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    2974 results match your criteria Annals of epidemiology[Journal]

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    Understanding epidemiologists who serve as preceptors.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Arlington, VA.
    Purpose: This study describes factors associated with epidemiologists from state health departments (HDs) who served as preceptors.

    Methods: We used the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, a national survey of state health agency workers, and selected those who identify their role in the organization as an epidemiologist and a state HD employee for analysis. Variables related to recruitment and retention were studied, and predictor variables were assessed. Read More

    Influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet quality in childhood on the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence: a population-based cohort study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 11;28(2):86-94. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Purpose: Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. Read More

    Geographic access to mammography facilities and frequency of mammography screening.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 7;28(2):65-71.e2. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison; Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    Purpose: To assess the association between geographic access to mammography facilities and women's mammography utilization frequency.

    Methods: Using data from the population-based 1995-2007 Wisconsin Women's Health study, we used proportional odds and logistic regression to test whether driving times to mammography facilities and the number of mammography facilities within 10 km of women's homes were associated with mammography frequency among women aged 50-74 years and whether associations differed between Rural-Urban Commuting Areas and income and education groups.

    Results: We found evidence for nonlinear relationships between geographic access and mammography utilization (nonlinear effects of driving times and facility density, P-values . Read More

    Using multilevel models to evaluate the influence of contextual factors on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections, and risky sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 5;28(2):119-134. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Epidemiology, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL.
    Purpose: To describe the use of multilevel models (MLMs) in evaluating the influence of contextual factors on HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and risky sexual behavior (RSB) in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Methods: Ten databases were searched through May 29, 2016. Two reviewers completed screening and full-text review. Read More

    Deconstructing a disparity: explaining excess preterm birth among U.S.-born black women.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, Chicago, IL.
    Purpose: To determine components of excess preterm birth (PTB) rates for U.S.-born black women relative to both foreign-born black women and U. Read More

    High neighborhood incarceration rate is associated with cardiometabolic disease in nonincarcerated black individuals.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To examine the association between residence in neighborhoods with high rates of incarceration and cardiometabolic disease among nonincarcerated individuals.

    Methods: We used data from two community cohort studies (n = 1368) in Atlanta, Georgia-META-Health and Predictive Health (2005-2012)-to assess the association between neighborhood incarceration rate and cardiometabolic disease, adjusting for individual-level and neighborhood-level factors. We also examined the interaction between race and neighborhood incarceration rate. Read More

    Rate of deficit accumulation in home care users with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.
    Purpose: To identify factors associated with the rate of deficit accumulation in a population of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD).

    Methods: A longitudinal analysis of administratively held clinical data collected at routine home care assessments across Ontario (Canada) using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) was conducted using a cohort comprised of 5074 adults with IDD 18-99 years of age who had at least two home care assessments between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2015. Rates of deficit accumulation were calculated across variables of interest. Read More

    The relationship between surrounding greenness in childhood and adolescence and depressive symptoms in adolescence and early adulthood.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: Exposure to nature, particularly vegetation (greenness), may be beneficial for mental health. We investigated whether higher surrounding greenness in early life was associated with subsequent reduced risk of depressive symptoms and whether this association was modified by age, sex, or population density.

    Methods: Participants from the Growing Up Today Study were included if they reported on depressive symptoms between 1999 and 2013. Read More

    Can we identify older people most vulnerable to living in cold homes during winter?
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 5;28(1):1-7.e3. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Centre for Academic Primary Care, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, UK.
    Purpose: Living in a cold home increases the risk of dying in winter, especially in older people. However, it is unclear which individual factors predict whether older people are living in cold homes.

    Methods: Thousand four hundred two men aged 74-95 years from a U. Read More

    A demographic, clinical, and behavioral typology of obesity in the United States: an analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Harvard Centre for Population and Development Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Public health reporting, randomized trials, and epidemiologic studies of obesity tend to consider it as a homogeneous entity. However, obesity may represent a heterogeneous condition according to demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors. We assessed the heterogeneity of individuals with obesity in the United States. Read More

    Racial differences in spatial patterns for poor glycemic control in the Southeastern United States.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Center for Patient Care and Outcomes Research (PCOR), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Evidence consistently shows poor outcomes in racial minorities, but there is limited understanding of differences that are explained by spatial variation. The goal of this analysis was to examine contribution of spatial patterns on disparities in diabetes outcomes in the Southeastern United States.

    Methods: Data on 64,022 non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) veterans with diabetes living in Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina were analyzed for 2014. Read More

    New approach for the identification of implausible values and outliers in longitudinal childhood anthropometric data.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Centre for Global Child Health and SickKids Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: We aimed to demonstrate the use of jackknife residuals to take advantage of the longitudinal nature of available growth data in assessing potential biologically implausible values and outliers.

    Methods: Artificial errors were induced in 5% of length, weight, and head circumference measurements, measured on 1211 participants from the Maternal Vitamin D for Infant Growth (MDIG) trial from birth to 24 months of age. Each child's sex- and age-standardized z-score or raw measurements were regressed as a function of age in child-specific models. Read More

    Ethnicity, length of residence, and prospective trends in body mass index in a national sample of Australian adults (2006-2014).
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Institute for Health & Ageing, Australian Catholic University (ACU), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Purpose: Increasing global migration, high obesity in developed countries, and ethnic health inequalities are compelling reasons to monitor immigrant obesity trends. Longitudinal studies of ethnicity, length of residence, and adiposity in contexts outside of the United States are lacking.

    Methods: Nine waves (2006-2014) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey were analyzed (n = 20,934; 52% women; 101,717 person-year observations) using random effects modeling to assess average annual change in body mass index (BMI) by ethnic group. Read More

    Excess mortality patterns during 1918-1921 influenza pandemic in the state of Arizona, USA.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA; Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Purpose: Our understanding of the temporal dynamics and age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918-1921 influenza pandemic remains scarce due to lack of detailed respiratory mortality datasets in the United States and abroad.

    Methods: We manually retrieved individual death records from Arizona during 1915-1921 and applied time series models to estimate the age specific mortality burden of the 1918-1921 influenza pandemic. We estimated influenza-related excess mortality rates and mortality rate ratio increase over baseline based on pneumonia and influenza (P&I), respiratory, tuberculosis and all-cause death categories. Read More

    We could learn much more from 1918 pandemic-the (mis)fortune of research relying on original death certificates.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Origem Scientifica, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Purpose: The analysis of historical death certificates has enormous potential for understanding how the health of populations was shaped by diseases and epidemics and by the implementation of specific interventions. In Brazil, the systematic archiving of mortality records was initiated only in 1944-hence the analysis of death registers before this time requires searching for these documents in public archives, notaries, parishes, and especially ancient cemeteries, which are often the only remaining source of information about these deaths. This article describes an effort to locate original death certificates in Brazil and document their organization, accessibility, and preservation. Read More

    Age-specific excess mortality patterns and transmissibility during the 1889-1890 influenza pandemic in Madrid, Spain.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA; Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Although the 1889-1890 influenza pandemic was one of the most important epidemic events of the 19th century, little is known about the mortality impact of this pandemic based on detailed respiratory mortality data sets.

    Methods: We estimated excess mortality rates for the 1889-1890 pandemic in Madrid from high-resolution respiratory and all-cause individual-level mortality data retrieved from the Gazeta de Madrid, the Official Bulletin of the Spanish government. We also generated estimates of the reproduction number from the early growth phase of the pandemic. Read More

    Race disparities in cardiovascular disease risk factors within socioeconomic status strata.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Health Policy and Management, George Washington University, Washington, DC.
    Purpose: Racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) explain some, but not all, of racial disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To address this, race disparities among higher SES individuals need to be assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether racial disparities in CVD risk factors differ by SES levels. Read More

    Influence of birth origin and risk factor profile on hepatitis B mortality: Philadelphia, PA 2003-2013.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 22. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Division of Disease Control, Philadelphia Department of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA.
    Purpose: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects specific subpopulations in the United States, including individuals born in HBV-endemic countries and persons engaging in high-risk behaviors.

    Methods: The 2003-2013 HBV registry data and surveillance investigations for Philadelphia, PA were matched to death certificate data to examine demographic, risk factor, and cause of death characteristics among HBV-infected populations. Bivariate analysis compared investigated foreign-born (FB) and US-born chronic HBV individuals. Read More

    No impact of surgery on cognitive function: a longitudinal study of middle-aged Danish twins.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 19;28(2):95-101.e1. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    The Unit of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, Danish Twin Registry, Danish Aging Research Center, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark; Max-Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of Aging, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark; Clinical Genetics, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark; Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark.
    Purpose: To examine the association between exposure to surgery and 10-year change in cognitive functioning.

    Methods: Among 2351 middle-aged twins, a 10-year change in composite cognitive scores derived from five cognitive tests was compared between 903 (38%) twins exposed to surgery classified as major, minor, knee and hip replacement, and other, and a reference group of 1448 (62%) twins without surgery, using linear regression models adjusted for socioeconomic factors. Genetic and shared environmental confounding was addressed in intrapair analyses of 48 monozygotic and 74 dizygotic same-sexed twin pairs. Read More

    Diabetes-related factors and abdominal aortic aneurysm events: the Atherosclerotic Risk in Communities Study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 16;28(2):102-106.e1. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that diabetes-related factors (metabolic syndrome [MetS], glucose, insulin, and leptin) are inversely associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) risk.

    Methods: We followed 13,736 participants, aged 45-64 years, without prior AAA surgery at baseline (1987-1989), for AAA occurrence through 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of AAA were calculated using Cox regression. Read More

    Maternal Zika virus infection and newborn microcephaly-an analysis of the epidemiological evidence.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 14;28(2):111-118. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin at Madison. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To evaluate whether existing data and evidence support a causal link between maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and newborn microcephaly.

    Methods: I quantified and compared the prevalence of all and severe microcephaly in Brazil, during and before 2015-2016, to assess whether an outbreak has occurred, used time series analysis to evaluate if the presumed outbreak was linked to a previous outbreak of ZIKV infections, and quantitatively synthesized published data from observational studies testing this association.

    Results: The prevalences of microcephaly in 2015-2016 were similar or lower than background levels (prevalence ratio [PR] for all microcephaly: 0. Read More

    Sexual orientation measurement and chronic disease disparities: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2014.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 8;28(2):72-85. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Public Health, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    Purpose: To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities.

    Methods: We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity.

    Results: Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3. Read More

    MultIethNic Study of BrEast ARterial Calcium Gradation and CardioVAscular Disease: cohort recruitment and baseline characteristics.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 5;28(1):41-47.e12. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA.
    Purpose: MultIethNic Study of BrEast ARterial Calcium Gradation and CardioVAscular Disease (MINERVA) was designed to answer the question of whether a novel continuous breast arterial calcification (BAC) mass score improves cardiovascular risk stratification among asymptomatic postmenopausal women. This article describes recruitment and baseline characteristics.

    Methods: MINERVA is a multiethnic longitudinal cohort study. Read More

    Fever in pregnancy and offspring head circumference.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 6;28(2):107-110. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, K, Denmark.
    Purpose: To examine whether maternal fever during pregnancy is associated with reduced head circumference and risk of microcephaly at birth.

    Methods: A prospective study of 86,980 live-born singletons within the Danish National Birth Cohort was carried out. Self-reported maternal fever exposure was ascertained in two interviews during pregnancy and information on head circumference at birth was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Read More

    Covariate balance for no confounding in the sufficient-cause model.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 23;28(1):48-53.e2. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Information Science, Faculty of Informatics, Okayama University of Science, Kita-ku, Okayama, Japan.
    Purpose: To show conditions of covariate balance for no confounding in the sufficient-cause model and discuss its relationship with exchangeability conditions.

    Methods: We consider the link between the sufficient-cause model and the counterfactual model, emphasizing that the target population plays a key role when discussing these conditions. Furthermore, we incorporate sufficient causes within the directed acyclic graph framework. Read More

    Relative rates not relative risks: addressing a widespread misinterpretation of hazard ratios.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 7;28(1):54-57. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, ON; Institute of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
    The use of the Cox proportional hazards model is ubiquitous in modern medical research. Despite the widespread implementation of this model, the terminology and interpretation that is used to describe the estimate hazard ratio (HR) has become loose and, unfortunately, often incorrect. Although some journals offer guidelines that advise against reporting HRs as relative risks, these guidelines are frequently overlooked. Read More

    County-level contextual factors associated with diabetes incidence in the United States.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 23;28(1):20-25.e2. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: Health and administrative systems are facing spatial clustering in chronic diseases such as diabetes. This study explores how geographic distribution of diabetes in the United States is associated with socioeconomic and built environment characteristics and health-relevant policies.

    Methods: We compiled nationally representative county-level data from multiple data sources. Read More

    Abraham Lilienfeld Award address: 2017 Annual Meeting of the American College of Epidemiology.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 29;28(1):61-62. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Science, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX.
    The address was delivered by Roberta B. Ness, MD MPH at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Epidemiology in New Orleans, Louisiana on September 26, 2017. Dr. Read More

    Low-grade systemic inflammation: a partial mediator of the relationship between diabetes and lung function.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 22;28(1):26-32. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Univ. Lille, U1167 - RID-AGE - Facteurs de risque et déterminants moléculaires des maladies liées au vieillissement, F-59000 Lille, France; Inserm, U1167, F-59000 Lille, France; CHU Lille, Service d'épidémiologie, F-59000 Lille, France; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:
    Purpose: An association has been consistently found between diabetes mellitus and decreased lung function. We evaluated to what extent low-grade inflammation (as measured by the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) could explain this relationship.

    Methods: A sample of 1878 middle-aged adults from the cross-sectional Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement survey without self-reported pulmonary and atherosclerosis disease was included. Read More

    Mediating effects of cancer risk factors on the association between race and cancer incidence: analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 23;28(1):33-40.e2. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Division of Preventive Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham.
    Purpose: Racial disparities exist in the prevalence of cancer-related risk factors and incidence of cancer. The objective of this study is to determine if cancer-related risk factors mediate the association between race and cancer incidence.

    Methods: We performed prospective analysis of data from the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, years 1995 through 2011. Read More

    Can the introduction of a full-service supermarket in a food desert improve residents' economic status and health?
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec;27(12):771-776
    RAND Corporation, Health Division, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Purpose: To estimate the impacts of a new supermarket in a low-income desert, on residents' economic status and health.

    Methods: We surveyed a randomly selected cohort in two low-income Pittsburgh neighborhoods before and about 1 year following the opening of a supermarket. We used difference-in-difference approach to test changes across the two neighborhoods in residents' food security, United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infant and Children participation, employment, income, and self-reported health/chronic disease diagnoses. Read More

    Building the pipeline: programs to introduce middle school, high school, medical, and veterinary students to careers in epidemiology and public health.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 13;27(11):752-755. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA.
    Purpose: This report describes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention programs that expose students to epidemiology and public health sciences (EPHS).

    Methods: The Science Ambassador workshop targets middle and high school teachers and promotes teaching EPHS in the classroom. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event is an extracurricular science competition for middle and high school students based on investigations of outbreaks and other public health problems. Read More

    Contextual effects and cancer outcomes in the United States: a systematic review of characteristics in multilevel analyses.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 16;27(11):739-748.e3. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
    Purpose: There is increasing call for the utilization of multilevel modeling to explore the relationship between place-based contextual effects and cancer outcomes in the United States. To gain a better understanding of how contextual factors are being considered, we performed a systematic review.

    Methods: We reviewed studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2016 and assessed the following attributes: (1) contextual considerations such as geographic scale and contextual factors used; (2) methods used to quantify contextual factors; and (3) cancer type and outcomes. Read More

    Examining racial disparities in colon cancer clinical delay in the Colon Cancer Patterns of Care in Chicago study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 13;27(11):731-738.e1. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois, Chicago; Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois, Chicago. Electronic address:
    Purpose: We explored a potential racial disparity in clinical delay among non-Hispanic (nH) Black and White colon cancer patients and examined factors that might account for the observed disparity.

    Methods: Patients aged 30-79 years with a newly diagnosed colon cancer from 2010 to 2014 (n = 386) were recruited from a diverse sample of nine public, private, and academic hospitals in and around Chicago. Prolonged clinical delay was defined as 60 days or more or 90 days or more between medical presentation (symptoms or a screen-detected lesion) and treatment initiation (surgery or chemotherapy). Read More

    Body mass index trajectories during infancy and pediatric obesity at 6 years.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 13;27(11):708-715.e1. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia.
    Purpose: The purpose of the article was to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) trajectories during infancy and risk of obesity at the age of 6 years.

    Methods: We used data on 1169 children with at least two BMI measures during their first year of life from the Infant Feeding Practices Survey II and its Year 6 Follow-Up. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of BMI, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of the identified trajectories with obesity at the age of 6 years. Read More

    Preterm delivery trends by maternal race/ethnicity in the United States, 2006-2012.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 14;27(11):689-694.e4. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
    Purpose: To estimate changes in preterm delivery (PTD) in the United States from 2006 to 2012 by clinical circumstance, timing of delivery, and race/ethnicity.

    Methods: We used vital statistics natality data on all singleton live births from the 18 U.S. Read More

    Validation: a critical step in bringing biomarkers to clinical fruition.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 9;28(2):135-138. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.
    Screening is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer. A primary cause of poor survival is that many cancers are detected late and often after they have metastasized to distant sites. Therapies, therefore, become challenging for late-stage disease and are not successful for nearly all cancer types. Read More

    Measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) community viral load and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs.
    Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jan 3;28(1):8-12. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    Purpose: To evaluate the measures of community human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load (VL) and the association with HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID).

    Methods: Data were from 1986 to 1999 Urban Health Study conducted among PWID in the San Francisco Bay Area. Extant measures of community VL use mean VL among HIV + study participants, not accounting for the proportion of HIV- individuals. Read More

    Periconceptional maternal fever, folic acid intake, and the risk for neural tube defects.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 2;27(12):777-782.e1. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, Boston, MA; Department of Epidemiology, Boston University, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: Previous studies have shown an association between maternal fever in early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to reduce the risk of these outcomes.

    Methods: Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1998-2015), we examined the impact of folic acid on the relationship between maternal fever in the periconceptional period (28 days before and after the last menstrual period) and NTDs. Read More

    Delayed presentation and diagnosis of breast cancer in African women: a systematic review.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 22;27(10):659-671.e7. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Purpose: Africa has low breast cancer incidence rates but high mortality rates from this disease due to poor survival. Delays in presentation and diagnosis are major determinants of breast cancer survival, but these have not been comprehensively investigated in Africa.

    Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health were searched to identify studies reporting on delays in presentation and/or diagnosis of breast cancer published between January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2016. Read More

    Risk factors for unintentional occupational injury among urban transit bus drivers: a cohort longitudinal study.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 28;27(12):763-770. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Texas A&M Transportation Institute, Human Factors Program, College Station, TX.
    Purpose: Although many studies have focused on bus operators' occupational diseases, work-related injury and associated risk factor data are limited. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate unintentional injury and exposures that may affect injury risk among metropolitan bus operators.

    Methods: Demographic, work-related, and injury data obtained from a metropolitan transit company for a 5-year period, enabled estimates of rates per 100 full time equivalents (FTEs) and adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using Generalized Estimating Equations and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Read More

    Widespread recent increases in county-level heart disease mortality across age groups.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 28;27(12):796-800. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: Recent national trends show decelerating declines in heart disease mortality, especially among younger adults. National trends may mask variation by geography and age. We examined recent county-level trends in heart disease mortality by age group. Read More

    Perinatal weight and risk of prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 16;27(11):695-700.e1. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Division of Women's Health, Department of Medicine, Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Departments of Environmental Health and Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: Prepregnancy obesity and weight changes accompanying pregnancy (gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention) may be associated with risk of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and in the postpartum. The few studies that have examined these relationships report conflicting findings.

    Methods: We studied pregnant (n = 2112) and postpartum (n = 1686) women enrolled in Project Viva. Read More

    Smoking and subsequent human papillomavirus infection: a mediation analysis.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Nov 17;27(11):724-730.e1. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.
    Purpose: Smoking is an established risk factor for a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection advancing to cervical precancer and cancer, but its role earlier in the natural history is less clear. Smoking is inversely associated with possessing HPV antibodies from a past infection suggesting that smoking may influence acquiring subsequent infections.

    Methods: In a cohort of 1976 U. Read More

    Impact of weekend admission on in-hospital mortality among U.S. adults, 2003-2013.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Dec 19;27(12):790-795. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Over the past decade, the media, politicians, practitioners, and researchers paid increasing attention to the risks involved in hospital admission at weekends. This study examined the impact of weekend admission on in-hospital mortality among U.S. Read More

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