1,689 results match your criteria Annals of tropical paediatrics[Journal]


Primary tuberculous cerebellar abscess: case report.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):367-9

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Tuberculous cerebellar abscess is a rare manifestation of central nervous system tuberculosis. An 8-year-old boy is described who presented with acute hydrocephalus and right hemiparesis owing to a cerebellar abscess. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000037DOI Listing
February 2012
1 Read

Bilateral symmetrical facial swelling owing to tuberculous gummas.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):363-5

Departments of Pathology and Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India

Metastatic tuberculous abscesses and gummas are unusual forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. They result from haematogeneous spread of the mycobacterium from a primary focus during a period of impaired immunity. A 5-year-old boy is reported who presented with spinal tuberculosis and bilateral subcutaneous swelling of the cheeks owing to tuberculous gummas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000034DOI Listing
February 2012

Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as tuberculosis in an infant.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):357-61

Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

A 4-month-old infant presented with continued fever, unresolving bronchopneumonia and household contact with sputum-smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) and showed marginal improvement on anti-TB chemotherapy. Recurrent pneumothorax prompted the clinical diagnosis of TB to be revised. High-resolution CT scan of the chest and open lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000041DOI Listing
February 2012

Clinical profiles of 13 children with Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):351-6

Kothari Medical & Research Institute, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India.

Background: Bikaner region is endemic for both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000040DOI Listing
February 2012

Serum zinc levels are low in children with simple febrile seizures compared with those in children with epileptic seizures and controls.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):345-9

Department of Pediatrics, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital and The CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, 12A Nageswara Road, Chennai, India. ganeped79@ rediffmail.com

Aim: To investigate serum zinc levels in children with simple febrile and epileptic seizures and compare them with controls.

Methods: A prospective, case-control study was conducted between July 2009 and September 2010 in Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, Chennai. Sixty-seven children (22 with epileptic seizures, 23 with simple febrile seizures and 22 controls) were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000032DOI Listing
February 2012
4 Reads

Immediate versus as-needed acetaminophen for post-immunisation pyrexia.

Authors:
B Dhingra D Mishra

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):339-44

Department of Pediatrics, Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya, Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi, India.

Background: Local and minor systemic adverse events are frequently seen after routine immunisation with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus. Antipyretics are frequently prescribed for these events and prophylactic administration of acetaminophen is occasionally recommended.

Objective: To determine whether prophylactic administration of acetaminophen has any effect in reducing the incidence of post-vaccination side-effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000039DOI Listing
February 2012

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its correlates among HIV-infected children at an HIV clinic in New Delhi.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):331-7

Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background: With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS have decreased markedly. However, high adherence to ART (>95%) is necessary for a good therapeutic outcome. There is a paucity of data on paediatric adherence to ART and its correlates from developing countries, particularly India. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000031DOI Listing
February 2012
2 Reads

Relationship of household food insecurity to anaemia in children aged 6-59 months among families in rural Indonesia.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):321-30

Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Anaemia is a significant global public health problem in developing countries with adverse health effects on young children. Household food insecurity, which reflects a household's access, availability and utilisation of food, has not been well characterised in relation to anaemia in children.

Objective: To examine the relationship of household food insecurity with anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000038DOI Listing
February 2012

Co-morbidity: exploring the clinical overlap between pneumonia and diarrhoea in a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):311-9

Clinical Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: There is limited information on risk factors for pneumonia and pneumonia-related deaths in children who also have diarrhoea.

Aim: To identify risk factors for the above in order to improve strategies for case management and to develop appropriate public health messages.

Methods: All children under 5 years of age admitted to the Special Care Ward, Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) from 1 September to 31 December 2007 were considered for enrollment if they also had diarrhoea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000033DOI Listing
February 2012

Opportunities for chemoprophylaxis in children with culture-confirmed tuberculosis.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):301-10

Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.

Background And Objectives: Chemoprophylaxis is an effective strategy to prevent progression of tuberculosis (TB) in vulnerable children who have had contact with an infectious source of TB. However, many operational gaps prevent implementation of routine chemoprophylaxis in high-burden settings. The TB exposure status and disease spectrum in children diagnosed with culture-confirmed TB are described and missed opportunities for chemoprophylaxis are highlighted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000035DOI Listing
February 2012

Missed opportunities for prevention of tuberculosis in children.

Authors:
S M Graham

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):297-9

Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532811X13142348016691DOI Listing
February 2012

Big hopes for the children of the world: a review of the Millennium Development Goals.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):287-95

Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

The Millennium Development Goals are a set of eight goals drafted by the United Nations in 2000 with the aim of improving the health and welfare of people worldwide. The goals provide specific targets to be met by 2015, using the 1990 basis as a standard. This review presents these goals as they relate to children, discussing progress and future aims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532811X13006353133993DOI Listing
February 2012

Randomised trials in child health in developing countries 2011.

Authors:
T Duke

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):283-5

Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532811X13142348016817DOI Listing
February 2012

Long-term immunity after hepatitis B vaccination.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):279-80

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000026DOI Listing
November 2011
4 Reads
1.173 Impact Factor

Steroid-unresponsive hypereosinophilic syndrome.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):273-7

Department of Pediatrics, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, India.

Hypereosinophilic syndrome in children is rare and is characterised by sustained over-production of eosinophils. An 11-year-old boy was diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome as per standard criteria. He was treated initially with intravenous methylprednisolone, followed by oral prednisolone, to which he showed a limited response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000027DOI Listing
November 2011
1 Read

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after pertussis infection.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):269-72

Department of Paediatric Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, University of Istanbul, Turkey.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system which is usually precipitated by a viral infection or vaccination. A 3-month-old boy is reported who developed ADEM a week after full recovery from pertussis. MRI detected a high-intensity lesion extending from the pons to the mesencephalon, compatible with ADEM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000028DOI Listing
November 2011
2 Reads

Organophosphate poisoning in a 12-day-old infant: case report.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):263-7

Department of Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi.

A 12-day-old infant girl was admitted with increasing lethargy and respiratory distress. Initial treatment was for pneumonia but deterioration despite appropriate treatment prompted review of her diagnosis and consideration of organophosphate poisoning. There was a brisk response to atropine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000029DOI Listing
November 2011

Fatal bronchiolitis obliterans complicating Stevens-Johnson syndrome following treatment with nimesulide: a case report.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):259-61

Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Nimesulide is a frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and antipyretic effects in children. In view of fatal adverse drug reactions, however, its safety has been questioned. A 5-year-old boy developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome following use of nimesulide which was later complicated by rapidly progressive fatal bronchiolitis obliterans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000019DOI Listing
November 2011

Cranial nerve palsies in typhoid fever: report of three cases.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):255-8

Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College & Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Neurological manifestations of enteric fever are well known. However, isolated cranial nerve palsies are rare. A 4-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 11 years with culture-proven typhoid fever are described, two of whom developed palatal palsy and the other sixth cranial nerve palsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000023DOI Listing
November 2011

Cardiac echinococcosis associated with cerebrovascular occlusive disease and subcutaneous bullous eruptions and ulcers.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):251-4

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Cardiac involvement is an uncommon complication of echinococcosis. It is usually asymptomatic and may only be diagnosed incidentally. A 7-year-old boy was admitted with acute stroke and bullous and ulcerated skin lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000018DOI Listing
November 2011
2 Reads

Management of harlequin ichthyosis in low-income countries.

Authors:
G Rossi D Mesia

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):247-9

Médécins sans Frontières, Rome, Italy.

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a very rare severe form of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, usually associated with stillbirth and early neonatal death. A newborn girl with HI is described. She presented in a critical condition with severe universalis hyperkeratosis, diffuse scales and deep erythematous fissures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000020DOI Listing
November 2011
2 Reads

Adherence to tablet and liquid formulations of antiretroviral medication for paediatric HIV treatment at an urban clinic in Uganda.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):235-45

Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Major obstacles remain in scaling up paediatric HIV treatment, including limited paediatric anti-retroviral drug options for resource-limited settings, challenges with adherence to liquid formulations and treatment fatigue with lifelong therapy.

Aim: To determine levels of adherence to HAART in HIV-infected children at 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks of follow-up and to compare adherence levels before and after switching from syrup to fixed-dose combination (FDC)-tablet anti-retroviral formulations.

Methods: HIV-infected children aged between 6 months and 12 years were initiated on anti-retroviral therapy at Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Care Clinic, Kampala. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000025DOI Listing
November 2011
3 Reads

Comparison of a rapid commercial test, Enterocheck WB(®), with automated blood culture for diagnosis of typhoid fever.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):231-4

Department of Paediatrics, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, The CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, India.

Background: Rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever is very important in the timely initiation of therapy.

Objectives: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Enterocheck WB(®) test.

Methods: In a prospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of Enterocheck WB(®) that detects IgM antibodies to Salmonella typhi were compared with blood culture using BacT/Alert. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000030DOI Listing
November 2011

Longitudinal study of vitamin D status in the 1st 6 months of life.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):225-30

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Unlabelled: Although hypovitaminosis D has been reported in the neonatal period and infancy, there is currently little information on the longitudinal changes in vitamin D status throughout early infancy.

Aim: To estimate, in Al Ain, UAE, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and longitudinal changes and risk factors in infants between birth and 6 months of age.

Methods: Serum 25-OH-vitamin-D levels were measured after birth and 6 months later in 27 infants of mothers of Middle Eastern or Asian origin who were pregnant between the months of September and November 2007. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000017DOI Listing
November 2011

Diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs used to identify electrolyte disturbances in children with diarrhoea.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):219-24

School of Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: No studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs of electrolyte disturbances in children with dehydrating diarrhoea.

Aims: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of clinical signs previously reported to be associated with plasma sodium and potassium disturbances in children.

Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study of 476 children aged 6 weeks to 2 years, admitted to a rehydration unit in Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000021DOI Listing
November 2011

Colorectal polyps: a frequently-missed cause of rectal bleeding in Egyptian children.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):213-8

Departments of Pediatrics, Cairo University, Egypt.

Objectives: Colorectal polyps are important causes of rectal bleeding but they have been infrequently reported in Egyptian children. The prevalence and characteristics of colorectal polyps in a consecutive cohort of Egyptian children with rectal bleeding are presented.

Methods: A total of 174 children aged 2-12 years [mean (SD) 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000014DOI Listing
November 2011

Effect of cryptosporidial and giardial diarrhoea on social maturity, intelligence and physical growth in children in a semi-urban slum in south India.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):205-12

Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Early childhood diarrhoea is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recurrent and persistent diarrhoea affect growth and cognition in children as young as 6 years.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of early childhood cryptosporidial and giardial diarrhoea on growth and development in children in a semi-urban slum in India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000003DOI Listing
November 2011

Enteric protozoa and human potential.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):201-3

University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532811X13006353133911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3296476PMC
November 2011

Community-based interventions to improve neonatal survival in low-resource settings.

Authors:
L McKenzie M Ellis

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):191-9

Centre for Child & Adolescent Health, School of Community & Social Medicine, University of Bristol, UK.

As child mortality declines globally, neonatal mortality (death in the 1st month of life) has become an increasingly important cause of under-5 deaths. Emerging evidence showing the effectiveness of low-cost community-based interventions proves that expensive hospital interventions are not needed to make progress with newborn survival in low-income countries where the vast majority of deaths occur. This paper discusses the use of two approaches to community-based interventions: home visits by community health workers and participatory women's groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000002DOI Listing
November 2011

A case of congenital measles during the 2010 South African epidemic.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):185-8

Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Congenital measles is a well recognised but uncommon transplacental infection in the post-vaccine era. A 4-day-old infant is described who presented with uncomplicated congenital measles during the 2010 South African measles outbreak. Clinicians working in regions affected by measles outbreaks should be mindful of waning vaccine-induced measles immunity where infections among pregnant women may result in a resurgence of congenital measles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000010DOI Listing

Acute glomerulonephritis: an unusual manifestation of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

Authors:
S A Zaki P Shanbag

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):181-4

Department of Pediatrics, Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital and Medical College, Sion, Mumbai, India.

Long considered a benign infection, Plasmodium vivax is now increasingly recognised as a cause of severe and fatal malaria. Various atypical presentations of vivax malaria have been reported. This report highlights the occurrence of acute glomerulonephritis in a 7-year-old girl who presented with fever and vomiting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328110Y.0000000010DOI Listing
August 2011
1 Read

Recurrent bilateral orbital myositis: case report and review of the literature.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):173-80

Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Orbital myositis in children is uncommon. Recurrence is a major challenge in management. An 11-year-old Malay girl who presented with bilateral orbital myositis with recurrent attacks of diplopia is reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000004DOI Listing
August 2011
1 Read

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: peritoneal and pleural effusion.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):169-72

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Ondokuz Mayıs University Hospital, Samsun, Turkey.

In Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), haemorrhagic manifestations are usually petechiae and ecchymoses on mucous membranes and skin. Rarely, there is bleeding from the nose, gingiva, gastro-intestinal tract, genito-urinary tract, brain and lungs. A 13-year-old boy with CCHF presented with gastro-intestinal bleeding and developed peritoneal and pleural effusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000011DOI Listing
August 2011
1 Read

Meconium peritonitis presenting as abdominal calcification: three cases with different pathology.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):163-7

Department of Paediatrics, University of Delhi, India.

Intra-abdominal calcification is uncommon in newborns and has several causes of which meconium peritonitis is the most frequent. Three neonates with intra-abdominal calcification as a complication of meconium peritonitis are presented. The types of meconium peritonitis were cystic, meconium pseudocyst and meconium ascites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000001DOI Listing

Complicated features in a young child with influenza B virus pneumonia and co-infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):159-62

Division of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

A 3.5-year-old child with influenza B virus pneumonia developed pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema on the 3rd day of illness. Bronchoscopy demonstrated obstruction of the left main bronchus by mucopurulent sputum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000012DOI Listing

Antenatal Bartter syndrome: a rare cause of unexplained severe polyhydramnios.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):153-7

Department of Paediatrics, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

A woman presented with polyhydramnios at 22 weeks of gestation with a structurally normal fetus and placenta. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid detected a very high level of chloride (582 mmol/L), which led to the diagnosis of Bartter syndrome. With serial amniocentesis and indomethacin therapy, the pregnancy continued to 36 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000006DOI Listing

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: successful treatment with topiramate and flunarizine, a case report.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):149-52

Department of Paediatrics, National University Hospital, Singapore.

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disorder which usually presents before 18 months of age and is characterised by recurrent alternating episodes of hemiparesis. A single effective treatment for this condition is yet to be established; flunarizine is currently the most widely used but with varying degrees of success. An 18-month-old child presented with AHC and treatment with a combination of topiramate and flunarizine made a significant difference in controlling the frequency and severity of the attacks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000007DOI Listing

Menetrier's disease associated with Helicobacter pylori: three cases with sonographic findings and a literature review.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):141-7

3rd Department of Pediatrics, Attikon University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece.

Menetrier's disease is a rare cause of protein-losing gastropathy characterised by hypertrophy of the gastric folds. Three cases are reported. Helicobacter pylori was detected by culture and CLO test in two cases and on follow-up gastroscopy in the other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532811X13006353133876DOI Listing

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case series from Mumbai.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):135-40

Department of Pediatrics, B. J. Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, India.

A retrospective review of ten patients (8 girls, 2 boys) admitted over a 9-month period with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is presented. Presenting features included fever and hepatosplenomegaly (10), bleeding manifestations (7), lymphadenopathy (4), skin rash (4), shock (4), jaundice (3), CNS disorder (3), renal failure (2) and arthritis (2). Three infants had familial HLH (FHL) while the other seven patients had acquired (secondary) HLH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000009DOI Listing

Evaluation of glomerular and tubular renal function in neonates with birth asphyxia.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):129-34

Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the commonest manifestations of end-organ damage associated with birth asphyxia.

Objective: To evaluate glomerular and tubular dysfunction in neonates with moderate to severe birth asphyxia.

Design: Prospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532811X12925735813922DOI Listing

Spectrum of cardiac rhythm abnormalities and heart rate variability during the convalescent stage of dengue virus infection: a Holter study.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):123-8

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.

Background: Various minor cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been reported in patients with dengue virus infection. Previous studies have used only random electrocardiograms (ECG) to assess the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias, and the time when the ECGs were undertaken was not systematically defined.

Objectives: To evaluate cardiac arrhythmias and heart rate variability in children with dengue virus infection during the convalescent stage using Holter monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000008DOI Listing

Micro-albuminuria in Ugandan children with sickle cell anaemia: a cross-sectional study.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):115-21

Department of Paediatrics, St Mary's Hospital Lacor, Gulu, Uganda.

Background: In patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), recurrent episodes of sequestration, micro-infarction, ischaemia and necrosis within the renal cortex cause nephron damage. Micro-albuminuria results from compensatory mechanisms aimed at preserving the glomerular filtration rate.

Aims: To establish the prevalence of micro-albuminuria among children with SCA and to describe associated factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000013DOI Listing

Delayed diagnosis of Kawasaki disease: risk factors and outcome of treatment.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):109-14

Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is associated with a high incidence of coronary artery aneurysms in untreated children. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) within the 1st 10 days of illness reduces by approximately fivefold the prevalence of coronary artery abnormalities (CAA). Data regarding delayed diagnosis of KD in Thailand have not been reported in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328111Y.0000000005DOI Listing
August 2011
1 Read

Inpatient management of severe malnutrition: time for a change in protocol and practice.

Authors:
D R Brewster

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):97-107

School of Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.

This review focuses on how to reduce the high mortality of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in African hospitals. The World Health Organization's 1999 manual for physicians (protocol) has not resulted in case-fatality rates of under 5%, even in published research studies from Africa, far less in district and central hospitals which do not record case-fatality rates. It is suggested that the following eight changes to the protocol need to be considered if we are serious about reducing case-fatality rates in African hospitals: (1) use of low lactose, low osmolality milk feeds during the early stage of treatment, especially for HIV-exposed infants and diarrhoeal cases; (2) more cautious use of high carbohydrate loads (ORS, ReSoMal, sucrose and 10% dextrose) during initial stabilisation; (3) more careful grading up and down of feed volumes according the child's responses during the early rehabilitation phase; (4) rapid rehydration of children in shock with Ringer's lactate, as for well-nourished children, with closer monitoring for heart failure; (5) greater use of 3rd-generation cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone antibiotics (e. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1179/146532811X129257
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532811X12925735813887DOI Listing
August 2011
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Exertional rhabdomyolysis after influenza A (H3N2) infection in a basketball player boy.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(1):93-6

Department of Pediatrics, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Research & Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

A 14-year-old professional basketball player developed symptoms of influenza which was subsequently confirmed to be caused by influenza A (H3N2). He was given a 5-day course of oseltamivir. Two days after completing the course, he resumed basketball and developed rhabdomyolysis associated with acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328110Y.0000000005DOI Listing

Auto-immune haemolytic anaemia concurrent with Plasmodium vivax infection: a case report.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(1):87-91

Department of Tropical Pediatrics, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Ramanthibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

A 7-month-old Myanmar boy was admitted with a 3-day history of fever. He was markedly pale and his temperature was 38·2°C. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated Plasmodium vivax infection with spherocytosis and auto-agglutination of red blood cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328110Y.0000000003DOI Listing

Perinatal tuberculosis: two unusual cases.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(1):81-6

Department of Paediatrics, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

Two immunocompromised infants with perinatal tuberculosis are reported. Both presented with bilateral miliary mottling of the lungs. The first was a 4-month-old boy with a history of prolonged administration of prednisolone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328110Y.0000000009DOI Listing

Perinatal tuberculosis: four cases and use of broncho-alveolar lavage.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(1):75-80

Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis in adults and children, congenital and perinatal forms of tuberculosis are rare. Four patients with perinatal tuberculosis are described. Diagnosis was made by demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) on broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) specimens (two cases), gastric aspirate smear (one case) and lymph node fine-needle aspirate (one case). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146532811X12925735813841DOI Listing

Myocardial ischaemia in sickle cell anaemia: evaluation using a new scoring system.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(1):67-74

Department of Paediatrics, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with recurrent multi-organ ischaemia and infarction. Myocardial ischaemia (MI) and infarction are increasingly recognised as features of SCA. The prevalence and severity of MI in children with SCA is not known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328110Y.0000000006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040492PMC

Introduction of bubble CPAP in a teaching hospital in Malawi.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(1):59-65

Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is relatively inexpensive and can be easily taught; it therefore has the potential to be the optimal respiratory support device for neonates in developing countries.

Objective: The possibility of implementing bubble CPAP in a teaching hospital with a large neonatology unit but very limited resources was investigated.

Methods: A CPAP system was developed consisting of a compressor, oxygen concentrator, water bottle to control the pressure and binasal prongs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1465328110Y.0000000001DOI Listing