49,268 results match your criteria Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences[Journal]


Spaces of possibilities: a theoretical analysis of mentoring from a regulatory perspective.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Educational Sciences, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

A review of the literature on the effectiveness of mentoring reveals a paradox: on the one hand, there is evidence that mentoring can be highly effective. On the other hand, meta-analyses usually only show small to moderate effect sizes, and sometimes even negative effects. To better understand this mentoring paradox, we discuss three fundamental problems in mentoring research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14419DOI Listing

New developments in esophageal function testing and esophageal manifestations of connective tissue disorders.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jul 5. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

This work summarizes new and emerging metrics and tools in esophageal function testing and their potential clinical impact. Because the diagnostic sensitivity and reliability of conventional impedance-pH variables are suboptimal, several novel impedance parameters, such as the postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index and the mean nocturnal baseline impedance, as well as mucosal impedance, are entering a validation stage prior to general clinical use. The accurate diagnosis of behavioral disorders in patients with rumination syndrome and supragastric belching using ambulatory multiple intraluminal impedance-pH can lead directly to behavioral interventions in patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14424DOI Listing

The critically ill brain after cardiac arrest.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.

Cardiac arrest can cause hypoxic-anoxic ischemic brain injury due to signaling cascades that lead to damaged cell membranes and vital cellular organelles, resulting in cell death in the setting of low or no oxygen. Some brain areas are more prone to damage than others, so patients with hypoxic-anoxic ischemic brain injury present with several outcomes, including reduced level of consciousness or alertness, memory deficits, uncoordinated movements, and seizures. Some patients may have mild deficits, while others may have such severe injury that it can progress to brain death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14423DOI Listing

MicroRNA-mediated inflammation and coagulation effects in rats exposed to an inhaled analog of sulfur mustard.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Molecular and Translational Biomedicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Exposure of rats to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), an analog of sulfur mustard, can cause acute lung injury (ALI), resulting in increased inflammation and coagulation and altered levels of plasma microRNAs (miRNAs). Rats were exposed to aerosolized CEES and euthanized 12 h later for collection of tissue and plasma. Profiling of miRNAs in plasma, using a TaqMan-based RT-PCR array, revealed 14 differentially expressed miRNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14416DOI Listing

Expression of cannabinoid CB R-GPR55 heteromers in neuronal subtypes of the Macaca fascicularis striatum.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Neurosciences Division, Centre for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), the University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

The cannabinoid CB receptor (CB R) is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the central nervous system, consistent with the important role of endocannabinoids as neuromodulators. Cannabinoids also modulate the function of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), which forms heteroreceptor complexes with the CB R in the striatum. The aim was to characterize cannabinoid CB R-GPR55 heteromers (CB R/GPR55Hets) in the basal ganglia input nuclei of nonhuman primates, Macaca fascicularis, both in projection neurons and interneurons, by the in situ proximity ligation assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14413DOI Listing

Mucosal impedance for esophageal disease: evaluating the evidence.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Impedance has traditionally been employed in esophageal disease as a means to assess bolus flow and reflux episodes. Recent and ongoing research has provided new and novel applications for this technology. Measurement of esophageal mucosal impedance, via either multichannel intraluminal impedance catheters or specially designed endoscopically deployed impedance catheters, provides a marker of mucosal integrity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14414DOI Listing

Hyaluronan and halogen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and lung injury.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Molecular and Translational Biomedicine, the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, Alabama.

Chlorine (Cl ) and bromine (Br ) are produced in large quantities throughout the world and used in the industry and the sanitation of water. These halogens can pose a significant threat to public health when released into the atmosphere during transportation and industrial accidents, or as acts of terrorism. In this review, we discuss the evidence showing that the activity of Cl and Br , and of products formed by their interaction with biomolecules, fragment high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), a key component of the interstitial space and present in epithelial cells, to form proinflammatory, low-molecular-weight hyaluronan fragments that increase intracellular calcium (Ca ) and activate RAS homolog family member A (RhoA) in airway smooth muscle and epithelial and microvascular cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14415DOI Listing

How to approach esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction?

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Center of Excellence on Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The diagnosis of esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO) is currently based on high-resolution esophageal manometry and is characterized by impaired EGJ relaxation with preserved esophageal peristalsis. This condition has been defined by the Chicago Classification as a major esophageal motility disorder, although its clinical significance is controversial since heterogeneous and irrelevant presentations have been reported. EGJOO commonly has a benign clinical course, with spontaneous resolution, but it can also be associated with opioid usage, early achalasia, and mechanical obstruction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14412DOI Listing

E-cigarettes damage the liver and alter nutrient metabolism in pregnant mice and their offspring.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Approximately 15% of pregnant women vape electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), exposing the fetus to a range of toxic compounds, including nicotine and by-products of e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) pyrolysis. Owing to the recent emergence of these products, research mainly focuses on immediate users, and not on in utero exposure. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the impact of intrauterine e-cigarette vapor (e-vapor) exposure, with and without nicotine, on liver metabolic markers in the male offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14411DOI Listing

Impedance in the evaluation of the esophagus.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

GIOME, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

The aim of this paper is to review esophageal electrical impedance technologies and to discuss the use of these technologies for physiological measurements, diagnostics, and therapy of esophageal disease. In order to develop a better understanding of the pathophysiology of and improve the diagnosis of esophageal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and achalasia, several new diagnostic tests, including intraluminal impedance, esophageal mucosal impedance, and the functional luminal imaging probe, have been developed. These technologies have proven valuable for assessment of the esophagus in recent years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14408DOI Listing

The enigma of life: confronting marvels at the edges of science.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Einstein famously claimed that "the most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible." This statement suggests that no amount of scientific explanation will suffice to make sense of the bizarre situation of the human mind within the universe. So what are the actual roles of awe and wonder within the framework of contemporary science? How, for instance, do awe and wonder inform scientists' understanding of the phenomena they are researching? What aspects of contemporary science are more likely to elicit wonder, and why? Is science rechanneling our innate thirst for knowledge and understanding toward more concrete and palpable realities, or is it aggravating the tension between truth and meaning by revealing the scope of our ignorance when it comes to probing the ultimate nature of reality? Physicist Marcelo Gleiser, experimental psychologist Tania Lombrozo, and physician Gavin Francis analyze the impact of awe and wonder on their own work and on the mindsets of their colleagues carrying out leading-edge scientific research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14409DOI Listing

Unpacking wonder: from curiosity to comprehension.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

From the macrocosm of the universe to the microcosm of the human body, our discoveries about ourselves and the natural world continue to spark our experience of awe and wonder. But how exactly does science define and explain the experience of awe and wonder? Social psychologist Michelle Shiota, writer Caspar Henderson, and astrophysicist Alex Filippenko unpack the emerging science behind the emotions of awe and wonder, including their role in our ongoing quest for understanding and knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14317DOI Listing

Beyond oneself: the ethics and psychology of awe.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, California.

Awe and wonder appear to be powerful emotions that can inform and shape our attitudes toward ourselves and others, especially in relation to the larger meaning and purpose of our lives. What are the psychological underpinnings of these universal emotions? How does awe, for example, relate to self-knowledge, and more generally to understanding the enigmatic contradictions of human nature? Is it possible to cultivate and develop this emotion as an ethical incentive in our relationships with others? Are awe and wonder capable of awakening and engendering moral transformation? Does the emotion of awe lie at the root of the religious impulse in humans? and Is there any room left for a sense of the miraculous in today's increasingly scientific and secular world? Professor of religious studies Lisa Sideris joins psychologists Jennifer Stellar and Piercarlo Valdesolo to explore how awe shapes our perspectives and views on everything from science to morality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14323DOI Listing

Detection and analysis of enamel cracks by ICG-NIR fluorescence dental imaging.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Division of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Cracked teeth are the third most common cause of tooth loss, but there is no reliable imaging tool for the diagnosis of cracks. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of indocyanine green near-infrared fluorescence (ICG-NIRF) dental imaging for the detection of enamel cracks and enamel-dentin cracks in vitro in the first (ICG-NIRF-I, 700-950 nm) and second (ICG-NIRF-II, 950-1700 nm) imaging windows with transmission excitation light, and compared ICG-NIRF with conventional NIR illumination-II (NIRi-II) and X-ray imaging. Dentin cracks were detected by CT scan, while most enamel cracks, undetectable under X-ray imaging, were clearly visible in NIR images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14374DOI Listing

Advances in the development of gene therapy, noncoding RNA, and exosome-based treatments for tendinopathy.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York.

Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and tissue degeneration. Tendons have poor innate healing ability and there is currently no cure for tendinopathy. Studies elucidating mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of tendinopathy and mechanisms mediating the genesis of tendons during development have provided novel targets and strategies to enhance tendon healing and repair. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14382DOI Listing

Evolution is a double-edged sword, not a silver bullet, to confront global change.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 4;1469(1):38-51. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Although there is considerable optimism surrounding adaptive evolutionary responses to global change, relatively little attention has been paid to maladaptation in this context. In this review, we consider how global change might lead populations to become maladapted. We further consider how populations can evolve to new optima, fail to evolve and therefore remain maladapted, or become further maladapted through trait-driven or eco-evo-driven mechanisms after being displaced from their fitness optima. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14410DOI Listing

DNA methylation in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease: from gene to cognition.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Neuromodulation Laboratory, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, P. R. China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating disorder that manifests with amyloid beta plaque deposition, neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal loss, and severe cognitive impairment. Although much effort has been made to decipher the pathogenesis of this disease, the mechanisms causing these detrimental outcomes remain obscure. Over the past few decades, neuroepigenetics has emerged as an important field that, among other things, explores how reversible modifications can change gene expression to control behavior and cognitive abilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14373DOI Listing

A highly selective and sensitive fluorescence probe for a specific binding site on insect ryanodine receptors.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

There is a significant need to study the binding of active compounds to the specific sites on insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs) that are the targets of two novel classes of diamide insecticides to which insects are becoming increasingly resistant. Here, we describe a rapid assay to study the action of potential compounds on the flubendiamide (Flu) binding site of insect RyRs that uses a fluorescence polarization assay with the fluorescence probe Flu-R-L that we synthesized. The IC of Flu for inhibiting probe binding on insect RyR was 18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14362DOI Listing

LncRNA-ES3 inhibition by Bhlhe40 is involved in high glucose-induced calcification/senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Geriatrics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Institute of Aging and Age-Related Disease Research, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been investigated as novel regulatory molecules involved in diverse biological processes. Our previous study demonstrated that lncRNA-ES3 is associated with the high glucose-induced calcification/senescence of human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs). However, the mechanism of lncRNA-ES3 in vascular calcification/aging remained largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14381DOI Listing

Alternatives to amyloid for Alzheimer's disease therapies-a symposium report.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

For decades, Alzheimer's disease research has focused on amyloid as the primary pathogenic agent. This focus has driven the development of numerous amyloid-targeting therapies; however, with one possible exception, none of these therapies have been effective in preventing or delaying cognitive decline in patients, and there are no approved disease-modifying agents. It is becoming more apparent that alternative drug targets are needed to address this complex disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14371DOI Listing

Short-term caloric restriction induced bone loss in both axial and appendicular bones by increasing adiponectin.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Caloric restriction (CR) is well described and has received extensive attention for its multiple benefits, including longevity and stress resistance. However, some studies have shown that CR negatively influences bone, although a mechanism hasn't been provided. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, can affect bone metabolism by various pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14380DOI Listing

Relationships between objective sleep parameters and inflammatory biomarkers in pregnancy.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

We examined the relationships between sleep and inflammatory biomarkers during late pregnancy. Seventy-four women underwent an overnight sleep assessment by polysomnography. Blood samples were collected before bedtime and again within 1 h upon awakening to measure C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-6 soluble receptor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14375DOI Listing

Glial evolution as a determinant of human behavior and its disorders.

Authors:
Steven A Goldman

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.

Astroglial complexity and pleomorphism have increased significantly with hominid evolution. This suggests a potential association between glial evolution and the development of human cognition, as well as between glial evolution and the advent of human-selective neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14372DOI Listing

A multimodel evaluation of the water vapor budget in atmospheric rivers.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California.

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow regions of strong horizontal water vapor transport that play important roles in the global water cycle, weather, and hydrology. Motivated by challenges in simulating ARs with state-of-the-art global models, this paper diagnoses model errors with a focus on relative contributions of moisture convergence, evaporation, and precipitation to AR column-integrated water vapor (IWV) budget. Using 20-year simulations by 24 global weather/climate models, budget terms are calculated for four AR sectors: postfrontal, frontal, prefrontal, and pre-AR, with biases assessed against two reanalysis products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14368DOI Listing

Macrophage targeting in cancer.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Tumorigenesis is not only determined by the intrinsic properties of cancer cells but also by their interactions with components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most abundant immune cells in the TME. During initial stages of tumor development, macrophages can either directly promote antitumor responses by killing tumor cells or indirectly recruit and activate other immune cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14377DOI Listing

Changes in South American hydroclimate under projected Amazonian deforestation.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Non-Linear Physics Group, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.

Continued deforestation in the Amazon forest can alter the subsurface/surface and atmospheric branches of the hydrologic cycle. The sign and magnitude of these changes depend on the complex interactions between the water, energy, and momentum budgets. To understand these changes, we use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model with improved representation of groundwater dynamics and the added feature of Amazonian moisture tracers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14364DOI Listing
May 2020
4.313 Impact Factor

Positron emission tomography evaluation of oxime countermeasures in live rats using the tracer O-(2-[ F]fluoroethyl)-O-(p-nitrophenyl)methylphosphonate [ F]-VXS.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana.

Oxime antidotes regenerate organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Although they share a common mechanism of AChE reactivation, the rate and amount of oxime that enters the brain are critical to the efficacy, a process linked to the oxime structure and charge. Using a platform based on the organophosphate [ F]-VXS as a positron emission tomography tracer for active AChE, the in vivo distribution of [ F]-VXS was evaluated after an LD dose (250 μg/kg) of the organophosphate paraoxon (POX) and following oximes as antidotes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14363DOI Listing

Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux: an update on current and emerging modalities.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition characterized by troublesome symptoms or esophageal mucosal lesions attributed to excessive esophageal acid exposure. Various pathophysiological mechanisms account for GERD, including impaired esophageal peristalsis and anatomical or physiological defects at the esophagogastric junction (EGJ). Endoscopy identifies GERD complications and detects potential alternative diagnoses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14369DOI Listing

Tissue stiffness contributes to YAP activation in bladder cancer patients undergoing transurethral resection.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Urology & Nephrology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Changes in the cellular microenvironment play a critical role in the development of bladder cancer (BC). Yes-associated protein (YAP), a central mediator of the Hippo pathway, functions as a nuclear sensor of mechanotransduction that can be induced by stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including stiffness resulting from surgical manipulations. We aimed to clarify the possible association between surgically-related ECM stiffness and YAP activation in BC patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14358DOI Listing

Acute cytotoxicity and increased vascular endothelial growth factor after in vitro nitrogen mustard vapor exposure.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Pulmonology Section, Pediatric Airway Research Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado.

Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a highly toxic alkylating agent. Inhalation exposure can cause acute and chronic lung injury. This study's aims were to develop an in vitro coculture model of mustard-induced airway injury and to identify growth factors contributing to airway pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14367DOI Listing

Biodiversity conservation through the lens of metacommunity ecology.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Jun 14;1469(1):86-104. Epub 2020 May 14.

German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Germany.

Metacommunity ecology combines local (e.g., environmental filtering and biotic interactions) and regional (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14378DOI Listing

Characteristics and trends of flash droughts in Spain, 1961-2018.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza, Spain.

Flash droughts are characterized by rapid onset and intensification, as well as major environmental and agricultural impacts. In this study, we developed an objective method for identifying flash droughts using the standardized evaporation precipitation index (SPEI) based on a short time scale (1-month) and high-frequency data (weekly). The identification of flash droughts was focused on the development phase, anomalous decreases in index values in a short time period (4 weeks), and the magnitude of the events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14365DOI Listing

Proximal reflux: biochemical mediators, markers, therapeutic targets, and clinical correlations.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Otolaryngology & Communication Sciences, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Airway reflux is implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of adult and pediatric upper and lower airway diseases. However, the diagnosis of proximal reflux-associated disease remains challenging due to evolving clinical criteria and institutional and regional variances in diagnostic practices. Evidence suggests that nonacidic contents of reflux may serve as both pathologic mediators of and biomarkers for reflux in the upper airway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14366DOI Listing

Designer drugs: a medicinal chemistry perspective (II).

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Center for Drug Discovery, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

During 2012-2018, the clandestine manufacture of new psychoactive substances (NPS) designed to circumvent substance control regulations increased exponentially worldwide, with concomitant increase in fatalities. This review focuses on three compound classes identified as synthetic opioids, synthetic amphetamines, and synthetic cannabinoids and highlights the medicinal chemistry precedents utilized by clandestine laboratories to develop new NPS with increased brain penetration, longer duration of action, and greater potency. Chemical approaches to illicit drug abuse treatment options, particularly for opioid use disorder, are also discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14349DOI Listing
May 2020
4.313 Impact Factor

The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic and challenges in stroke care in India.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India.

Stroke care in India has evolved rapidly in the last decade with a focus on stroke awareness, prevention, rapid triage, treatment, and rehabilitation. But acute stroke care and poststroke rehabilitation in the country have limitations owing to the economic constraints and poor access to health care. The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has made stroke care even more challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273096PMC

Exploring food security and nutrition among young women in the formally regulated garment sector of Myanmar.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 12;1468(1):35-54. Epub 2020 May 12.

School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

Malnutrition can adversely influence women's overall health and development and that of their children. In the Yangon region of Myanmar, young women aged 15-19 years can be excessively thin, overweight, or anemic. A significant proportion of these young women working within the formal sector are employed in the garment industry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14370DOI Listing

Projected changes in flooding: a continental U.S. perspective.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Our study focuses on the projected changes in annual and seasonal maximum daily runoff (used as a proxy for flooding) across the continental United States based on outputs from eight global climate models (GCMs) from the Sixth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Analyses performed at the regional scale indicate that the GCMs are generally able to reproduce the observed changes in runoff extremes, especially at the seasonal scale, with no single model that outperforms the others across the different seasons and regions. Overall, annual maximum daily runoff is projected to increase during the 21st century, especially in large areas of the southeastern United States and Pacific Northwest, and to decrease in the Rocky Mountains and the northern Great Plains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14359DOI Listing
May 2020
4.313 Impact Factor

Intensification of the global water cycle and evidence from ocean salinity: a synthesis review.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

The ocean plays a dominant role in the global water cycle. It is the center of action for global evaporation and precipitation and supplies the moisture that falls as continental precipitation. It also acts to some extent as nature's rain gauge, as it tells us about the long-term changes in the global water cycle through monitoring of the changes in ocean surface salinity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14354DOI Listing

Atmospheric heat and moisture transport to energy- and water-limited ecosystems.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Hydro-Climate Extremes Lab, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The land biosphere is a crucial component of the Earth system that interacts with the atmosphere in a complex manner through manifold feedback processes. These relationships are bidirectional, as climate affects our terrestrial ecosystems, which, in turn, influence climate. Great progress has been made in understanding the local interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and climate, but influences from remote regions through energy and water influxes to downwind ecosystems remain less explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14357DOI Listing

Antidotal effects of methylene blue against cyanide neurological toxicity: in vivo and in vitro studies.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Center for Translational Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The aim of the present study was to determine whether methylene blue (MB) could directly oppose the neurological toxicity of a lethal cyanide (CN) intoxication. KCN, infused at the rate of 0.375 mg/kg/min intravenously, produced 100% lethality within 15 min in unanaesthetized rats (n = 12). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14353DOI Listing

Is the prevalence of anemia in children living at high altitudes real? An observational study in Peru.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Anemia diagnosis in populations residing at high altitude (HA) involves an adjustment of hemoglobin (Hb) values owing to the increase in its concentration with altitude. The suitability of the adjustment has been questioned since Hb concentrations depend on how adapted a population is to HA. In Peru, anemia in preschool children (PSC) is a matter of severe public concern for its high rates; in the city of Puno (∼3800 MASL), for example, 67. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14356DOI Listing

Gait training for adults with cerebral palsy following harmonic modification in rhythmic auditory stimulation.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department and Research Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate the differences in gait outcomes of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) following rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) with different types of cueing. A total of 13 ambulatory adults with CP were recruited. The participants were assigned to receive either RAS with simple chords or RAS with complex chords. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14306DOI Listing

The spatial-numerical association of response codes effect and math skills: why related?

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Evidence from multiple studies conducted in the past few decades converges on the conclusion that numerical properties can be associated with specific directions in space. Such spatial-numerical associations (SNAs), as a signature of elementary number processing, seem to be a likely correlate of math skills. Nevertheless, almost three decades of research on the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect, the hallmark of SNAs, has not provided conclusive results on whether there is a relation with math skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14355DOI Listing

Cutaneous lewisite exposure causes acute lung injury.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 24. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Lewisite is a strong vesicating and chemical warfare agent. Because of the rapid transdermal absorption, cutaneous exposure to lewisite can also elicit severe systemic injury. Lewisite (2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14346DOI Listing

Central neuroprotection demonstrated by novel oxime countermeasures to nerve agent surrogates.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi.

Oximes remain a long-standing element of the therapy for nerve agents, organophosphates (OPs) that poison by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in hypercholinergic activity both centrally and peripherally. Oximes, such as the pyridinium oxime pralidoxime (2-PAM) in the United States, can reactivate the inhibited AChE and restore cholinergic function. However, there are several drawbacks to the current oximes; one of them, the inability of these oximes to effectively enter the brain, is the subject of study by several laboratories, including ours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14352DOI Listing

About the interplay between internal and external spatial codes in the mind: implications for serial order.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Previous studies have shown that serial order in verbal working memory is spontaneously coded along the horizontal axis (i.e., the spatial positional association response codes (SPoARC) effect), with the initial items being associated with left and the last items being associated with right. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14341DOI Listing

Methylene blue and monosodium glutamate improve neurologic signs after fluoroacetate poisoning.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

Fluoroacetate (FA) is a tasteless, odorless, water-soluble metabolic poison with severe toxicological effects. Characterized in the mid-1900s, it has been used as a rodenticide but is comparably lethal to all mammals. Many countries have restricted its use, and modern-day accidental human exposures are rare, but recently, concerns have been raised about its application as a chemical weapon with no known antidote. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14347DOI Listing
April 2020
4.313 Impact Factor

Clinical course of gastroesophageal reflux disease and impact of treatment in symptomatic young patients.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 8. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine and VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington.

In symptomatic young patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, early identification of progressive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is critical to prevent long-term complications associated with hiatal hernia, increased esophageal acid and nonacid exposure, release of proinflammatory cytokines, and development of intestinal metaplasia, endoscopically visible Barrett's esophagus, and dysplasia leading to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Progression of GERD may occur in asymptomatic patients and in those under continuous acid-suppressive medication. The long-term side effects of proton-pump inhibitors, chemopreventive agents, and radiofrequency ablation are contentious. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14350DOI Listing

Hemispheric specialization in spatial versus ordinal processing in the day-old domestic chick (Gallus gallus).

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 8. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Different species show an intriguing similarity in representing numerosity in space, starting from left to right. This bias has been attributed to a right hemisphere dominance in processing spatial information. Here, to disentangle the role of each hemisphere in dealing with spatial versus ordinal-numerical information, we tested domestic chicks during monocular versus binocular vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14345DOI Listing

Advances in understanding large-scale responses of the water cycle to climate change.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 Apr 4. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

L'Institut des Géosciences de l'Environnement/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, L'Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.

Globally, thermodynamics explains an increase in atmospheric water vapor with warming of around 7%/°C near to the surface. In contrast, global precipitation and evaporation are constrained by the Earth's energy balance to increase at ∼2-3%/°C. However, this rate of increase is suppressed by rapid atmospheric adjustments in response to greenhouse gases and absorbing aerosols that directly alter the atmospheric energy budget. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14337DOI Listing