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    2935 results match your criteria Annals of epidemiology[Journal]

    1 OF 59

    Validation: a critical step in bringing biomarkers to clinical fruition.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.
    Screening is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer. A primary cause of poor survival is that many cancers are detected late and often after they have metastasized to distant sites. Therapies, therefore, become challenging for late-stage disease and are not successful for nearly all cancer types. Read More

    Measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) community viral load and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    Purpose: To evaluate the measures of community human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL) and the association with HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID).

    Methods: Data were from 1986 to 1999 Urban Health Study conducted among PWID in the San Francisco Bay Area. Extant measures of community VL use mean VL among HIV + study participants, not accounting for the proportion of HIV- individuals. Read More

    Periconceptional maternal fever, folic acid intake, and the risk for neural tube defects.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, MA; Department of Epidemiology, Boston University, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: Previous studies have shown an association between maternal fever in early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to reduce the risk of these outcomes.

    Methods: Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1998-2015), we examined the impact of folic acid on the relationship between maternal fever in the periconceptional period (28 days before and after the last menstrual period) and NTDs. Read More

    Delayed presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer in African women: a systematic review.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 22;27(10):659-671.e7. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Purpose: Africa has low breast cancer incidence rates but high mortality rates from this disease due to poor survival. Delays in presentation and diagnosis are major determinants of breast cancer survival, but these have not been comprehensively investigated in Africa.

    Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health were searched to identify studies reporting on delays in presentation and/or diagnosis of breast cancer published between January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2016. Read More

    Risk factors for unintentional occupational injury among urban transit bus drivers: a cohort longitudinal study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 28. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Texas A&M Transportation Institute, Human Factors Program, College Station, TX.
    Purpose: Although many studies have focused on bus operators' occupational diseases, work-related injury and associated risk factor data are limited. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate unintentional injury and exposures that may affect injury risk among metropolitan bus operators.

    Methods: Demographic, work-related, and injury data obtained from a metropolitan transit company for a 5-year period, enabled estimates of rates per 100 full time equivalents (FTEs) and adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using Generalized Estimating Equations and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Read More

    Widespread recent increases in county-level heart disease mortality across age groups.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 28. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. Read More

    Perinatal weight and risk of prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Division of Women's Health, Department of Medicine, Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Departments of Environmental Health and Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: Prepregnancy obesity and weight changes accompanying pregnancy (gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention) may be associated with risk of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and in the postpartum. The few studies that have examined these relationships report conflicting findings.

    Methods: We studied pregnant (n = 2112) and postpartum (n = 1686) women enrolled in Project Viva. Read More

    Smoking and subsequent human papillomavirus infection: a mediation analysis.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.
    Purpose: Smoking is an established risk factor for a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection advancing to cervical precancer and cancer, but its role earlier in the natural history is less clear. Smoking is inversely associated with possessing HPV antibodies from a past infection suggesting that smoking may influence acquiring subsequent infections.

    Methods: In a cohort of 1976 U. Read More

    Impact of weekend admission on in-hospital mortality among U.S. adults, 2003-2013.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Over the past decade, the media, politicians, practitioners, and researchers paid increasing attention to the risks involved in hospital admission at weekends. This study examined the impact of weekend admission on in-hospital mortality among U.S. Read More

    Trajectories of maternal leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behavior during adolescence to young adulthood and offspring birthweight.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Purpose: The objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which trajectories of maternal preconception leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB) during adolescence and young adulthood are associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and to test if these associations differ by offspring sex or maternal pre-pregnancy overweight-obese status.

    Methods: Participants with one or more birth (n = 1408) were identified from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to characterize trajectories of LTPA (frequency/week) and LTSB (hours/week) which were measured, on average, over 7 years between age 15 and 22 years. Read More

    Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV).

    Methods: In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Read More

    Heart rate variability and lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 3;27(10):619-625.e2. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the heart rate variability (HRV)-related lifetime cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.

    Methods: We followed 9744 participants without baseline CVD and used a life-table approach to estimate lifetime CVD risk (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) from 45 through 85 years according to several HRV measures (the SD of RR intervals [SDNN], the root mean square of successive differences of successive RR intervals, the mean of all normal RR intervals [meanNN], low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] power, and the LF/HF ratio).

    Results: During 192,110 person-years of follow-up, we documented 2856 CVD events. Read More

    Interpregnancy weight change and adverse maternal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 21;27(10):632-637.e5. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Examine associations between interpregnancy body mass index (BMI) change (difference in the pre-pregnancy BMIs of two consecutive pregnancies) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia (PE), gestational hypertension (GHtn), primary cesarean delivery, and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC).

    Methods: Modified Poisson regression models estimated adjusted associations.

    Results: Every 1-unit increase in interpregnancy BMI increased risks of GDM (relative risk [RR]: 1. Read More

    Summary measures of agreement and association between many raters' ordinal classifications.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 22;27(10):677-685.e4. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: Interpretation of screening tests such as mammograms usually require a radiologist's subjective visual assessment of images, often resulting in substantial discrepancies between radiologists' classifications of subjects' test results. In clinical screening studies to assess the strength of agreement between experts, multiple raters are often recruited to assess subjects' test results using an ordinal classification scale. However, using traditional measures of agreement in some studies is challenging because of the presence of many raters, the use of an ordinal classification scale, and unbalanced data. Read More

    Faulty BRCA1, BRCA2 genes: how poor is the prognosis?
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 20;27(10):672-676. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Laboratoire de Statistique Théorique et Appliquée, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    We take a critical look at the meaning behind the number 87% given to 25-year-old Sophie, a BRCA1 and BRCA2 carrier. Sophie has been told she has an 87% chance of getting breast cancer. She is contemplating a preventive double mastectomy after genetic counseling and her physician's advice. Read More

    Risk comparison for prenatal use of analgesics and selected birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study 1997-2011.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 20;27(10):645-653.e2. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: To compare the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or opioids to the use of acetaminophen without NSAIDs or opioids with respect to associations with birth defects.

    Methods: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011). Exposure was self-reported maternal analgesic use from the month before through the third month of pregnancy (periconceptional). Read More

    Stakeholder perceptions of lowering the blood alcohol concentration standard in the United States.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Purpose: This study sought to better understand the past change in the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) standard from 0.10% to 0.08% in the United States, as well as explore stakeholder perceptions about potential health and other impacts of further lowering the standard below 0. Read More

    Sex differences in the association between perceived stress and adiposity in a nationally representative sample.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 21;27(10):626-631. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York NY.
    Purpose: Prior studies examining the association between perceived stress and adiposity have reported mixed findings, and sex differences have largely not been examined.

    Methods: We examined the relationship between perceived stress and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants (mean age 29 years; N = 14,044) completed the short form of Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale during a home visit. Read More

    The association between gestational weight gain and risk of stillbirth: a population-based cohort study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 21;27(10):638-644.e1. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.
    Purpose: To estimate the risk of stillbirth associated with excessive and inadequate weight gain during pregnancy.

    Methods: Retrospective cohort study using the Texas vital records database between 2006 and 2011, with 2,230,310 births (5502 stillbirths) was included for analysis. Pregnancies were categorized as adequate weight gain, excessive weight gain, inadequate weight gain, or weight loss based on the Institute of Medicine 2009 recommendations. Read More

    Absence of an anticipated racial disparity in interval breast cancer within a large health care organization.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 20;27(10):654-658. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Convergence CT, North America.
    Purpose: Compared to non-Latina (nL) white women, nL black women are diagnosed with more aggressive breast cancers, which in turn should be more likely to go undetected on screening mammography and subsequently arise as interval breast cancer (IBC). We sought to estimate the extent of an anticipated racial disparity in IBC within a single, large health care organization.

    Methods: The present analysis focuses on 4357 breast cancers diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 and within 18 months of a screening mammogram (N = 714,218). Read More

    Mortality under plausible interventions on antiretroviral treatment and depression in HIV-infected women: an application of the parametric g-formula.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 5. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill.
    Purpose: Among HIV-infected persons, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and depression are strongly associated with mortality. We estimated reductions in 5-year mortality in Women's Interagency HIV Study participants under plausible hypothetical increases in ART initiation and reductions in depression (CES-D score≥16).

    Methods: We followed 885 ART-naïve Women's Interagency HIV Study participants for 5 years from their first study visit after April 1998 to death or censoring. Read More

    Sex differences in the impact of acute stroke treatment in a population-based study: a sex-specific propensity score approach.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Aug 13;27(8):493-498.e2. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor.
    Purpose: We investigated whether sex modifies the association of acute stroke treatment on functional outcome using propensity score (PS) methods to minimize confounding and to explore the differential effects of confounders by sex.

    Methods: We included tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treated (n = 84) and nontreated ischemic stroke cases (n = 143) from a population-based stroke study (2008-2013). The PS model that estimated the probability of receiving tPA included interactions between sex and treatment predictors. Read More

    Marginal structural model to evaluate the joint effect of socioeconomic exposures on the risk of developing end-stage renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes: a longitudinal study based on data from the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Study Group.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Aug 13;27(8):479-484. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Statistics, USBE, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Purpose: Diabetic nephropathy is a severe complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D) that may lead to renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) demanding dialysis and transplantation. The etiology of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial and both genes and environmental and life style-related factors are involved. In this study, we investigate the effect of the socioeconomic exposures, unemployment and receiving income support, on the development of ESRD in T1D patients, using a marginal structural model (MSM) in comparison with standard logistic regression models. Read More

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 15;27(9):575-582.e3. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Center for Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology, University of Michigan, School of Public Health, Ann Arbor. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), multiple episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC; vaginal yeast infection) within a 12-month period, adversely affects quality of life, mental health, and sexual activity. Diagnosis is not straightforward, as VVC is defined by the combination of often nonspecific vaginal symptoms and the presence of yeast-which is a common vaginal commensal. Estimating the incidence and prevalence is challenging: most VVC is diagnosed and treated empirically, the availability for purchase of effective therapies over the counter enables self-diagnosis and treatment, and the duration of the relatively benign VVC symptoms is short, introducing errors into any estimates relying on medical records or patient recall. Read More

    Does the association between early life growth and later obesity differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status? A systematic review.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 24;27(9):583-592.e5. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Rapid growth during infancy predicts higher risk of obesity later in childhood. The association between patterns of early life growth and later obesity may differ by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status (SES), but prior evidence syntheses do not consider vulnerable subpopulations.

    Methods: We systemically reviewed published studies that explored patterns of early life growth (0-24 months of age) as predictors of later obesity (>24 months) that were either conducted in racial/ethnic minority or low-SES study populations or assessed effect modification of this association by race/ethnicity or SES. Read More

    Rural counties chlamydia and gonorrhea rates in Pennsylvania among adolescents and young adults.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 24;27(9):606-610.e2. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park.
    Background: American adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15 and 24 account for 50% of all sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) annually. Rural populations in this age group are often understudied, despite having factors that place them at higher risk for STDs.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of time series analysis in the assessment of rural Pennsylvania county-level chlamydia and gonorrhea rates overtime (2004-2014) for 15- to 19- and 20- to 24-year-old age groups by gender. Read More

    Factors affecting workforce participation and healthy worker biases in U.S. women and men.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 25;27(9):558-562.e2. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: To investigate potential attenuation of healthy worker biases in populations in which healthy women of reproductive age opt out of the workforce to provide childcare.

    Methods: We used 2013-2015 data from 120,928 U.S. Read More

    Opioid dosing trends over eight years among US Veterans with musculoskeletal disorders after returning from service in support of recent conflicts.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 24;27(9):563-569.e3. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN; Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis.
    Purpose: To examine long-term opioid dosing trends among Veterans with chronic pain.

    Methods: We identified 79,015 Veterans with musculoskeletal disorders who were dispensed greater than or equal to 1 opioid prescriptions between 2002 and 2009 after returning from recent conflicts. Opioid-dosing trends were examined using a generalized estimating equation while accounting for patient characteristics, temporal and geographic confounding. Read More

    Participation in a US community-based cardiovascular health study: investigating nonrandom selection effects related to employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 15;27(9):545-552.e2. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, Cincinnati, OH.
    Purpose: Participation in health studies may be inversely associated with employment and stress. We investigated whether employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving were related to participation in a longitudinal US community-based health study of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years.

    Methods: Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated for completion of the second stage (S2) of a two-stage enrollment process by employment (status, type), and stress (perceived stress, work-related stress, caregiving), adjusting for age, sex, race, region, income, and education. Read More

    Disparities in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates in the United States, 2009-2013.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 24;27(9):570-574. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Purpose: Although studies have examined overall temporal changes in gestational age-specific fetal mortality rates, there is little information on the current status of racial/ethnic differences. We hypothesize that differences exist between racial/ethnic groups across gestational age and that these differences are not equally distributed.

    Methods: Using the 2009-2013 data from US fetal death and live birth files for non-Hispanic white (NHW); non-Hispanic black (NHB); Hispanic; and American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) women, we conducted analyses to examine fetal mortality rates and estimate adjusted prevalence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Read More

    Season of birth and primary central nervous system tumors: a systematic review of the literature with critical appraisal of underlying mechanisms.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 24;27(9):593-602.e3. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Season of birth has been considered a proxy of seasonally varying exposures around perinatal period, potentially implicated in the etiology of several health outcomes, including malignancies.

    Methods: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we have systematically reviewed published literature on the association of birth seasonality with risk of central nervous system tumors in children and adults.

    Results: Seventeen eligible studies using various methodologies were identified, encompassing 20,523 cases. Read More

    Trends in employer postings for epidemiology jobs: an analysis of data from 2003 to 2016.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 12;27(9):553-557.e1. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Global and Community Health, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To analyze public health job posting data to help objectively inform epidemiology faculty and students about skills sought by employers.

    Methods: Raw data from database (January 2003-October 2016) was data-mined and analyzed (n = 25,308 job postings). Read More

    The development of a massive open online course during the 2014-15 Ebola virus disease epidemic.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 12;27(9):611-615. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: Timely training was urgently needed at the onset of the 2014 Ebola virus disease epidemic. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have grown in popularity, though little is known about their utility in time-sensitive situations, including infectious disease outbreaks.

    Methods: We created the first English language massive open online course on Ebola virus disease. Read More

    Cardiorespiratory fitness and future risk of pneumonia: a long-term prospective cohort study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Sep 12;27(9):603-605. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Central Finland Central Hospital, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Purpose: We aimed to assess the prospective association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with the risk of pneumonia.

    Methods: Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, was assessed using a respiratory gas exchange analyzer in 2244 middle-aged men in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease cohort. We corrected for within-person variability in CRF levels using data from repeat measurements taken several years apart. Read More

    Fetal death certificate data quality: a tale of two U.S. counties.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Aug 20;27(8):466-471.e2. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: Describe the relative frequency and joint effect of missing and misreported fetal death certificate (FDC) data and identify variations by key characteristics.

    Methods: Stillbirths were prospectively identified during 2006-2008 for a multisite population-based case-control study. For this study, eligible mothers of stillbirths were not incarcerated residents of DeKalb County, Georgia, or Salt Lake County, Utah, aged ≥13 years, with an identifiable FDC. Read More

    Autism spectrum disorders and their treatment with psychotropic medications in a nationally representative outpatient sample: 1994-2009.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Jul 27;27(7):448-453.e1. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.
    Purpose: No prior studies have assessed change in health care provider-coded rates of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses over time, and few have investigated sociodemographic factors associated with having an ASD diagnosis, having behavioral conditions comorbid with ASD, or using psychotropic medications for this group.

    Methods: We used data from the 1994-2009 National (Hospital) Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys for children aged 2-18 years (n = 158,488).

    Results: Rates of visits with coded-ASD per 100 outpatient medical visits increased from 0. Read More

    Cardiorespiratory fitness and cancer incidence in men.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Jul 29;27(7):442-447. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Cardiology Division, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System/Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.
    Purpose: The preventive role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in cancer is not well established. The present study sought to evaluate the association between CRF and cancer incidence in men.

    Methods: Maximal exercise testing was performed in 4920 men (59. Read More

    Maternal childhood cardiometabolic risk factors and pregnancy complications.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Jul 29;27(7):429-434. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA.
    Purpose: The influence of childhood health on later-life health outcomes is increasingly hypothesized but rarely tested. We examined the relationship between cardiometabolic indicators in childhood and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes.

    Methods: Childhood measurements from 755 women in the Bogalusa Heart Study included body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose. Read More

    Does social selection explain the association between state-level racial animus and racial disparities in self-rated health in the United States?
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Aug 13;27(8):485-492.e6. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY.
    Purpose: Racism, whether defined at individual, interpersonal, or structural levels, is associated with poor health among Blacks. This association may arise because exposure to racism causes poor health, but geographic mobility patterns pose an alternative explanation-namely, Black individuals with better health and resources can move away from racist environments.

    Methods: We examine the evidence for selection effects using nationally representative, longitudinal data (1990-2009) from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics (n = 33,852). Read More

    Contribution of weight status to asthma prevalence racial disparities, 2-19 year olds, 1988-2014.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Aug 14;27(8):472-478.e3. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD; US Public Health Service, Rockville, MD.
    Purpose: Racial disparities in childhood asthma prevalence increased after the 1990s. Obesity, which also varies by race/ethnicity, is an asthma risk factor but its contribution to asthma prevalence disparities is unknown.

    Methods: We analyzed nationally representative National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey data for 2-19 year olds with logistic regression and decomposition analyses to assess the contributions of weight status to racial disparities in asthma prevalence, controlling for sex, age, and income status. Read More

    Maternal exposure to childhood maltreatment and risk of stillbirth.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Aug 13;27(8):459-465.e2. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: To determine the association between maternal exposure to childhood maltreatment (CM) and risk of stillbirth (fetal death at or after 20 weeks' gestation).

    Methods: Population-based case-control study from the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network (SCRN) conducted in 2006-2008, and the follow-up study, SCRN-Outcomes after Study Index Stillbirth (SCRN-OASIS), conducted in 2009 in the United States. Cases (n = 133) included women who experienced a stillbirth, excluding stillbirths attributed to genetic/structural or umbilical cord abnormalities and intrapartum stillbirths. Read More

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