessons for Canine and Human Health.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 12;7:449-472. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

Dogs are second only to humans in medical surveillance and preventative health care, leading to a recent perception of increased cancer incidence. Scientific priorities in veterinary oncology have thus shifted, with a demand for cancer genetic screens, better diagnostics, and more effective therapies. Most dog breeds came into existence within the last 300 years, and many are derived from small numbers of founders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-030117-014523DOI Listing
February 2019
27 Reads

Mammalian Sex Chromosome Structure, Gene Content, and Function in Male Fertility.

Authors:
Wan-Sheng Liu

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 9;7:103-124. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Animal Science, Center for Reproductive Biology and Health, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA; email:

Mammalian sex chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes. The X chromosome is highly conserved, whereas the Y chromosome varies among species in size, structure, and gene content. Unlike autosomes that contain randomly mixed collections of genes, the sex chromosomes are enriched in testis-biased genes related to sexual development and reproduction, particularly in spermatogenesis and male fertility. Read More

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February 2019

One-Carbon Metabolism: Linking Nutritional Biochemistry to Epigenetic Programming of Long-Term Development.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 9;7:263-287. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, United Kingdom; email:

One-carbon (1C) metabolism comprises a series of interlinking metabolic pathways that include the methionine and folate cycles that are central to cellular function, providing 1C units (methyl groups) for the synthesis of DNA, polyamines, amino acids, creatine, and phospholipids. S-adenosylmethionine is a potent aminopropyl and methyl donor within these cycles and serves as the principal substrate for methylation of DNA, associated proteins, and RNA. We propose that 1C metabolism functions as a key biochemical conduit between parental environment and epigenetic regulation of early development and that interindividual and ethnic variability in epigenetic-gene regulation arises because of genetic variants within 1C genes, associated epigenetic regulators, and differentially methylated target DNA sequences. Read More

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February 2019
29 Reads

Regulation of Muscle Growth in Early Postnatal Life in a Swine Model.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 2;7:309-335. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; email: , ,

Skeletal muscle growth during the early postnatal period is rapid in the pig and dependent on the capacity of muscle to respond to anabolic and catabolic stimuli. Muscle mass is driven by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Among these processes, muscle protein synthesis in the piglet is exceptionally sensitive to the feeding-induced postprandial changes in insulin and amino acids, whereas muscle protein degradation is affected only during specific catabolic states. Read More

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February 2019
1 Read

Whole-Genome Alignment and Comparative Annotation.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 31;7:41-64. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

UC Santa Cruz Genomics Institute, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA; email:

Rapidly improving sequencing technology coupled with computational developments in sequence assembly are making reference-quality genome assembly economical. Hundreds of vertebrate genome assemblies are now publicly available, and projects are being proposed to sequence thousands of additional species in the next few years. Such dense sampling of the tree of life should give an unprecedented new understanding of evolution and allow a detailed determination of the events that led to the wealth of biodiversity around us. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-115005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450745PMC
February 2019

The Role of Reproductive Technologies in Amphibian Conservation Breeding Programs.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 25;7:499-519. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia; email: ,

Anthropogenic environmental change has led to unprecedented rates of species extinction, presenting a major threat to global biodiversity. Among vertebrates, amphibians have been most severely impacted, with an estimated 41% of species now threatened with extinction. In response to this biodiversity crisis, a moral and ethical obligation exists to implement proactive interventionist conservation actions to assist species recovery and decelerate declines. Read More

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February 2019

Tolerance and Innate Immunity Shape the Development of Postpartum Uterine Disease and the Impact of Endometritis in Dairy Cattle.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 25;7:361-384. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0910, USA; email:

Bacteria are ubiquitous in the bovine uterus after parturition, but 50 years ago, cows tolerated these bacteria and few animals developed uterine disease. Now, up to 40% of dairy cattle develop postpartum uterine disease. Uterine disease causes infertility by compromising the function of not only the endometrium but also the ovary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-115227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450715PMC
February 2019
15 Reads

Photoperiodic Regulation of Reproduction in Vertebrates.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 17;7:173-194. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan; email:

Organisms use changes in photoperiod for seasonal reproduction to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms and are therefore excellent models for studying these phenomena. Birds perceive light via deep-brain photoreceptors and long day-induced thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland (PT), which cause local thyroid hormone activation within the mediobasal hypothalamus. Read More

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February 2019
2 Reads

Intersex, Hermaphroditism, and Gonadal Plasticity in Vertebrates: Evolution of the Müllerian Duct and Amh/Amhr2 Signaling.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 10;7:149-172. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Physiological Chemistry, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany; email:

In vertebrates, sex organs are generally specialized to perform a male or female reproductive role. Acquisition of the Müllerian duct, which gives rise to the oviduct, together with emergence of the Amh/Amhr2 system favored evolution of viviparity in jawed vertebrates. Species with high sex-specific reproductive adaptations have less potential to sex reverse, making intersex a nonfunctional condition. Read More

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February 2019
1 Read

Mapping Genes Is Good for You.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 8;7:1-16. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4467, USA; email:

I abandoned my original career choice of high school teaching to pursue dentistry and soon abandoned that path for genetics. The latter decision was due to a challenge by a professor that led to me reading Nobel speeches by pioneer geneticists before I had formal exposure to the subject. Even then, I was 15 years into my career before my interest in rodent genomes gave way to mapping cattle genes. Read More

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February 2019

Hepatitis E Virus: Animal Models and Zoonosis.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 4;7:427-448. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060, USA; email:

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important human pathogen that historically has been difficult to study. Limited levels of replication in vitro hindered our understanding of the viral life cycle. Sporadic and low-level virus shedding, lack of standardized detection methods, and subclinical infections made the development of animal models difficult. Read More

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February 2019
11 Reads

Milk-Derived Exosomes and Metabolic Regulation.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 4;7:245-262. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0806, USA; email: , , , ,

Exosomes are natural nanoparticles that play an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Communication is achieved through the transfer of cargos, such as microRNAs, from donor to recipient cells and binding of exosomes to cell surface receptors. Exosomes and their cargos are also obtained from dietary sources, such as milk. Read More

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February 2019
13 Reads

Recent Developments in Breast Muscle Myopathies Associated with Growth in Poultry.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 26;7:289-308. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA; email:

The functional unit in skeletal muscle is the multinucleated myofiber, which is composed of parallel arrays of microfibrils. The myofiber and sarco-mere structure of skeletal muscle are established during embryogenesis, when mononuclear myoblast cells fuse to form multinucleated myotubes and develop into muscle fibers. With the myoblasts permanently unable to enter a proliferative state again after they fuse to form the multinucleated myotube, postnatal myofiber growth, muscle homeostasis, and myofiber regeneration are dependent on a myogenic stem cell, the satellite cell. Read More

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February 2019
1 Read

Prenatal Steroids and Metabolic Dysfunction: Lessons from Sheep.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 7;7:337-360. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA; email:

Prenatal exposure to excess steroids or steroid mimics can disrupt the normal developmental trajectory of organ systems, culminating in adult disease. The metabolic system is particularly susceptible to the deleterious effects of prenatal steroid excess. Studies in sheep demonstrate that prenatal exposure to excess native steroids or endocrine-disrupting chemicals with steroidogenic activity, such as bisphenol A, results in postnatal development of numerous cardiometabolic perturbations, including insulin resistance, increased adiposity, altered adipocyte size and distribution, and hypertension. Read More

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February 2019
17 Reads

Development and Function of Uterine Glands in Domestic Animals.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2019 Feb 5;7:125-147. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5517, USA; email:

All mammalian uteri contain glands that synthesize or transport and secrete substances into the uterine lumen. Uterine gland development, or adenogenesis, is uniquely a postnatal event in sheep and pigs and involves differentiation of glandular epithelium from luminal epithelium, followed by invagination and coiling morphogenesis throughout the stroma. Intrinsic transcription factors and extrinsic factors from the ovary and pituitary as well as the mammary gland (lactocrine) regulate uterine adenogenesis. Read More

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February 2019

The Divergent Genomes of Teleosts.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02;6:47-68

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Biopolis, Singapore 138673; email: ,

Boasting nearly 30,000 species, teleosts account for half of all extant vertebrates and approximately 98% of all ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii). Teleosts are also the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, exhibiting an astonishing level of morphological, physiological, and behavioral diversity. Previous studies had indicated that the teleost lineage has experienced an additional whole-genome duplication event. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Introduction.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02;6

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-av-06-112917-100001DOI Listing
February 2018
2 Reads

Impact of Micronutrients on the Immune Response of Animals.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02;6:227-254

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Diet, Genomics & Immunology Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-2350, USA; email:

Vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) play an important role in regulating and shaping an immune response. Deficiencies generally result in inadequate or dysregulated cellular activity and cytokine expression, thereby affecting the immune response. Decreased levels of natural killer, granulocyte, and phagocytic cell activity and T and B cell proliferation and trafficking are associated with inadequate levels of micronutrients, as well as increased susceptibility to various adverse health conditions, including inflammatory disorders, infection, and altered vaccine efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022914DOI Listing
February 2018
4 Reads

Viable Cell Culture Banking for Biodiversity Characterization and Conservation.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02;6:83-98

Ecological Risk Assessment and Control Section, Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan; email:

Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future. The advent of in vitro cell culture and cryobanking is reviewed here in the context of biodiversity collections of viable cell cultures that represent the progress and limitations of current efforts. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Lessons from the Barn to the Operating Suite: A Comprehensive Review of Animal Models for Fetal Surgery.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 13;6:99-119. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

University of California, Davis Health, Sacramento, California 95817, USA; email: , , , , ,

The International Fetal Medicine and Surgery Society was created in 1982 and proposed guidelines for fetal interventions that required demonstrations of the safety and feasibility of intended interventions in animal models prior to application in humans. Because of their short gestation and low cost, small animal models are useful in early investigation of fetal strategies. However, owing to the anatomic and physiologic differences between small animals and humans, repeated studies in large animal models are usually needed to facilitate translation to humans. Read More

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February 2018
4 Reads

Biobanking Genetic Material for Agricultural Animal Species.

Authors:
H D Blackburn

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 8;6:69-82. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

National Animal Germplasm Program, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA; email:

Biobanking animal germplasm and tissues is a major component of conserving genetic resources. Effectively constructing such gene banks requires an understanding and evaluation of genetic resources, the ability to conserve various tissues through cryopreservation, and a robust information technology infrastructure to allow managers and potential users to fully understand and make use of the collection. Progress has been made internationally in developing national genetic resource collections. Read More

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February 2018

Weird Animals, Sex, and Genome Evolution.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 7;6:1-22. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

School of Life Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia.

Making my career in Australia exposed me to the tyranny of distance, but it gave me opportunities to study our unique native fauna. Distantly related animal species present genetic variation that we can use to explore the most fundamental biological structures and processes. I have compared chromosomes and genomes of kangaroos and platypus, tiger snakes and emus, devils (Tasmanian) and dragons (lizards). Read More

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February 2018
4 Reads

Metabolic and Endocrine Role of Adipose Tissue During Lactation.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 1;6:177-195. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Functional Anatomy of Livestock, University of Hohenheim, 70559 Stuttgart, Germany; email:

The adipose tissue serves an essential role for survival and reproduction in mammals, especially females. It serves primarily as an energy storage organ and is directly linked to the reproductive success of mammals. In wild animals, adipose tissue function is linked to seasonality of the food supply to support fetal growth and milk production. Read More

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February 2018

Bat Biology, Genomes, and the Bat1K Project: To Generate Chromosome-Level Genomes for All Living Bat Species.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 20;6:23-46. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

*Full list of Bat1K Consortium members in Supplemental Appendix.

Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene. Read More

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http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-animal-0225
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022811DOI Listing
February 2018
5 Reads

Nutrient-Sensing Biology in Mammals and Birds.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 20;6:197-225. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark; email:

Nutrient-sensing mechanisms have emerged as the fringe articulating nutritional needs with dietary choices. Carbohydrate, amino acid, fatty acid, mineral, and water-sensing receptors are highly conserved across mammals and birds, consisting of a repertoire of 22 genes known to date. In contrast, bitter receptors are highly divergent and have a high incidence of polymorphisms within and between mammals and birds and are involved in the adaptation of species to specific environments. Read More

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February 2018

Equine Intestinal Mucosal Pathobiology.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 16;6:157-175. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607, USA; email:

The equine intestinal mucosa is intimately involved in maintaining homeostasis both on a systemic level by controlling extracellular fluid movement and at the local level to maintain barrier function. Horses are particularly susceptible to the clinical syndrome of colic, with the most severe cases involving strangulating obstruction that induces ischemia. Because of the mucosal vascular architecture, the mucosal epithelium is particularly susceptible to ischemic injury. Read More

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February 2018

Detection of Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens: An Integrated One Health Approach.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 16;6:121-139. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

The emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens is one of the greatest challenges to global health security. The advent of increasingly sophisticated diagnostics tools has revolutionized our capacity to detect and respond to these health threats more rapidly than ever before. Yet, no matter how sophisticated these tools become, the initial identification of emerging infectious diseases begins at the local community level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-030117-014628DOI Listing
February 2018
9 Reads

Reproductive Impacts of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Wildlife Species: Implications for Conservation of Endangered Species.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 15;6:287-304. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Center for Reproductive Evolution, Department of Biology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244, USA; email:

Wildlife have proven valuable to our understanding of the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health by contributing considerably to our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of EDC exposure. But the threats EDCs present to populations of wildlife species themselves are significant, particularly for endangered species whose existence is vulnerable to any reproductive perturbation. However, few studies address the threats EDCs pose to endangered species owing to challenges associated with their study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-030117-014547DOI Listing
February 2018
2 Reads

Measuring Male-to-Male Differences in Fertility or Effects of Semen Treatments.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 13;6:255-286. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Unit for Reproductive Medicine of Clinics/Clinic for Pigs and Small Ruminants, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany; email:

Fertility is a convenient but meaningless term unless the outcome measure is stipulated and accounts for dependence of male fertility on the female population. We describe outcome measures and detail the impacts of the physiological status of each female and her external environment, as well as management imposed by humans. We explain the dominant role of the female reproductive tract as a series of hurdles for sperm seeking an ovum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-030117-014829DOI Listing
February 2018
2 Reads

Development and Function of the Mucosal Immune System in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Neonatal Calves.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 6;6:141-155. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5A8, Canada; email: ,

Respiratory infections remain the second most common cause of clinical disease and mortality in newborn calves, which has led to increased interest in using vaccines early in life to mitigate this risk. Intranasal vaccination of neonatal calves can be an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibody, but this raises questions regarding onset of immune competence in the upper respiratory tract (URT) following birth. Little is known, however, about the development and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the URT of newborn calves and what factors, including the commensal microbiome, contribute to this early development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-030117-014611DOI Listing
February 2018
16 Reads

Catfish Biology and Farming.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2018 02 6;6:305-325. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University, Alabama 36849, USA; email:

This article summarizes the biology and culture of ictalurid catfish, an important commercial, aquaculture, and sport fish family in the United States. The history of the propagation as well as spawning of common catfish species in this family is reviewed, with special emphasis on channel catfish and its hybridization with blue catfish. The importance of the channel catfish female×blue catfish male hybrid, including current and future methods of hybrid catfish production, and the potential role it plays in the recovery of the US catfish industry are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-030117-014646DOI Listing
February 2018
5 Reads

Behavioral Phenotyping Assays for Genetic Mouse Models of Neurodevelopmental, Neurodegenerative, and Psychiatric Disorders.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02;5:371-389

MIND Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California 95817; email:

Animal models offer heuristic research tools to understand the causes of human diseases and to identify potential treatments. With rapidly evolving genetic engineering technologies, mutations identified in a human disorder can be generated in the mouse genome. Phenotypic outcomes of the mutation are then explicated to confirm hypotheses about causes and to discover effective therapeutics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022754DOI Listing
February 2017
5 Reads

Climate Adaptation of Tropical Cattle.

Authors:
W Barendse

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02;5:133-150

CSIRO Agriculture, St. Lucia 4067, Australia.

There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022921DOI Listing
February 2017

Antibody Repertoire Development in Swine.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02;5:255-279

Laboratory of Gnotobiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Novy Hradek, Czech Republic.

We describe the domestication of the species, explore its value to agriculture and bioscience, and compare its immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to those of other vertebrates. For encyclopedic information, we cite earlier reviews and chapters. We provide current gene maps for the heavy and light chain loci and describe their polygeny and polymorphy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022818DOI Listing
February 2017
5 Reads

Introduction.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02;5

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-av-05-010617-100001DOI Listing
February 2017
9 Reads

My Scientific Journey: From an Agrarian Start to an Academic Setting.

Authors:
Janice M Bahr

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02;5:1-20

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801.

This article is a combination of an autobiography and a review of outstanding research done by over 70 graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and visiting scientists along with excellent collaborators during my over-40-year career as a professor of reproductive physiology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. I have also shared thoughts on mentoring, how research has changed over the years, and the future of reproductive physiology. I provide the reader with a snapshot of the challenges faced by a woman eager to obtain a PhD under the guidance of renowned professors in the early 1970s and to be hired as the first woman, and the only permanent female faculty member, for more than 20 years on a faculty of 40 men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022736DOI Listing
February 2017
1 Read

Preattachment Embryos of Domestic Animals: Insights into Development and Paracrine Secretions.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02 5;5:205-228. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

UMR BDR, INRA, ENVA, Université Paris Saclay, 78350, Jouy en Josas, France; email: , , ,

In mammalian species, endometrial receptivity is driven by maternal factors independently of embryo signals. When pregnancy initiates, paracrine secretions of the preattachment embryo are essential both for maternal recognition and endometrium preparation for implantation and for coordinating development of embryonic and extraembryonic tissues of the conceptus. This review mainly focuses on domestic large animal species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022900DOI Listing
February 2017
6 Reads

Impacts of Petroleum-Derived Pollutants on Fish Development.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02 5;5:185-203. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, California 95616; email:

The teleost fish embryo is particularly sensitive to petroleum hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) at two distinct stages of development. The first is early during cleavage stages when PAHs alter normal signaling associated with establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis. This disruption involves the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and results in hyperdorsalized embryos that do not survive to hatching. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022928DOI Listing
February 2017
7 Reads

Environmental Sustainability Analysis and Nutritional Strategies of Animal Production in China.

Authors:
Bie Tan Yulong Yin

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02 21;5:171-184. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan 410125, China ; email:

Animal production in China has achieved considerable progress and contributes to 46% of the total agriculture output value of the country. However, this fast expansion of animal production has led to environmental pollution. In this article, we review the status of soil, water, and air pollution associated with animal production in China and analyze the main sources of the pollutants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022935DOI Listing
February 2017
3 Reads

Vomeronasal Receptors in Vertebrates and the Evolution of Pheromone Detection.

Annu Rev Anim Biosci 2017 02 28;5:353-370. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

CIIMAR/CIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, 4050-208 Porto, Portugal; email:

Pheromones were identified as chemical signals used for intraspecific communication in insects (e.g., sexual attraction) in the 1950s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-animal-022516-022801DOI Listing
February 2017
5 Reads