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    48711 results match your criteria Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences[Journal]

    1 OF 975

    Iron sucrose: assessing the similarity between the originator drug and its intended copies.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov;1407(1):63-74
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Iron sucrose (IS) is a complex nanocolloidal intravenous suspension used in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia. Follow-on IS products (iron sucrose similars (ISSs)) have obtained marketing authorization by the generic pathway, implying that identical copies of IS may be manufactured. However, recent prospective and retrospective clinical studies showed discrepancies in clinical outcomes, which might be related to differences in physicochemical properties. Read More

    Compositional differences between Copaxone and Glatopa are reflected in altered immunomodulation ex vivo in a mouse model.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov;1407(1):75-89
    Research and Development, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Petach Tikva, Israel.
    Copaxone (glatiramer acetate, GA), a structurally and compositionally complex polypeptide nonbiological drug, is an effective treatment for multiple sclerosis, with a well-established favorable safety profile. The short antigenic polypeptide sequences comprising therapeutically active epitopes in GA cannot be deciphered with state-of-the-art methods; and GA has no measurable pharmacokinetic profile and no validated pharmacodynamic markers. The study reported herein describes the use of orthogonal standard and high-resolution physicochemical and biological tests to characterize GA and a U. Read More

    Safety of folic acid.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    There is a large body of literature demonstrating the efficacy of maternal folic acid intake in preventing birth defects, as well as investigations into potential adverse consequences of consuming folic acid above the upper intake level (UL). Recently, two authoritative bodies convened expert panels to assess risks from high intakes of folic acid: the U.S. Read More

    Mouse models to evaluate the role of estrogen receptor α in skeletal maintenance and adaptation.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
    Estrogen signaling and mechanical loading have individual and combined effects on skeletal maintenance and adaptation. Previous work investigating estrogen signaling both in vitro and in vivo using global estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene knockout mouse models has provided information regarding the role of ERα in regulating bone mass and adaptation to mechanical stimulation. However, these models have inherent limitations that confound interpretation of the data. Read More

    Folate status in women of reproductive age as basis of neural tube defect risk assessment.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
    Reliable folate status data for women of reproductive age (WRA) to assess global risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) are needed. We focus on a recent recommendation by the World Health Organization that a specific "optimal" red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration be used as the sole indicator of NTD risk within a population and discuss how to best apply this guidance to reach the goal of assessing NTD risk globally. We also emphasize the importance of using the microbiologic assay (MBA) as the most reliable assay for obtaining comparable results for RBC folate concentration across time and countries, the need for harmonization of the MBA through use of consistent key reagents and procedures within laboratories, and the requirement to apply assay-matched cutoffs for folate deficiency and insufficiency. Read More

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: mouse passive-transfer model illuminates disease pathology and facilitates testing therapeutic leads.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies directed against the voltage-gated calcium channels that provide the calcium ion flux that triggers acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. To study the pathophysiology of LEMS and test candidate therapeutic strategies, a passive-transfer animal model has been developed in mice, which can be created by daily intraperitoneal injections of LEMS patient serum or IgG into mice for 2-4 weeks. Results from studies of the mouse neuromuscular junction have revealed that each synapse has hundreds of transmitter release sites but that the probability for release at each one is likely to be low. Read More

    The mouse passive-transfer model of MuSK myasthenia gravis: disrupted MuSK signaling causes synapse failure.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Physiology and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    While the majority of myasthenia gravis patients express antibodies targeting the acetylcholine receptor, the second most common cohort instead displays autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase found in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. During development, MuSK serves as a signaling hub, coordinating the alignment of the pre- and postsynaptic components of the synapse. Read More

    Evolutionary dynamics of interactions between plants and their enemies: comparison of herbivorous insects and pathogens.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California.
    Plants colonized land over 400 million years ago. Shortly thereafter, organisms began to consume terrestrial plant tissue as a nutritional resource. Most plant enemies are plant pathogens or herbivores, and they impose natural selection for plants to evolve defenses. Read More

    Thymus involvement in early-onset myasthenia gravis.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    INSERM U974, Paris, France.
    It has long been established that the thymus plays a central role in autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) because of either thymoma or thymic hyperplasia of lymphoproliferative origin. In this review, we discuss thymic changes associated with thymic hyperplasia and their implications in the development of an autoimmune response against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR).The hyperplastic MG thymus displays all the characteristics of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs): neoangiogenic processes with high endothelial venule and lymphatic vessel development, chemokine overexpression favoring peripheral cell recruitment, and ectopic germinal center development. Read More

    Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers in myasthenia gravis patients.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that bind to specific mRNA targets and regulate a wide range of important biological processes within cells. Circulating miRNAs are released into the extracellular space and can be measured in most biofluids, including blood serum and plasma. Recently, circulating miRNAs have emerged as easily accessible markers in various body fluids with different profiles and quantities specific for different human disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Read More

    Exosomes: biology, therapeutic potential, and emerging role in musculoskeletal repair and regeneration.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.
    Exosomes are nanovesicles secreted from cells that play key roles in intercellular communication. They carry unique content derived from parental cells and are capable of transferring this cargo between cells. The role and function of exosomes largely depends on the origin and functional status of the parental cells. Read More

    The impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on serum retinol in women 16-35 years of age: SANHANES-1.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Population Health, Health Systems and Innovation, Human Sciences Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    To determine the current vitamin A status of a nationally representative sample of women aged 16-35 years, compare it with previous national data, and determine the impact of sociodemography, diet, and body size on vitamin A status, we performed secondary analysis of data on South African women who participated in the first South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). Vitamin A status was assessed by serum retinol, and the findings are reported as means and prevalences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Overall, the age-standardized vitamin A deficiency prevalence was 11. Read More

    The Association of British Neurologists' myasthenia gravis guidelines.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction for which many therapies were developed before the era of evidence-based medicine. Despite the basic principles of treatment being well known, patients continue to receive suboptimal treatment. A myasthenia gravis guidelines group was therefore established under the aegis of the Association of British Neurologists. Read More

    Investigating metabolic regulation using targeted neuromodulation.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
    The central nervous system (CNS) plays a vital role in regulating energy balance and metabolism. Over the last 50 years, studies in animal models have allowed us to identify critical CNS regions involved in these processes and even crucial cell populations. Now, techniques for genetically and anatomically targeted manipulation of specific neural populations using light (optogenetic), ligands (chemogenetic), or magnetic fields (radiogenetic/magnetogenetic) allow detailed investigation of circuits involved in metabolic regulation. Read More

    Biological plausibility of the gut-brain axis in autism.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Biotics Research Corporation, Research and Development, Rosenberg, Texas.
    Organic abnormalities with neuroinflammatory and psychiatric consequences involving abnormal kynurenine and purine metabolism, neurotransmitter and cytokine imbalances, and altered levels of nutrients and metabolites are noted in autism, and many of these abnormalities-specifically including increased intestinal permeability, microbial metabolites, and heightened serum levels of endotoxin-originate from the gut. Read More

    Recent developments on intramedullary nailing: a biomechanical perspective.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    DEMec, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Combining contributions from engineering and medicine, we highlight the biomechanical turning points in the historical evolution of the intramedullary nailing stabilization technique and discuss the recent innovations concerning increase in bone-implant system stability. Following the earliest attempts, where stabilization of long bone fractures was purely based on intuition, intramedullary nailing evolved from allowing alignment and translational control through press-fit fixation to current clinical widespread acceptance marked by the mechanical linkage between nail and bone with interlocking screws that allow alignment, translation, rotation, and length control. In an attempt to achieve an optimum interfragmentary mechanical environment, recent improvements considered the impact of different biomaterials on bone-implant stiffness. Read More

    Equivalence and regulatory approaches of nonbiological complex drug products across the United States, the European Union, and Turkey.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 1;1407(1):26-38. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Regulatory agencies around the world may have different standards and approaches to evaluate and approve drug products and biological products. We describe the U.S. Read More

    Sustaining attention to simple visual tasks: a central deficit in schizophrenia? A systematic review.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    INSERM U1114, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Impairments in sustained attention, that is, the ability to achieve and maintain the focus of cognitive activity on a given stimulation source or task, have been described as central to schizophrenia. Today, sustained attention deficit is still considered as a hallmark of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, current findings on this topic are not consistent. Read More

    Neuromuscular synapse electrophysiology in myasthenia gravis animal models.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms the synaptic connection between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber. In order to achieve a sustained muscle contraction, this synapse has to reliably transmit motor neuronal action potentials onto the muscle fiber. To guarantee successful transmission even during intense activation of the NMJ, a safety factor of neuromuscular transmission exists. Read More

    Diagnostic utility of cortactin antibodies in myasthenia gravis.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Neuromuscular Diseases Unit, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Institut de Recerca de l'Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau - IIB Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) without antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) have been classified as having double-seronegative myasthenia gravis (dSNMG). We used the sera from six dSNMG patients with positive immunohistochemistry assays in a protein array to screen reactivity with 9000 human proteins. We identified cortactin, an intracellular protein that interacts with agrin/MuSK favoring AChR aggregation, as a new antigen in dSNMG. Read More

    The molecular cross talk of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Laboratory of Synaptogenesis, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    The proper function of skeletal muscles relies on their ability to process signals derived from motor neurons, transmit stimuli along the muscle fibers, contract, and regenerate efficiently after injury. The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC; also called the dystrophin-associated protein complex) plays a central role in all of these processes. It acts as a transmembrane platform that anchors the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the intracellular cytoskeleton and makes muscle fibers more resistant to injury. Read More

    Freezing does not alter multiscale tendon mechanics and damage mechanisms in tension.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.
    It is common in biomechanics to use previously frozen tissues, where it is assumed that the freeze-thaw process does not cause consequential mechanical or structural changes. We have recently quantified multiscale tendon mechanics and damage mechanisms using previously frozen tissue, where damage was defined as an irreversible change in the microstructure that alters the macroscopic mechanical parameters. Because freezing has been shown to alter tendon microstructures, the objective of this study was to determine if freezing alters tendon multiscale mechanics and damage mechanisms. Read More

    A diagnosis and treatment gap for thiamine deficiency disorders in sub-Saharan Africa?
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.
    Staple diets that are deficient in thiamine can result in low body thiamine levels, which may be subclinical or may manifest as a thiamine-deficiency syndrome. In many communities in the developing countries of Africa, the staple diets of polished rice or processed cassava are deficient in thiamine, and thus the communities are at high risk for marginal or frank thiamine deficiency unless their diets are supplemented by other sources of thiamine, such as protein meals and vegetables. African communities with large numbers of individuals in low socioeconomic strata are more likely to subsist on a monotonous diet of rice or cassava with minimal or no protein supplementation and are therefore particularly at risk of thiamine-deficiency disorders. Read More

    Adolescent mothers' anthropometrics and grandmothers' schooling predict infant anthropometrics in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Economics, Sociology and Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    We investigated intergenerational associations of adolescent mothers' and grandmothers' anthropometrics and schooling with adolescent mothers' offspring's anthropometrics in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We examined birthweight (n = 283), birthweight Z-score (BWZ), conditional growth in weight-for-age Z-score (cWAZ, residuals from a regression of WAZ at last survey round on BWZ, sex, and age), and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) of children born to older cohort adolescent girls in the Young Lives study. Our key independent variables were adolescent mothers' body size: HAZ and body-mass-index-for-age Z-score (BMIZ) at age 8, conditional HAZ (cHAZ, residuals from a regression of HAZ at the end of a growth period on prior HAZ, age, and sex), conditional BMIZ growth (cBMIZ, calculated analogously), and grandmaternal BMIZ, HAZ, and schooling. Read More

    Learning from the past: reflections on recently completed myasthenia gravis trials.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
    Recently competed clinical trials of therapeutics for myasthenia gravis have varied widely in design, but also perhaps in less explicit ways. We explore ways in which these design characteristics may have influenced recruitment and results, as well as the implications for forthcoming studies. Trial eligibility criteria may inadvertently select for incident versus prevalent cases or patients with relatively mild versus more severe disease. Read More

    Nutrient sensing in pancreatic islets: lessons from congenital hyperinsulinism and monogenic diabetes.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Pancreatic beta cells sense changes in nutrients during the cycles of fasting and feeding and release insulin accordingly to maintain glucose homeostasis. Abnormal beta cell nutrient sensing resulting from gene mutations leads to hypoglycemia or diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in beta cell glucose sensing. Read More

    Osteocalcin and osteopontin influence bone morphology and mechanical properties.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.
    Osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN) are major non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) involved in bone matrix organization and deposition. In spite of this, it is currently unknown whether OC and OPN alter bone morphology and consequently affect bone fracture resistance. The goal of this study is to establish the role of OC and OPN in the determination of cortical bone size, shape, and mechanical properties. Read More

    Adolescent pregnancy and nutrition: a subgroup analysis from the Mamachiponde study in Malawi.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.
    Young age at childbearing (≤19 years) is common and associated with poor birth outcomes. A trial among Malawian pregnant women with moderate malnutrition was used to determine outcomes of young adolescents (≤18 years), older adolescents (18-20 years), and adults (>20 years). Women received one of three supplementary foods that provided ∼900 kcal/day and 33-36 g protein/day and returned every 2 weeks. Read More

    Disordered eating and obesity: associations between binge-eating disorder, night-eating syndrome, and weight-related comorbidities.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Binge-eating disorder (BED) and night-eating syndrome (NES) are two forms of disordered eating associated with overweight and obesity. While these disorders also occur in nonobese persons, they seem to be associated with weight gain over time and higher risk of diabetes and other metabolic dysfunction. BED and NES are also associated with higher risk of psychopathology, including mood, anxiety, and sleep problems, than those of similar weight status without disordered eating. Read More

    Complexity of intravenous iron nanoparticle formulations: implications for bioequivalence evaluation.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 13;1407(1):17-25. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Intravenous iron formulations are a class of complex drugs that are commonly used to treat a wide variety of disease states associated with iron deficiency and anemia. Venofer® (iron-sucrose) is one of the most frequently used formulations, with more than 90% of dialysis patients in the United States receiving this formulation. Emerging data from global markets outside the United States, where many iron-sucrose similars or copies are available, have shown that these formulations may have safety and efficacy profiles that differ from the reference listed drug. Read More

    Postaxial limb hypoplasia (PALH): the classification, clinical features, and related developmental biology.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 9. Epub 2017 Oct 9.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.
    Postaxial limb hypoplasia (PALH) is a group of nonhereditary diseases with congenital lower limb deficiency affecting the fibular ray, including fibular hemimelia, proximal femoral focal deficiency, and tarsal coalition. The etiology and the developmental biology of the anomaly are still not fully understood. Here, we review the previous classification systems, present the clinical features, and discuss the developmental biology of PALH. Read More

    Pitfalls in using fluorescence tagging of nanomaterials: tecto-dendrimers in skin tissue as investigated by Cluster-FLIM.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct;1405(1):202-214
    Institute of Experimental Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Targeted topical application promises high drug concentrations in the skin and low systemic adverse effects. To locate drugs and drug-delivery systems like nanocarriers, fluorescent dyes are commonly used as drug surrogates or nanocarrier labels in micrographs of tissue sections. Here, we investigate how labeling degree, concentration of fluorophore, and nanocarrier may affect the interpretation of these micrographs. Read More

    Host-microbiota interplay in mediating immune disorders.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
    To maintain health, the immune system must maintain a delicate balance between eliminating invading pathogens and avoiding immune disorders such as autoimmunity and allergies. The gut microbiota provide essential health benefits to the host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis. Dysbiosis, an alteration and imbalance of the gut microbiota, is associated with the development of several autoimmune diseases in both mice and humans. Read More

    Evolutionary ecology of telomeres: a review.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Telomere-induced selection could take place if telomere-associated disease risk shortens reproductive life span and differently reduces relative fitness among individuals. Some of these diseases first appear before reproductive senescence and could thus influence ongoing selection. We ask whether we can estimate the components of the breeder's equation for telomeres, in which the response to selection (R, by definition "evolution") is the product of ongoing selection (S) and heritability (h(2) ). Read More

    A unique subphenotype of myasthenia gravis.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Neurology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    While extraocular muscles (EOMs) are affected early in generalized myasthenia gravis (MG), and their treatment responsiveness is similar to nonocular muscles, we have identified an ophthalmoplegic (OP) subphenotype that remains resistant to treatment. This subphenotype of ophthalmoplegic MG (OP-MG) most commonly affects acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive cases with juvenile-onset MG and African genetic ancestry. However, a few OP-MG cases have been found with MuSK antibodies and triple-seronegative MG. Read More

    Strategies to retain properties of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Laboratory of Musculoskeletal Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively used for cell therapies and tissue engineering. The current MSC strategy requires a large quantity of cells for such applications, which can be achieved through cell expansion in culture. In the body, stem cell fate is largely determined by their microenvironment, known as the niche. Read More

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity at the neuromuscular junction in myasthenia gravis.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology and Physiology, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio.
    A number of studies in the past 20 years have shown that perturbation of activity of the nervous system leads to compensatory changes in synaptic strength that serve to return network activity to its original level. This response has been termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Despite the intense interest in homeostatic synaptic plasticity, little attention has been paid to its role in the prototypic synaptic disease, myasthenia gravis. Read More

    Team science and the physician-scientist in the age of grand health challenges.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Sep;1404(1):3-16
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    Despite remarkable advances in medical research, clinicians face daunting challenges from new diseases, variations in patient responses to interventions, and increasing numbers of people with chronic health problems. The gap between biomedical research and unmet clinical needs can be addressed by highly talented interdisciplinary investigators focused on translational bench-to-bedside medicine. The training of talented physician-scientists comfortable with forming and participating in multidisciplinary teams that address complex health problems is a top national priority. Read More

    Birth weight and prepubertal body size predict menarcheal age in India, Peru, and Vietnam.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Evidence on the associations of birth weight and prepubertal nutritional status with menarcheal age for low- and middle-income countries is limited. We investigated these relationships using the Young Lives younger cohort for 2001 Indian, Peruvian, and Vietnamese girls born in 2001-2002. Girls were followed at approximately ages 1, 5, 8, and 12 years. Read More

    Does phytoestrogen supplementation improve cognition in humans? A systematic review.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Sep;1403(1):150-163
    Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.
    Recent evidence indicates that resveratrol, a phytoestrogen, can improve cognitive function in postmenopausal women by enhancing cerebral vasodilator responsiveness. We examine the effects of phytoestrogen supplementation on cognition and compare resveratrol with other phytoestrogens. Databases were searched for reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing terms describing phytoestrogens together with terms relating to cognition. Read More

    Resveratrol and cancer treatment: updates.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Sep;1403(1):59-69
    Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Cancer, a growing health problem worldwide, affects millions of people every year. The overall survival rates of most cancers have been prolonged owing to the efforts of clinicians and scientists. However, some tumors develop resistance to chemoradiotherapeutic agents, and the cancer research community continues to search for effective sensitizers. Read More

    Resveratrol and inflammatory bowel disease.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Sep;1403(1):38-47
    State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, P. R. China.
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, comprising ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Progression of IBD leads to long-term impairment of intestinal structure and function. The pathogenesis of IBD is complex, involving environmental, immunological, genetic, microbial, and psychological factors. Read More

    Diabetes-mediated myelopoiesis and the relationship to cardiovascular risk.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Aug;1402(1):31-42
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
    Diabetes is the greatest risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, which, in turn, is the most prevalent cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetics. These patients have elevations in inflammatory monocytes, a factor consistently reported to drive the development of atherosclerosis. In preclinical models of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, studies have demonstrated that the increased production and activation of monocytes is driven by enhanced myelopoiesis, promoted by factors, including hyperglycemia, impaired cholesterol efflux, and inflammasome activation, that affect the proliferation of bone marrow precursor cells. Read More

    Skeletal fragility in diabetes.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Aug;1402(1):18-30
    Metabolic Bone Disease Unit, Columbia University, New York, New York.
    Fracture risk is heightened in patients with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is decreased in T1D, it is paradoxically increased with T2D. To predict fracture risk, the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) can be used in diabetes patients, albeit with refinement. Read More

    Chronic kidney disease and vitamin D metabolism in human bone marrow-derived MSCs.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Aug;1402(1):43-55
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Vitamin D that is synthesized in the skin or is ingested undergoes sequential steps of metabolic activation via a cascade of cytochrome P450 enzymatic hydroxylations in the liver and kidney to produce 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1α,25(OH)2 D). There are many tissues that are able to synthesize 1α,25(OH)2 D, but the biological significance of extrarenal hydroxylases is unresolved. Human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (marrow stromal cells, hMSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, and their differentiation is stimulated by 1α,25(OH)2 D. Read More

    WHO standards for biotherapeutics, including biosimilars: an example of the evaluation of complex biological products.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Nov 14;1407(1):5-16. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    The Farthings, Kingston upon Thames, UK.
    The most advanced regulatory processes for complex biological products have been put in place in many countries to provide appropriate regulatory oversight of biotherapeutic products in general, and similar biotherapeutics in particular. This process is still ongoing and requires regular updates to national regulatory requirements in line with scientific developments and up-to-date standards. For this purpose, strong knowledge of and expertise in evaluating biotherapeutics in general and similar biotherapeutic products, also called biosimilars, in particular is essential. Read More

    Thiamine content of F-75 therapeutic milk for complicated severe acute malnutrition: time for a change?
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Sep 14;1404(1):20-26. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Pediatric Neurology Unit, Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Since community-based management of severe acute malnutrition has become the standard of care, the clinical profile of severe acutely malnourished patients admitted to hospitals or inpatient therapeutic feeding centers has changed significantly. These patients are usually very ill and often present with several comorbidities, such as shock, sepsis, and pneumonia. Complicated severe acute malnutrition patients are at risk of thiamine insufficiency, and critically ill patients have higher thiamine requirements. Read More

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