148,754 results match your criteria Annual Reports On Nmr Spectroscopy[Journal]


An assessment of climate change vulnerability for Important Bird Areas in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Arc.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214573. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America.

Recently available downscaled ocean climate models for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Arc offer the opportunity to assess climate vulnerability for upper trophic level consumers such as marine birds. We analyzed seasonal and annual spatial projections from three climate models for two physical climate variables (seawater temperature and sea ice) and three forage variables (large copepods, euphausiids, and benthic infauna), comparing projected conditions from a recent time period (2003-2012) to a future time period (2030-2039). We focused the analyses on core areas within globally significant Important Bird Areas, and developed indices of the magnitude of projected change and vulnerability agreement among models. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214573PLOS
April 2019
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Phthalate Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 Apr 17:JCO1802202. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

2 University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Purpose: Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and especially high among users of drug products formulated with phthalates. Some phthalates mimic estradiol and may promote breast cancer. Existing epidemiologic studies on this topic are small, mostly not prospective, and have given inconsistent results. Read More

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https://ascopubs.org/doi/10.1200/JCO.18.02202
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.02202DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Status and Impact of Clinical Tumor Genome Sequencing.

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Khalifa Bin Zayed Institute for Personalized Cancer Therapy and Sheikh Ahmed Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA; email:

Since the discovery that DNA alterations initiate tumorigenesis, scientists and clinicians have been exploring ways to counter these changes with targeted therapeutics. The sequencing of tumor DNA was initially limited to highly actionable hot spots-areas of the genome that are frequently altered and have an approved matched therapy in a specific tumor type. Large-scale genome sequencing programs quickly developed technological improvements that enabled the deployment of whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies at scale for pristine sample materials in research environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-083118-015034DOI Listing

Estimated Long-term (1981-2016) Concentrations of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter across North America from Chemical Transport Modeling, Satellite Remote Sensing and Ground-based Measurements.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Accurate data concerning historical fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations are needed to assess long-term changes in exposure and associated health risks. We estimated historical PM2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06875DOI Listing

Examining Australia's heaviest drinkers.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, La Trobe University, Victoria.

Objective: This study examined the distribution of alcohol consumption in Australia, identifying the heaviest drinking 10% of the population and examining their sociodemographic characteristics and their alcohol consumption and purchasing practices.

Methods: Data came from the 2016 National Drug Strategy Household Survey and the 2013 International Alcohol Control Study. The heaviest drinking 10% of the population identified based on estimates of annual alcohol consumption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12901DOI Listing
April 2019
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Association of Adenoma and Proximal Sessile Serrated Polyp Detection Rates With Endoscopist Characteristics.

JAMA Surg 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Importance: Research demonstrates adenoma detection rate (ADR) and proximal sessile serrated polyp detection rate (pSSPDR) are associated with endoscopist characteristics including sex, specialty, and years in practice. However, many studies have not adjusted for other risk factors associated with colonic neoplasia.

Objective: To assess the association between endoscopist characteristics and polyp detection after adjusting the factors included in previous studies as well as other factors. Read More

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http://archsurg.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jam
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2019.0564DOI Listing
April 2019
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Consumption of Euterpe edulis fruit by wildlife: implications for conservation and management of the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180537. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Rodovia Admar Gonzaga, 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

This study aimed to measure the wildlife consumption of Euterpe edulis fruit and use this data to discuss management possibilities. To estimate infructescence fruit volume consumed, collectors were installed in fruit-bearing palms. To characterize consumption from the ground, samples were placed next to fruiting palms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180537DOI Listing

Development of an annual drought classification system based on drought severity indexes.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180188. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, Unidade Colatina, Av. Arino Gomes Leal, 1700, Santa Margarida, 29700-060 Colatina, ES, Brazil.

In order to characterize the occurrence and intensity of droughts in the Doce River Basin, as well as to develop a system for its classification, four different drought indexes were evaluated: Percent of Normal Precipitation (PNP), Deciles Method (DM), Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The indices were calculated annually, based on precipitation data from 89 rainfall stations of the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA). Nine analysis units (AUs) were determined in the basin and the Thiessen Polygons method was used to obtain the average precipitation in the respective drainage areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180188DOI Listing

Establishing Consensus on the Best Practice Guidelines for Use of Halo Gravity Traction for Pediatric Spinal Deformity.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York.

Background: Although halo gravity traction (HGT) has been used to treat children with severe spinal deformity for decades, there is a distinct lack of high-quality evidence to speak to its merits or to dictate ideal manner of implementation. In addition, no guidelines exist to drive research or assist surgeons in their practice. The aim of this study was to establish best practice guidelines (BPG) using formal techniques of consensus building among a group of experienced pediatric spinal deformity surgeons to determine ideal indications and implementation of HGT for pediatric spinal deformity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001379DOI Listing
April 2019
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Costs and Trends of Emergency Department Utilization Pre-ACA and Post-ACA: Evidence From a Rural Georgia Hospital.

Med Care 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

College of Allied Health Sciences, Augusta University.

Background: A high volume of emergency department (ED) visits in the rural United States may be the result of barriers to accessing primary care. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) increased the number of insured, which may improve patient access to primary care and therefore reduce ED utilization. The objective of this study is to estimate the trends and cost of ED utilization pre-ACA and post-ACA implementation in a rural United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000001114DOI Listing
April 2019
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Trends and Characteristics Associated with HPV Vaccination Uptake Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in the United States, 2014 - 2017.

Sex Transm Dis 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University; Atlanta, GA.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-associated cancer rates are high among men who have sex with men (MSM). The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends HPV vaccination for all MSM through age 26. We examined trends in HPV vaccine uptake among young US MSM between 2014-2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001008DOI Listing

Telehealth Intervention Programs for Seniors: An Observational Study of a Community-Embedded Health Monitoring Initiative.

Telemed J E Health 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Department of Telemedicine and Virtual Rehabilitation, Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.0248DOI Listing

[Effects of multiple times of topdressing nitrogen application under equal level on utilization and distribution characteristics of N and C in winter jujube].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Apr;30(4):1380-1388

Shandong Key Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Science for the Yellow River Delta, Binzhou University, Binzhou 256603, Shandong, China.

We explored the effects of multiple times of topdressing nitrogen application under equal level on the characteristics of absorption, utilization, accumulation, and distribution of N and C in four-year-old potted winter jujube during fruit developmental periods using the stable isotope tra-cer technology. The results showed that with the increases of nitrogen application times, the N derived from fertilizer (Ndff) in each organ significantly increased at the fruit maturity. The distribution rates of N in reproductive organ (fruit) and vegetative organs (leaf, deciduous spur, new branch, and fine root) were highest under four-time application, and lowest under one-time application. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201904.029DOI Listing

[Effects of different nitrogen fertilizers on annual emissions of greenhouse gas from maize field in Northeast China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Apr;30(4):1303-1311

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences/State Engineering Laboratory of Maize, Changchun 130033, China.

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the greenhouse gas emission at high latitude farmland in Northeast China. We monitored the greenhouse gas emission using the static chamber-gas chromatography method. Four nitrogen (N) fertilizers were used: conventional N fertilization (CN), slow release fertilizer (SLN), urea plus nitrification inhibitor and urease inhibitor (NIUI), and no nitrogen fertilizer (NN). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201904.030DOI Listing

[Effect of reducing N and regulated fertilization on N loss from wheat-maize rotation system of farmland in Chao soil region of North China Plain].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Apr;30(4):1179-1187

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ji'nan 250100, China.

The application of large amounts of nitrogen (N) fertilizer can result in soil N accumulation and consequently N loss. To address these problems in a wheat-maize rotation area of the North China Plain, a two-year field experiment (2016-2017) was conducted to examine the effects of three different N fertilizer strategies on crop yield, N uptake, N loss and soil inorganic N content. The treatments were: controlled-release fertilizer, microbial fertilizer, nitrification inhibitor and farmer's practice (control). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201904.019DOI Listing

Changing epidemiology of meticillin-resistant in 42 hospitals in the Dutch-German border region, 2012 to 2016: results of the search-and-follow-policy.

Euro Surveill 2019 Apr;24(15)

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, Groningen, Netherlands.

IntroductionMeticillin-resistant (MRSA) is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections.AimWe describe MRSA colonisation/infection and bacteraemia rate trends in Dutch-German border region hospitals (NL-DE-BRH) in 2012-16.MethodsAll 42 NL-DE BRH (8 NL-BRH, 34 DE-BRH) within the cross-border network EurSafety Health-net provided surveillance data (on average ca 620,000 annual hospital admissions, of these 68. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.15.1800244DOI Listing

The Investment Case for Malaria Elimination in Thailand: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

RTI International, Washington, District of Columbia.

After a dramatic decline in the annual malaria incidence in Thailand since 2000, the Thai government developed a National Malaria Elimination Strategy (NMES) to end local malaria transmission by 2024. This study examines the expected costs and benefits of funding the NMES (elimination scenario) versus not funding malaria elimination programming (resurgence scenario) from 2017 to 2036. Two case projection approaches were used to measure the number of malaria cases over the study period, combined with a set of Thailand-specific economic assumptions, to evaluate the cost of a malaria case and to quantify the cost-benefit ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0897DOI Listing

A hierarchical Bayesian Beta regression approach to study the effects of geographic genetic structure and spatial autocorrelation on species distribution range shifts.

Mol Ecol Resour 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

CREAF, E08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Catalonia, Spain.

Global climate change (GCC) may be imposing distribution range shifts in many organisms worldwide. Multiple efforts are currently focused on the development of models to better predict distribution range shifts due to GCC. We addressed this issue by including intra-specific genetic structure and spatial autocorrelation (SAC) of data in distribution range models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13024DOI Listing

Care quality for rheumatoid arthritis patients in Quebec.

Int J Rheum Dis 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Aim: The aims of this study were to: (a) measure the proportion of CARTaGENE rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients fulfilling pre-specified quality indicators (ie disease-modifying antirheumatic drug [DMARD] use, regular follow up, use of folate supplementation, use of vitamin D and calcium, exercise and smoking status); and (b) examine variation in DMARD use with respect to patient age, sex, education and income.

Methods: A cohort of RA patients was constructed based on the CARTaGENE survey and health administrative database. CARTaGENE is a large, established, population-based study which recruited 19 995 participants from four metropolitan regions in Quebec. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.13580DOI Listing

Regional variation and cost implications of prescribed extended half-life factor concentrates among U.S. Haemophilia Treatment Centres for patients with moderate and severe haemophilia.

Haemophilia 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Extended half-life (EHL) factor VIII (FVIII) and IX (FIX) products are intended to decrease the burden of prophylaxis for patients with haemophilia A or B. Whether these newer concentrates have led to meaningful clinical practice change remains vague.

Aim: To characterize the longitudinal use of standard (SHL) and EHL factor concentrates at haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs), using the ATHNdataset, a US database of 138 ATHN-affiliated HTCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13758DOI Listing

Intraoperative quantification of meningioma cell proliferation potential using rapid flow cytometry reveals intratumoral heterogeneity.

Cancer Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Standard sampling methods to evaluate the proliferative ability of meningioma have not been established.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of intraoperative rapid flow cytometry (iFC) using raw samples for the quantitative assessment of proliferative ability in meningioma cells and to investigate intratumoral heterogeneity. Proliferation index (PI) was defined as the ratio of aneuploid cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes to the total cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2178DOI Listing

All-cause pneumonia in children after the introduction of pneumococcal vaccines in the United Kingdom: A population-based study.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Paediatric Infectious Disease Research Group, St George's University of London, London, UK.

Purpose: To explore the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in preventing childhood pneumonia in the United Kingdom.

Methods: We carried out a population-based study to assess the trend of all-cause pneumonia in children aged under 10 years between 2002 and 2012. Data were obtained from the IMS Disease Analyser, a primary care database in the United Kingdom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.4770DOI Listing

Reducing surgical mortality in Scotland by use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist.

Br J Surg 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of General Surgery, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: The WHO Surgical Safety Checklist has been implemented widely since its launch in 2008. It was introduced in Scotland as part of the Scottish Patient Safety Programme (SPSP) between 2008 and 2010, and is now integral to surgical practice. Its influence on outcomes, when analysed at a population level, remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.11151DOI Listing

A National Survey of Undergraduate Clinical Education in Internal Medicine.

J Gen Intern Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: In the present milieu of rapid innovation in undergraduate medical education at US medical schools, the current structure and composition of clinical education in Internal Medicine (IM) is not clear.

Objective: To describe the current composition of undergraduate clinical education structure in IM.

Design: National annual Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM) cross-sectional survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-019-04892-0DOI Listing

Understanding corporate surplus food donation in China: testing the roles of environmental concern, altruism, past experience, and perceived risk.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

This paper investigates the motives behind corporate giving and determines whether perceived risk plays a major role in corporate surplus food donation intention. A conceptual model is developed from the perspectives of perceived risk, economic concern, past behavior, and moral motives. A questionnaire survey is conducted among food manufacturers and retailers in the Sichuan Province in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05058-5DOI Listing

Report on the AAPS Immunogenicity Guidance Forum.

AAPS J 2019 Apr 16;21(4):55. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Pharmaceutical Consultant, North Potomac, Maryland, 20878, USA.

In September 2018, the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) conducted an Annual Guidance Forum on the considerations related to immunogenicity testing for therapeutic protein products. In addition to a broad representation by the pharmaceutical industry, the event included strong representation by leading scientists from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The agency and industry perspectives and updates to the guidance were presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-019-0328-8DOI Listing

Incidence and excess mortality of hip fractures in a predominantly Caucasian population in the South of Brazil.

Arch Osteoporos 2019 Apr 16;14(1):47. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Endocrine Center of UFPR, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Introduction: Osteoporosis is a very common disease, and data on its epidemiology is important for health care strategy implementation. Brazil is a developing country; its population is aging, leading to an expected increase in hip fractures and their undesirable consequences.

Objective: Assess the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures and subsequent mortality in Southern Brazil as part of a large epidemiological study aiming to reinforce the data for FRAX Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-019-0597-yDOI Listing

Antibacterial prescription in Italian preschool children: analysis of 7 years of data from the Emilia-Romagna region reimbursement database.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, via Irnerio 48, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: To describe antibacterial prescribing patterns in outpatients aged 0-5 years from 2007 to 2013 in the Emilia-Romagna region, assessing sex- and age-specific consumption over time.

Methods: All children aged 0-5 years resident in the Emilia-Romagna region who received at least one prescription of a systemic antibacterial in the period 2007-13 were enrolled. The prescriptions of systemic antibacterials to children were collected from the regional prescription database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz153DOI Listing

Whole-genome Sequencing Provides Data for Stratifying Infection Prevention and Control Management of Nosocomial Influenza A.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, United Kingdom.

Background: Influenza A virus causes annual epidemics in humans and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequencing have traditionally been used to identify the virus genotype, although their utility in detecting outbreak clusters is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the utility, if any, of whole-genome sequencing over HA/NA sequencing for infection prevention and control (IPC) in hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz020DOI Listing

Repetition of Prediabetes Enhances the Risk of Developing Diabetes.

J Diabetes Res 2019 12;2019:4916546. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Chugoku Rosai Hospital Research Center for the Promotion of Health and Employment Support, Japan Organization of Occupational Health and Safety, 1-5-1, Hirotagaya, Kure City, Hiroshima 737-0193, Japan.

We attempted to clarify the severity of the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the individuals who repeatedly fulfill the criteria for prediabetes in both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The subjects were 2347 individuals who underwent annual health checkup at our hospital. They were classified as normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes as their yearly status of glucose tolerance for three years; furthermore, the individuals classified as prediabetes were subclassified into 3 groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4916546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434284PMC

Aridity thresholds of soil microbial metabolic indices along a 3,200 km transect across arid and semi-arid regions in Northern China.

PeerJ 2019 9;7:e6712. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Soil microbial processes are crucial for understanding the ecological functions of arid and semi-arid lands which occupy approximately 40% of the global terrestrial ecosystems. However, how soil microbial metabolic activities may change across a wide aridity gradient in drylands remains unclear. Here, we investigated three soil microbial metabolic indices (soil organic carbon (SOC)-based microbial respiration, metabolic quotient, and microbial biomass as a proportion of total SOC) and the degree of carbon limitation for microbial respiration along a 3,200 km transect with a wide aridity gradient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461032PMC

Vegetation dynamics of abandoned paddy fields and surrounding wetlands in the lower Tumen River Basin, Northeast China.

PeerJ 2019 8;7:e6704. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Ecosystem Studies, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

On the temperate lowland plain of the lower Tumen River, agricultural development has converted most marshland into paddy fields. However, the locations of old paddy fields in the lowland temperate zone, where the vegetation structure is dominated by herbs adapted to seasonally wet or waterlogged conditions, are poorly known, and the impact of land use history on marshland diversity and shifts in plant functional groups has been scantly researched. In this study, we used a chronosequence approach to investigate herbaceous wetland communities in different recovery phases (<5 years, 5-15 years, and >15 years), as well as natural wetland as a reference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459177PMC

Pulmonary Versus Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Associated Factors: A Case-Case Study.

Microbiol Insights 2019 4;12:1178636119840362. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Microbiology Laboratory, General Hospital, Castellon, Spain.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence remains low in health departments of Castellon and La Plana-Vila-real, but TB elimination is challenging. The objective of this study was to estimate associated factors of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) compared with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (ETB) and investigate epidemiological characteristics of these pathologies to orient control and prevention actions.

Materials And Methods: A prospective case-case study was implemented by comparing PTB and ETB incidences during 2013-2016 from notification reports, epidemiological surveillance, and microbiological results of hospitals' laboratories Hospital General Castellon and La Plana-Vila-Real in the province of Castellon of Valencia region in Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178636119840362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449815PMC

A decade of cigarette taxation in Bangladesh: lessons learnt for tobacco control.

Bull World Health Organ 2019 Mar 21;97(3):221-229. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.

Bangladesh has achieved a high share of tax in the price of cigarettes (greater than the 75% benchmark), but has not achieved the expected health benefits from reduction in cigarette consumption. In this paper we explore why cigarette taxation has not succeeded in reducing cigarette smoking in Bangladesh. Using government records over 2006-2017, we link trends in tax-paid cigarette sales to cigarette excise tax structure and changes in cigarette taxes and prices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.216135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453316PMC

Lessons from the Thai Health Promotion Foundation.

Bull World Health Organ 2019 Mar 19;97(3):213-220. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health, Muang, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.

To facilitate the policy response to noncommunicable diseases in Thailand, parliament adopted the Health Promotion Foundation Act in 2001. This Act led to the establishment of an autonomous government body, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation, called ThaiHealth. The foundation receives its revenue from a 2% surcharge of excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol. Read More

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http://www.who.int/entity/bulletin/volumes/97/3/18-220277.pd
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.220277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453312PMC
March 2019
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Sex-specific differences in spring and autumn migration in a northern large herbivore.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6137. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo, Norway.

Ongoing global warming is now affecting migratory cycles in a large variety of taxa in seasonally variable environments. Disruption of migratory systems can cause population decline and affect ecosystem function across the globe. It is therefore urgent to understand the drivers of migration and how the different fitness limitations of the sexes affect migration, but studies seldom considered the full annual cycle. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-42639-3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42639-3DOI Listing
April 2019
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Killer whales redistribute white shark foraging pressure on seals.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6153. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Biology, Stanford University Pacific Grove, California, 93950, USA.

Predatory behavior and top-down effects in marine ecosystems are well-described, however, intraguild interactions among co-occurring marine top predators remain less understood, but can have far reaching ecological implications. Killer whales and white sharks are prominent upper trophic level predators with highly-overlapping niches, yet their ecological interactions and subsequent effects have remained obscure. Using long-term electronic tagging and survey data we reveal rare and cryptic interactions between these predators at a shared foraging site, Southeast Farallon Island (SEFI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39356-2DOI Listing

Lending practices to same-sex borrowers.

Authors:
Hua Sun Lei Gao

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Finance, Ivy College of Business, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011

Using massive US mortgage lending data, we propose a method to infer a borrower's sexual orientation indirectly without a self-identification requirement and demonstrate the method's potential to approximately measure the sexual orientation of the US population at the local level annually over decades. We continue to examine the lending practices to same-sex borrowers and its spillover effects. The persistent results since 1990 reveal that, in contrast with otherwise comparable different-sex loan applicants, the approval rate for same-sex applicants is ∼3-8% lower. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1903592116DOI Listing

Genetic interaction and molecular evolution of the duplicated genes ICARUS2 and ICARUS1 confer growth adaptation to ambient temperature in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

CNB-CSIC N/A, CNB-CSIC, Darwin 3, Madrid 28049 CITY: Madrid STATE: Sp POSTAL_CODE: N/A Spain [ES]

Understanding plant adaptation to ambient temperature has become a major challenge impelled by current global climate change. This has led to the identification of several genes regulating the thermal plasticity of growth and flowering time. However, the mechanisms accounting for the natural variation and evolution of such developmental plasticity remain mostly unknown. Read More

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http://www.plantcell.org/lookup/doi/10.1105/tpc.18.00938
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.18.00938DOI Listing
April 2019
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Acute flaccid paralysis in North East Delta, Egypt: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected surveillance data.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Ministry of Health, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background: Effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is crucial in countries approaching the final phase of polio eradication. Thus this study was conducted to highlight the epidemiological pattern of AFP as a surveillance tool for polio in Egypt.

Methods: A record-based descriptive study was conducted to include all AFP cases (599) reported in the last 9 years starting from January 2009 to December 2017 in Dakahlia, North East of Delta, Egypt. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.03.016DOI Listing

Population-based cohort study of the correlation between provision of care and the risk for complications after appendectomy in children.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Departments of Women's and Children's Health, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: To investigate the impact of hospital administrative level and caseload of pediatric appendectomies on the morbidity and mortality after appendectomy in a population-based cohort of Swedish children.

Methods: Population-based cohort study including all Swedish children less than 15 years of age that underwent appendectomy for suspected appendicitis, 1987-2009. Patient characteristics and data on postoperative morbidity and mortality were collected from the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Death Register. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.03.013DOI Listing

Spatial and temporal trends of cesarean deliveries in Uganda: 2012-2016.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Apr 16;19(1):132. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

African Field Epidemiology Network, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Cesarean section (CS) is an important intervention in complicated births when the safety of the mother or baby is compromised. Despite worldwide concerns about the overutilization of CS in recent years, many African women and their newborns still die because of limited or no access to CS services. We evaluated temporal and spatial trends in CS births in Uganda and modeled future trends to inform programming. Read More

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https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2279-6DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cross-Sectional Investigation of Stress Fractures in German Elite Triathletes.

Sports (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;7(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Sports Medicine at the University Center for Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Triathlon is a popular sport for both recreational and competitive athletes. This study investigated the rates and patterns of stress fractures in the German national triathlon squad. We developed a web-based retrospective questionnaire containing questions about the frequency of stress fractures, anatomic localisation and associated risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports7040088DOI Listing

Using Rural⁻Urban Continuum Codes (RUCCS) to Examine Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crash Injury and Enforcement in New York State.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 15;16(8). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Bureau of Occupational Health and Injury Prevention, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12237, USA.

Rural areas of New York State (NYS) have higher rates of alcohol-related motor vehicle (MV) crash injury than metropolitan areas. While alcohol-related injury has declined across the three geographic regions of NYS, disparities persist with rural areas having smaller declines. Our study aim was to examine factors associated with alcohol-related MV crashes in Upstate and Long Island using multi-sourced county-level data that included the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) with emergency department visits and hospitalizations, traffic citations, demographic, economic, transportation, alcohol outlets, and Rural-Urban Continuum Codes (RUCCS). Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/8/1346
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081346DOI Listing
April 2019
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Economic Issues of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2019 16;198:87-93. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Urology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background: With the growth in the global economy, the number of patients worldwide undergoing renal replacement therapy such as hemodialysis is increasing by 6-7% annually. Accordingly, medical costs for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well as for renal replacement therapy have become a major issue.

Summary: It has been reported that in the United States, the annual medical cost for a patient with CKD is approximately USD 20,000, and that the total medical cost for a CKD patient is higher than that of an ESRD patient [1]. Read More

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https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/496533
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496533DOI Listing
April 2019
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Effects of 'pre-fracking' operations on ambient air quality at a shale gas exploration site in rural North Yorkshire, England.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 8;673:445-454. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

British Geological Survey, Keyworth, UK.

Rural observations of air quality and meteorological parameters (NO, O, NMHCs, SO, PM) were made over a 2.5-year period (2016-2018) before, during and after preparations for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at a shale gas exploration site near Kirby Misperton, North Yorkshire, England. As one of the first sites to apply for permits to carry out hydraulic fracturing, it has been subject to extensive regulatory and public scrutiny, as well as the focus for a major programme of long-term environmental monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.077DOI Listing

Modelling global river export of microplastics to the marine environment: Sources and future trends.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 8;673:392-401. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Science, Faculty of Management, Science & Technology, Open University, Heerlen, the Netherlands; Water Systems and Global Change Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Microplastics, transported by rivers to oceans, are triggering environmental concern. This study aims to better understand river export of microplastics from land to sea. We developed the Global Riverine Export of Microplastics into Seas (GREMiS) model, a global, spatially explicit model for analysing the annual microplastics export to coastal seas. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193159
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.078DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Sub-Saharan Africa Conference on Stroke (SSACS): An idea whose time has come.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Mar 29;400:194-198. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Stroke is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where an unprecedented rise in stroke burden is currently raging, has the highest age-standardized stroke incidence, stroke prevalence, and stroke mortality rates. This is in sharp contrast to the relative decline in stroke incidence in high-income countries over the past four decades through better awareness and control of vascular risk factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.03.026DOI Listing

Detecting spatio-temporal hotspots of scarlet fever in Taiwan with spatio-temporal Gi* statistic.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(4):e0215434. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

A resurgence of scarlet fever has caused many pediatric infections in East Asia and the United Kingdom. Although scarlet fever in Taiwan has not been a notifiable infectious disease since 2007, the comprehensive national health insurance data can still track its trend. Here, we used data from the open data portal of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215434PLOS
April 2019
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