3,025 results match your criteria Annals of epidemiology[Journal]


A scoping review of opioid misuse in the rural United States.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study is a scoping review of the original research literature onthe misuse of opioids in the rural United States (US) and maps theliterature of interest to address the question: What does theoriginal research evidence reveal about the misuse of opioids inrural US communities?

Methods: This study used a modified preferred reporting items for systematicreviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach which is organized byfive distinct elements or steps: beginning with a clearly formulatedquestion, using the question to develop clear inclusion criteria toidentify relevant studies, using an approach to appraise the studiesor a subset of the studies, summarizing the evidence using anexplicit methodology, and interpreting the findings of the review.

Results: The initial search yielded 119 peer reviewed articles and aftercoding, 41 papers met the inclusion criteria. Researcher generatedsurveys constituted the most frequent source of data. Read More

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Intimate partner violence in Madrid: a time series analysis (2008-2016).

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

National School of Public Health, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: This study analyzes whether there are time patterns in different intimate partner violence (IPV) indicators and aims to obtain models that can predict the behavior of these time series.

Methods: Univariate autoregressive moving average models were used to analyze the time series corresponding to the number of daily calls to the 016 telephone IPV helpline and the number of daily police reports filed in the Community of Madrid during the period 2008-2015. Predictions were made for both dependent variables for 2016. Read More

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Time-varying coefficient of determination to quantify the explanatory power of biomarkers on longitudinal GFR among children with chronic kidney disease.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: Coefficients of determination (R) for continuous longitudinal data are typically reported as time constant, if they are reported at all. The widely used mixed model with random intercepts and slopes yields the total outcome variance as a time-varying function. We propose a generalized and intuitive approach based on this variance function to estimate the time-varying predictive power (R) of a variable on outcome levels and changes. Read More

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May 2018
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Association between statin drug use and peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002: a cross-sectional study.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Department of Urology and the James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between statin drug use and peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in a U.S. nationally representative sample of adults. Read More

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Erratum.

Authors:

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun;28(6):420

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Children born to mothers in their 20s and fathers in their 40s: Evidence for an increased low birth weight and Cesarean Section deliveries in Lebanon.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 17;28(6):368-371. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Purpose: Much less is known about the effect of advanced paternal age (APA) (≥40 years) than advanced maternal age on neonatal morbidity. More specifically, the correlation with low birth weight remains inconsistent. This study aims to determine whether APA among mothers aged 20-29 years is associated with a higher risk of low birth weight and other neonatal outcomes. Read More

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Sample allocation balancing overall representativeness and stratum precision.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: In large-scale surveys, it is often necessary to distribute a preset sample size among a number of strata. Researchers must make a decision between prioritizing overall representativeness or precision of stratum estimates. Hence, I evaluated different sample allocation strategies based on stratum size. Read More

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Frailty and diabetes among Mexican American older adults.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 26;28(7):421-426.e1. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston.

Purpose: Progressive physical frailty in older adults is associated with increased risk of falls, disability, institutionalization, and mortality. Although associations between diabetes and frailty have been observed, the impact of diabetes on frailty in older Hispanics is largely unexplored. We examine the association of diabetes on the odds of frailty among older Mexican Americans. Read More

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Associations between history of chronic lung disease and non-small cell lung carcinoma in Maryland: variations by sex and race.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 7. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Marlene and Stuart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Purpose: Lung cancer is a multifactorial malignancy for which some risk factors, such as chronic lung diseases, their interactions with smoking, and how they differ by race and sex, are not fully understood. We investigated the associations between chronic inflammatory lung disease and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and how sex and race may affect such associations.

Methods: Using logistic regression, we analyzed 1660 lung cancer cases and 1959 population controls and estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Read More

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Rates of prevalent and new HIV diagnoses by race and ethnicity among men who have sex with men, U.S. states, 2013-2014.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr 30. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of new and existing HIV infections in the United States, with black and Hispanic MSM facing the highest rates. A lack of data on MSM population sizes has precluded the understanding of state-level variations in these rates.

Methods: Using a recently developed model for estimating state-level population sizes of MSM by race that synthesizes data from the American Community Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in conjunction with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based HIV diagnosis data, we estimated rates of living with an HIV diagnosis (2013) and new diagnosis among MSM (2014) by state and race. Read More

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Letter to the Editor: "Expanding epidemiology in secondary schools: a call to epidemiologists".

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Health and Fitness Division, Miami-Dade County Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces Department, Miami, FL, USA.

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The role of parental and perinatal characteristics on Langerhans cell histiocytosis: characterizing increased risk among Hispanics.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Purpose: Potential roles of inherited and environmental risk factors in pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), a myeloid neoplastic disorder, are undefined. We therefore evaluated the role of parental and perinatal factors on the risk of this childhood cancer.

Methods: Information on LCH cases (n = 162) for the period 1995-2011 was obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry. Read More

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Effect of traffic legislation on road traffic deaths in Ningbo, China.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Health Management, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Road safety is a major public health concern in China. However, the effectiveness of traffic laws in China is not known. We investigated the effect of traffic legislation on traffic deaths using data in Ningbo, China. Read More

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Socioeconomic status and access to care and the incidence of a heart failure diagnosis in the inpatient and outpatient settings.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 17;28(6):350-355. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill.

Purpose: Despite well-documented associations of socioeconomic status with incident heart failure (HF) hospitalization, little information exists on the relationship of socioeconomic status with HF diagnosed in the outpatient (OP) setting.

Methods: We used Poisson models to examine the association of area-level indicators of educational attainment, poverty, living situation, and density of primary care physicians with incident HF diagnosed in the inpatient (IP) and OP settings among a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries (n = 109,756; 2001-2013).

Results: The age-standardized rate of HF incidence was 35. Read More

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Rural-metropolitan disparities in ovarian cancer survival: a statewide population-based study.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 12;28(6):377-384. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Cancer Control and Population Science, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT; Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate rural-metropolitan disparities in ovarian cancer survival, we assessed ovarian cancer mortality and differences in prognostic factors by rural-metropolitan residence.

Methods: The Utah Population Database was used to identify ovarian cancer cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2012. Residential location information at the time of cancer diagnosis was used to stratify rural-metropolitan residence. Read More

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Sex differences in fitness outcomes among minority youth after participation in a park-based after-school program.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 12;28(7):432-439. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.

Purpose: This study aimed to describe sex differences in fitness outcomes after participation in Fit2Play, a park-based after-school health and wellness program.

Methods: Youth who participated in Fit2Play for either 1, 2, or 3 school years between 2010 and 2016 (n = 2129, mean age 9.1 years, 52% Hispanic, 48% non-Hispanic black, 54% male) were tested via a comprehensive fitness battery at the beginning/end of the school year(s). Read More

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Early frailty transition predicts 15-year mortality among nondisabled older Mexican Americans.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 12;28(6):362-367.e3. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, School of Health Professions, University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the effect of early frailty transitions on 15-year mortality risk.

Methods: Longitudinal data analysis of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly involving 1171 community-dwelling Mexican Americans aged ≥67 years and older. Frailty was determined using the modified frailty phenotype, including unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, and slow walking speed. Read More

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Response rates in case-control studies of cancer by era of fieldwork and by characteristics of study design.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 9;28(6):385-391. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe time trends in response rates in case-control studies of cancer and identify study design factors that influence response rate.

Methods: We reviewed 370 case-control studies of cancer published in 12 journals during indicator years in each of the last four decades. We estimated time trends of response rates and reasons for nonresponse in each of the following types of study subjects: cases, medical source controls, and population controls. Read More

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Stress and health behaviors as potential mediators of the relationship between neighborhood quality and allostatic load.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 29;28(6):356-361. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX, 77555-1150.

Purpose: Neighborhood quality is associated with health. Increasingly, researchers are focusing on the mechanisms underlying that association, including the role of stress, risky health behaviors, and subclinical measures such as allostatic load (AL).

Methods: This study uses mixed-effects regression modeling to examine the association between two objective measures and one subjective measure of neighborhood quality and AL in an ethnically diverse population-based sample (N = 2706) from a medium-sized Texas city. Read More

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Estimating county-level tobacco use and exposure in South Carolina: a spatial model-based small area estimation approach.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 30;28(7):481-488.e4. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Tobacco Prevention and Control Division, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia.

Purpose: Local health statistics are increasingly requested for policy-making and programmatic purposes; however, population-based surveys are often inadequate to support direct estimation for small areas. Model-based estimation techniques can be used to create local estimates for public health outcomes. Using the 2014-2015 South Carolina (SC) Adult Tobacco Survey, we examined tobacco-related outcomes at the county level using a spatial multilevel, poststratification approach. Read More

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Predictors of discordance in self-report versus device-measured physical activity measurement.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 30;28(7):427-431. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison. Electronic address:

Purpose: Accurate measurement of free-living physical activity is challenging in population-based research, whether using device-based or reported methods. Our purpose was to identify demographic predictors of discordance between physical activity assessment methods and to determine how these predictors modify the discordance between device-based and reported physical activity measurement methods.

Methods: Three hundred forty-seven adults from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin wore the ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Read More

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Stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age, race, and ethnicity, United States, 2004-2014.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 6;28(5):328-330. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Cancer Surveillance Branch, Division of Cancer and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: Current literature shows different findings on the contemporary trends of distant-stage prostate cancer incidence, in part, due to low study population coverage and wide age groupings. This study aimed to examine the stage-specific incidence rates and trends of prostate cancer by age (5-year grouping), race, and ethnicity using nationwide cancer registry data.

Methods: Data on prostate cancer cases came from the 2004-2014 United States Cancer Statistics data set. Read More

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May 2018
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Neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities in colorectal cancer incidence: a population-based study in Louisiana.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 22;28(5):316-321.e2. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health-New Orleans, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA; Department of Epidemiology, Louisiana State University Health-New Orleans, School of Public Health, New Orleans, LA.

Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to demonstrate racial disparities in incidence and survival in the United States. This study investigates the role of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage in racial disparities in CRC incidence in Louisiana.

Methods: Louisiana Tumor Registry and U. Read More

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May 2018
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Individual-level key associations and modes of exposure for hepatitis C virus infection in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic synthesis.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 21;28(7):452-461. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine - Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation -Education City, Doha, Qatar; Department of Healthcare Policy & Research, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify, map, and synthesize the individual-level key associations and modes of exposure for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the most affected region by HCV.

Methods: Source of data was the MENA HCV Epidemiology Synthesis Project database, populated through systematic literature searches. Risk factors determined to be statistically significant after adjustment for confounders were extracted and categorized into key associations or modes of exposure. Read More

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July 2018
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Methodological challenges in using point-prevalence versus cohort data in risk factor analyses of nosocomial infections.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 3;28(7):475-480.e1. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Purpose: To explore the impact of length-biased sampling on the evaluation of risk factors of nosocomial infections (NIs) in point-prevalence studies.

Methods: We used cohort data with full information including the exact date of the NI and mimicked an artificial 1-day prevalence study by picking a sample from this cohort study. Based on the cohort data, we studied the underlying multistate model which accounts for NI as an intermediate and discharge/death as competing events. Read More

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July 2018
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Association of highly active antiretroviral treatment with incident tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Mar 28. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Center for Infectious Disease and Cancer Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Microbiology and Institute of Medical Research, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine the short-term and long-term effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on incident tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).

Methods: From 2000 to 2012, we identified adult PLWHA from Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV Surveillance System. All PLWHA were followed up until December 31, 2012, and observed for TB occurrence. Read More

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March 2018
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The discipline of epidemiology: engaging in the full breadth of population health science.

Authors:
Harold I Feldman

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 21;28(6):347-349. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

This address was delivered by Harold I. Feldman, MD, MSCE, at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Epidemiology in New Orleans, Louisiana, on September 26, 2017. Dr. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

The association between hardship and self-rated health: does the choice of indicator matter?

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 29;28(7):462-467. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Edward L. Schneider Assistant Professor of Gerontology, Leonard Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between four specific forms of hardship (difficulty paying bills, ongoing financial stress, medication reduction due to cost, and food insecurity) and self-rated health among older men and women.

Methods: Cross-sectional logistic regression analysis was conducted using the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Study Leave-Behind Questionnaire (N = 7619) to determine the association between four hardship indicators and self-rated health. Hardship indicators (difficulty paying bills, ongoing financial stress, medication reduction due to cost, and food insecurity) were dichotomized (0 = no hardship, 1 = yes hardship) for this analysis. Read More

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July 2018
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Factors associated with pregnancy intention among women who have experienced a short birth interval: findings from the 2009 to 2011 Mississippi and 2009 Tennessee Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jun 29;28(6):372-376. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Carolinas Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charlotte, NC.

Purpose: One-third of all pregnancies in the United States are conceived within 18 months of a prior live birth. Preventing unintended pregnancies may help to decrease the prevalence of pregnancies with these short interpregnancy intervals. However, data on factors associated with pregnancy intention among women who have had short birth intervals are sparse. Read More

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June 2018
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Using electronic health record data for environmental and place based population health research: a systematic review.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 21;28(7):493-502. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Urban Health Collaborative, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: We conducted a systematic review of literature published on January 2000-May 2017 that spatially linked electronic health record (EHR) data with environmental information for population health research.

Methods: We abstracted information on the environmental and health outcome variables and the methods and data sources used.

Results: The automated search yielded 669 articles; 128 articles are included in the full review. Read More

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July 2018
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Firearm mortality in California, 2000-2015: the epidemiologic importance of within-state variation.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 12;28(5):309-315.e2. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Violence Prevention Research Program, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA.

Purpose: Firearm mortality is a significant problem in the United States. Previous studies have largely focused on firearm mortality at the national or state level, leaving open the question of within-state variation. This study examined firearm mortality within California. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Correlates of long-acting reversible contraception versus sterilization use in advanced maternal age.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 16;28(7):447-451. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso; Julia Jones Matthews Department of Public Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock.

Purpose: To identify correlates associated with choosing long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) over female sterilization (FS) from a subsample of women aged 35 to 44 years in a nationally representative survey.

Methods: We analyzed data from women aged 35 to 44 years from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth Female Respondent File (n = 1532). Data were analyzed using SAS 9. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Introduction to symposium: a century after the 1918 influenza pandemic.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 23;28(5):265-266. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta.

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May 2018
1 Read

Analogy in causal inference: rethinking Austin Bradford Hill's neglected consideration.

Authors:
Douglas L Weed

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 12;28(5):343-346. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

DLW Consulting Services LLC, Salt Lake City, UT; Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Electronic address:

The purpose of this article was to rethink and resurrect Austin Bradford Hill's "criterion" of analogy as an important consideration in causal inference. In epidemiology today, analogy is either completely ignored (e.g. Read More

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May 2018
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Long-term trends in antithrombotic drug prescriptions among adults aged 80 years and over from primary care: a temporal trends analysis using electronic health records.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 19;28(7):440-446. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

King's College London, Population Health and Environmental Sciences, London, UK.

Purpose: This study aimed to estimate trends in antithrombotic prescriptions from 2001 to 2015 among people aged 80 years and over within clinical indications.

Methods: A prospective cohort study with 215,559 participants registered with the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2001 to 2015 was included in the analyses. The prevalence and incidence of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs were estimated for each year and by five clinical indications. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Comorbid mental disorders among adults in the mental health surveillance survey.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Jul 9;28(7):468-474. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Division of Surveillance and Data Collection, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD.

Purpose: To examine the prevalence and correlates of mental disorder comorbidity in the adult U.S. household population. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Decomposition of the population attributable fraction for two exposures.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 2;28(5):331-334.e1. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Biostatistics Division, Center for Research Administration and Support, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan; Division of Biostatistical Research, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: The population attributable fraction (AF) is frequently used to quantify disease burden attributable to exposures. AF is interpreted as the fractional reduction of disease events that would occur if exposures were eliminated. This article aims to provide a decomposition of the overall AF for two exposures into AFs for each of two exposures and AF for their interaction, using potential outcomes framework. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Editorial note.

Authors:
Rich Rothenberg

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr;28(4):264

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April 2018
1 Read

Illustrating a "consequential" shift in the study of health inequalities: a decomposition of racial differences in the distribution of body mass.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr 15;28(4):236-241.e4. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research and Center for Population Health Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; Center for Primary Care, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Purpose: We present a conceptual introduction to "distributional inequalities"-differences in distributions of risk factors or other outcomes between social groups-as a consequential shift for research on health inequalities. We also review a companion analytical methodology, "distributional decomposition", which can assess the population characteristics that explain distributional inequalities.

Methods: Using the 1999-2012 U. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Tattooing in prison: a risk factor for HCV infection among inmates in the Quebec's provincial correctional system.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr 10;28(4):231-235. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and identify related risk factors among inmates in Quebec provincial prisons.

Methods: Anonymous cross-sectional data were collected between May 2014 and March 2015 for 1315 men and 250 women who completed a questionnaire and provided oral fluid samples.

Results: The global prevalence of HCV infection was 11. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Use of a case-mix approach to study the trends in the incidence of second primary cancers.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 15;28(5):322-327. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Registre des cancers du Bas-Rhin, Laboratoire d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, U1113, FMTS, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France; Service de Santé Publique, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Purpose: To analyze trends in second primary cancer (SPC) incidence by using a case-mix approach to standardize on first cancer site distribution.

Methods: Cases registered by 13 French cancer registries between 1989 and 2010 and followed-up until June 2013 were included. The person-year approach was used to compute standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of metachronous SPC. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

The association of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiometabolic factors, markers of inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in Latino youth: findings from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with cardiovascular disease risk factors and a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction (e-selectin) among Hispanic/Latino youth.

Methods: The study included 1380 Hispanic/Latino youths (8-16 years old) from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth that enrolled from four cities (Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego). CRF was assessed by a 3-minute step test that uses postexercise heart rate to estimate maximal oxygen uptake. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

A review of the 1918 herald pandemic wave: importance for contemporary pandemic response strategies.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 2;28(5):281-288. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Fogarty International Center, National Institute of Health, MD, USA.

Mounting epidemiological evidence supports the occurrence of a mild herald pandemic wave in the spring and summer of 1918 in North America and Europe, several months before the devastating autumn outbreak that killed an estimated 2% of the global population. These epidemiological findings corroborate the anecdotal observations of contemporary clinicians who reported widespread influenza outbreaks in spring and summer 1918, with sporadic occurrence of unusually severe clinical manifestations in young adults. Initially seen as controversial, these findings were eventually confirmed by retrospective identification of influenza specimens collected from U. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Capturing the transmission dynamics of the 2009 Japanese pandemic influenza H1N1 in the presence of heterogeneous immunity.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 21;28(5):293-300.e1. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To explore the heterogeneous transmission dynamics for influenza and identify the optimal serum antibody titer cutoff values for estimating its cumulative incidence.

Methods: We constructed a mathematical model describing serologically dependent disease transmission. The diagnostic performances of two serum antibody titer tests (single serum test and paired sera test) were evaluated, and cumulative disease incidence estimators were formulated. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Real-time quantification of the next-generation matrix and age-dependent forecasting of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 in Japan.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 21;28(5):301-308. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: To quantify the age-dependent next-generation matrix (NGM) for the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and forecast the age-stratified cumulative incidence in Japan.

Methods: Using a renewal equation model that describes the time evolution of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, we derive the likelihood function to estimate parameters of the NGM and reporting coverage. Comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of models using empirically observed data from the 2009 pandemic in Gifu, Japan, we excluded redundant parameters and identified the three best models that were parameterized in different ways. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Measuring cancer in indigenous populations.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 May 15;28(5):335-342. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Section of Cancer Surveillance, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

The effects of folate supplementation on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr 10;28(4):249-257.e1. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

School of Biomedical Science, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, China.

Purpose: Observationally, homocysteine is associated with higher risk of diabetes. Folate, which reduces homocysteine, is promising for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Previous meta-analysis of three trials suggested folate might lower hemoglobin A (HbA). Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

The role of obesity in the risk of gestational diabetes among immigrant and U.S.-born women in New York City.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Apr 15;28(4):242-248. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY; Women's Health Research Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Purpose: To examine if the role of obesity in the risk of gestational diabetes differs between immigrant and U.S.-born women. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Why do studies show different associations between intrauterine exposure to maternal smoking and age at menarche?

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Mar 10;28(3):197-203. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY; Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia Medical Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Studies suggests that intrauterine exposure to maternal smoking both accelerates or delays age at menarche. We hypothesize that these opposing findings relate to different infant and childhood growth patterns across cohorts.

Methods: Using data from an adult follow-up study of the Child Health and Development Studies and the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, we examined, using generalized estimating linear regression models, whether intrauterine exposure to maternal smoking was associated with age at menarche in 1090 daughters before and after accounting for growth in weight. Read More

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March 2018
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The association of fitness and school absenteeism across gender and poverty: a prospective multilevel analysis in New York City middle schools.

Ann Epidemiol 2018 Mar 10;28(3):189-196. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, New York, NY.

Purpose: One-fifth to one-third of students in high poverty, urban school districts do not attend school regularly (missing ≥6 days/year). Fitness is shown to be associated with absenteeism, although this relationship may differ across poverty and gender subgroups.

Methods: Six cohorts of New York City public school students were followed up from grades 5 to 8 during 2006/2007-2012/2013 (n = 349,381). Read More

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March 2018
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