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    4942 results match your criteria Annals of biomedical engineering[Journal]

    1 OF 99

    Tactile Feedback can be Used to Redistribute Flexion Motion Across Spine Motion Segments.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    This experiment investigates the efficacy of tactile feedback in affecting changes to dynamic spine movements. A sample of (n = 24) young, healthy males were assessed while completing targeted spine flexion movements with instruction to minimize stretching of the skin beneath an applied tactile stimulus (liquid bandage). Localized tactile stimuli were placed bilaterally at either lumbar (L4), lower thoracic (T10) or upper thoracic (T4) levels. Read More

    Effects of Hollow Fiber Membrane Oscillation on an Artificial Lung.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, 3025 East Carson Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15203, USA.
    Gas transfer through hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) can be increased via fiber oscillation. Prior work, however, does not directly translate to present-day, full-scale artificial lungs. This in vitro study characterized the effects of HFM oscillations on oxygenation and hemolysis for a pediatric-sized HFM bundle. Read More

    A Diaper Pad for Diaper-Based Urine Collection and Colorimetric Screening of Urinary Biomarkers.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, 0379, Oslo, Norway.
    The high prevalence of urinary tract infection in aging adults is a challenging aspect of geriatric care. Incontinence and cognitive/functional impairment make collection of urine samples difficult and often require either catheterization for sample collection, which is a risk factor for infections, or more lenient criteria for initiating antibiotic treatment. We report the development of a diaper inlay with absorbent materials, superabsorbent polymer-based valve and chemical reaction pads for rapid screening of urinary tract infection of incontinent diaper-wearing elderly receivers of home care services. Read More

    The Turning Point for Morphomechanical Remodeling During Complete Intestinal Obstruction in Rats Occurs After 12-24 h.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    GIOME and the Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China.
    Intestinal obstruction prompts luminal dilation and wall remodeling proximal to the site of obstruction. Studies on temporal and spatial morphomechanical remodeling are needed for comprehending the pathophysiology of acute intestinal obstruction. The aim was to estimate the no-load and zero-stress morphomechanical properties in circumferential and longitudinal direction at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after complete intestinal obstruction. Read More

    Collagen Damage Location in Articular Cartilage Differs if Damage is Caused by Excessive Loading Magnitude or Rate.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Gemini-Zuid 4.101, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Collagen damage in articular cartilage is considered nearly irreversible and may be an early indication of cartilage degeneration. Surface fibrillation and internal collagen damage may both develop after overloading. This study hypothesizes that damage develops at these different locations, because the distribution of excessive strains varies with loading rate as a consequence of time-dependent cartilage properties. Read More

    UROKIN: A Software to Enhance Our Understanding of Urogenital Motion.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Ottawa, E260C, 200 Lees Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5, Canada.
    Transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) allows for objective quantification of mid-sagittal urogenital mechanics, yet current practice omits dynamic motion information in favor of analyzing only a rest and a peak motion frame. This work details the development of UROKIN, a semi-automated software which calculates kinematic curves of urogenital landmark motion. A proof of concept analysis, performed using UROKIN on TPUS video recorded from 20 women with and 10 women without stress urinary incontinence (SUI) performing maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles. Read More

    Eliminating Regurgitation Reduces Fibrotic Remodeling of Functional Mitral Regurgitation Conditioned Valves.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 6100 Main St., MS 142, Houston, TX, 77005, USA.
    Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is an insidious and poorly understood condition affecting patients with myocardial disease. While current treatments reduce regurgitation, their ability to reverse mitral valve pathology is unclear. We utilized a pseudo-physiological flow loop to study how repair impacted valve composition. Read More

    Human Brain Modeling with Its Anatomical Structure and Realistic Material Properties for Brain Injury Prediction.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Human Science Research-Domain, Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute-city, Aichi, 480-1192, Japan.
    Impairments of executive brain function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head impacts in traffic accidents need to be obviated. Finite element (FE) analyses with a human brain model facilitate understanding of the TBI mechanisms. However, conventional brain FE models do not suitably describe the anatomical structure in the deep brain, which is a critical region for executive brain function, and the material properties of brain parenchyma. Read More

    Trunk Reaction Time and Kinematic Changes Following Slip Perturbations in Subjects with Recurrent Low Back Pain.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 25;46(3):488-497. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Doctoral Program in Physical Therapy/Motion Analysis Center, Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow College of Health Professions, Central Michigan University, Health Professions Building 1220, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 48859, USA.
    Postural responses following slip perturbations are critical to fall prevention strategies. It is unclear how postural reactions with a handheld task can validly be transferred to treadmill-induced slip perturbations in subjects with recurrent low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate trunk reaction times and trunk flexion angle as well as velocity following the slips between subjects with and without LBP. Read More

    Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Burr Orbital Motion in Rotational Atherectomy with Particle Image Velocimetry Validation.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.
    Rotational atherectomy (RA) uses a high-speed rotating burr introduced via a catheter through the artery to remove hardened atherosclerotic plaque. Current clinical RA technique lacks consensus on burr size and rotational speed. The rotating burr orbits inside the artery due to the fluid force of the blood. Read More

    Real-Time Closed Loop Diastolic Interval Control Prevents Cardiac Alternans in Isolated Whole Rabbit Hearts.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 6-128 Nils Hasselmo Hall, 312 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (APD), can lead to fatal arrhythmias. During periodic pacing, changes in diastolic interval (DI) depend on subsequent changes in APD, thus enhancing cardiac instabilities through a 'feedback' mechanism. Recently, an anti-arrhythmic Constant DI pacing protocol was proposed and shown to be effective in suppressing alternans in 0D and 1D in silico studies. Read More

    Hydroxyapatite Crystal Thickness and Buckling Phenomenon in Bone Nanostructure During Mechanical Tests.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece.
    An investigation of bone samples taken from the left ulna of New Zealand white rabbits, with and without stresses and hysteresis loop, was undertaken using Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nanostructural changes in the mean size of hydroxyapatite crystals thickness (T) during different mechanical conditions. The experiments were performed using bone samples aged 2 and 4 weeks, with and without strontium ranelate treatment, after compressive load and hysteresis loop. Read More

    The Application of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) for Bone Fracture Repair: Past and Perspective Findings.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.
    Bone fractures are one of the most commonly occurring injuries of the musculoskeletal system. A highly complex physiological process, fracture healing has been studied extensively. Data from in vivo, in vitro and clinical studies, have shown pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) to be highly influential in the fracture repair process. Read More

    Mesenchymal Stem Cell Deformability and Implications for Microvascular Sequestration.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 215 Hallowell Bldg, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in regenerative medicine, particularly in light of prospects for targeted delivery by intra-arterial injection. However, little is known about the mechanics of MSC sequestration in the microvasculature and the yield pressure (P), above which MSCs will pass through microvessels of a given diameter. The objectives of the current study were to delineate the dependency of Pon cell size and the heterogeneity of cell mechanical properties and diameters (D) of cultured MSCs. Read More

    Impact Force, Polar Gap and Modal Parameters Predict Acetabular Cup Fixation: A Study on a Composite Bone.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Technologies and Structures, Technical University of Liberec, Studentská 1402/2, 461 17, Liberec, Czech Republic.
    The balanced initial fixation of an implant makes up a crucial condition for its long-term survival. However, the quantification of initial fixation is no easy task and, to date, only qualitative assessments can be made. Although the concept of measuring fixation by means of vibration analysis is already widely used in dental implantology, the rigorous application of this method for the assessment of the fixation of femoral and acetabular components remains a challenge. Read More

    Forces Generated by Vastus Lateralis and Vastus Medialis Decrease with Increasing Stair Descent Speed.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, E305 Scott Laboratory, 201 W 19th Ave, Columbus, OH, 43210-1142, USA.
    Stair descent (SD) is a common, difficult task for populations who are elderly or have orthopaedic pathologies. Joint torques of young, healthy populations during SD increase at the hip and ankle with increasing speed but not at the knee, contrasting torque patterns during gait. To better understand the sources of the knee torque pattern, we used dynamic simulations to estimate knee muscle forces and how they modulate center of mass (COM) acceleration across SD speeds (slow, self-selected, and fast) in young, healthy adults. Read More

    Robotic Scanning Device for Intraoperative Thyroid Gland Endomicroscopy.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    The Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.
    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy has a high potential to be a promising tool that can provide intraoperative high-resolution in vivo morphological imaging at cellular and subcellular levels for thyroidectomy, and allow real-time assessment of tumor margins. However, the typical images acquired with this technique cover a very small area limited by the field of view of the probe, accompanied by tissue deformation and inconsistent probe-tissue contact when operated manually. In this paper, a novel compact robotic device for large area scanning has been developed. Read More

    VascuTrainer: A Mobile and Disposable Bioreactor System for the Conditioning of Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Institute of Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 20, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
    In vitro tissue engineering of vascular grafts requires dynamic conditioning in a bioreactor system for in vitro tissue maturation and remodeling to receive a mechanically adequate and hemocompatible implant. The goal of the current work was to develop a bioreactor system for the conditioning of vascular grafts which is (i) able to create a wide range of flow, pressure and frequency conditions, including physiological ones; (ii) compact and easy to assemble; (iii) transportable; (iv) disposable. The system is driven by a small centrifugal pump controlled via a custom-made control unit, which can also be operated on batteries to allow for autonomous transportation. Read More

    Biomechanical Characterisation of Bone-anchored Implant Systems for Amputation Limb Prostheses: A Systematic Review.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 11;46(3):377-391. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Biomechatronics and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bone-anchored limb prostheses allow for the direct transfer of external loads from the prosthesis to the skeleton, eliminating the need for a socket and the associated problems of poor fit, discomfort, and limited range of movement. A percutaneous implant system for direct skeletal attachment of an external limb must provide a long-term, mechanically stable interface to the bone, along with an infection barrier to the external environment. In addition, the mechanical integrity of the implant system and bone must be preserved despite constant stresses induced by the limb prosthesis. Read More

    AngleNav: MEMS Tracker to Facilitate CT-Guided Puncture.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 5;46(3):452-463. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.
    As a low-cost needle navigation system, AngleNav may be used to improve the accuracy, speed, and ease of CT-guided needle punctures. The AngleNav hardware includes a wireless device with a microelectromechanical (MEMS) tracker that can be attached to any standard needle. The physician defines the target, desired needle path and skin entry point on a CT slice image. Read More

    Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties with Inflation Test Using Optical Coherence Tomography.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 2;46(2):247-256. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Biomechanical properties are important for the cornea to maintain its normal shape and function. There is still a need to develop better methods for accurate measurement of corneal mechanical properties. In this study, we propose to introduce the optical coherence tomography (OCT) in inflation test for the imaging of corneal deformation in order to measure its biomechanical properties. Read More

    Correction to: Deformability of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Dependent on Vimentin Intermediate Filaments.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb;46(2):375-376
    Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    This erratum is to correct the following: (1) in the Western Blotting subsection under the Materials and Methods section, the concentration of protein from each sample loaded into Criterion Tris-HCl gels was incorrectly stated as 155 µg of protein. The correct value is 9.7 µg; (2) in Fig. Read More

    Estimation of the Effect of Body Weight on the Development of Osteoarthritis Based on Cumulative Stresses in Cartilage: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 26;46(2):334-344. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, PL 1627, Kuopio, Finland.
    Evaluation of the subject-specific biomechanical effects of obesity on the progression of OA is challenging. The aim of this study was to create 3D MRI-based finite element models of the knee joints of seven obese subjects, who had developed OA at 4-year follow-up, and of seven normal weight subjects, who had not developed OA at 4-year follow-up, to test the sensitivity of cumulative maximum principal stresses in cartilage in quantitative risk evaluation of the initiation and progression of knee OA. Volumes of elements with cumulative stresses over 5 MPa in tibial cartilage were significantly (p < 0. Read More

    Airflow Simulations in Infant, Child, and Adult Pulmonary Conducting Airways.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 20;46(3):498-512. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.
    The airway structure continuously evolves from birth to adulthood, influencing airflow dynamics and respiratory mechanics. We currently know very little about how airflow patterns change throughout early life and its impact on airway resistance, namely because of experimental limitations. To uncover differences in respiratory dynamics between age groups, we performed subject-specific airflow simulations in an infant, child, and adult conducting airways. Read More

    Development of a Novel Technique to Record 3D Intersegmental Angular Kinematics During Dynamic Spine Movements.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 18;46(2):298-309. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.
    A novel method of recording intersegmental spine kinematics was developed. The method was required to: (1) have similar accuracy and precision as current methods that record gross spine kinematics; (2) be reasonably insensitive to errors associated with marker detection or misplacement; and (3) be reasonably insensitive to skin movement artefacts. Four healthy participants performed trunk flexion, lateral bending, and axial twist movements; data were collected using the intersegmental method as well as electromagnetic sensors. Read More

    Interpreting Activation Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation: A Hybrid Computational/Physiological Study.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 6;46(2):257-269. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Atrial fibrillation is the most common rhythm disorder of the heart associated with a rapid and irregular beating of the upper chambers. Activation mapping remains the gold standard to diagnose and interpret atrial fibrillation. However, fibrillatory activation maps are highly sensitive to far-field effects, and often disagree with other optical mapping modalities. Read More

    In Vitro Sonothrombolysis Enhancement by Transiently Stable Microbubbles Produced by a Flow-Focusing Microfluidic Device.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 30;46(2):222-232. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22908, USA.
    Therapeutic approaches that enhance thrombolysis by combining recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), ultrasound, and/or microbubbles (MBs) are known as sonothrombolysis techniques. To date, sonothrombolysis approaches have primarily utilized commercially available MB formulations (or derivatives thereof) with diameters in the range 1-4 µm and circulation lifetimes between 5 and 15 min. The present study evaluated the in vitro sonothrombolysis efficacy of large diameter MBs (d ≥ 10 µm) with much shorter lifetimes that were produced on demand and in close proximity to the blood clot using a flow-focusing microfluidic device. Read More

    Electrical Conductivity Method to Determine Sexual Dimorphisms in Human Temporomandibular Disc Fixed Charge Density.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 27;46(2):310-317. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Clemson-MUSC Bioengineering Program, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 173 Ashley Avenue MSC 508, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA.
    To investigate potential mechanisms associated with the increased prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders among women, the study objective was to determine sex-dependent and region-dependent differences in fixed charge density (FCD) using an electrical conductivity method. Seventeen TMJ discs were harvested from nine males (77 ± 4 years) and eight females (86 ± 4 years). Specimens were prepared from the anterior band, posterior band, intermediate zone, medial disc and lateral disc. Read More

    Evaluation of Decoding Algorithms for Estimating Bladder Pressure from Dorsal Root Ganglia Neural Recordings.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 27;46(2):233-246. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    A closed-loop device for bladder control may offer greater clinical benefit compared to current open-loop stimulation devices. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using single-unit recordings from sacral-level dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for decoding bladder pressure. Automatic online sorting, to differentiate single units, can be computationally heavy and unreliable, in contrast to simple multi-unit thresholded activity. Read More

    On the Failure Initiation in the Proximal Human Femur Under Simulated Sideways Fall.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 27;46(2):270-283. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Institute for Biomechanics, ETH-Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    The limitations of areal bone mineral density measurements for identifying at-risk individuals have led to the development of alternative screening methods for hip fracture risk including the use of geometrical measurements from the proximal femur and subject specific finite element analysis (FEA) for predicting femoral strength, based on quantitative CT data (qCT). However, these methods need more development to gain widespread clinical applications. This study had three aims: To investigate whether proximal femur geometrical parameters correlate with obtained femur peak force during the impact testing; to examine whether or not failure of the proximal femur initiates in the cancellous (trabecular) bone; and finally, to examine whether or not surface fracture initiates in the places where holes perforate the cortex of the proximal femur. Read More

    Development of a Platform for Studying 3D Astrocyte Mechanobiology: Compression of Astrocytes in Collagen Gels.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 27;46(2):365-374. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 315 Ferst Dr. NW, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.
    Glaucoma is a common optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a key risk factor for glaucoma, leads to significant biomechanical deformation of optic nerve head (ONH) cells and tissues. ONH astrocytes respond to this deformation by transforming to a reactive, proliferative phenotype, which has been implicated in the progression of glaucomatous vision loss. Read More

    A Robotic Flexible Drill and Its Navigation System for Total Hip Arthroplasty.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 22;46(3):464-474. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    The Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 106 Rottenrow, Glasgow, G4 0NW, Scotland, UK.
    This paper presents a robotic flexible drill and its navigation system for total hip arthroplasty (THA). The new robotic system provides an unprecedented and unique capability to perform curved femoral milling under the guidance of a multimodality navigation system. The robotic system consists of three components. Read More

    Effects of Population Variability on Knee Loading During Simulated Human Gait.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 20;46(2):284-297. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Cadaveric simulation models allow researchers to study native tissues in situ. However, as tests are conducted using donor specimens with unmatched kinematics, techniques that impose population average motions are subject to deviation from true physiologic conditions. This study aimed to identify factors which explain the kinetic variability observed during robotic simulations of a single human gait motion using a sample of human cadaver knees. Read More

    Cell Migration in 1D and 2D Nanofiber Microenvironments.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 17;46(3):392-403. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 312 Church St. SE, 7-132 Nils-Hasselmo Hall, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Read More

    SpinoBot: An MRI-Guided Needle Positioning System for Spinal Cellular Therapeutics.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 17;46(3):475-487. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
    The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) results in the death of motor neurons in voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS and few available treatments. In studies with small animal models, injection of cellular therapeutics into the anterior horn of the spinal cord has been shown to inhibit the progression of ALS. Read More

    Finite Element Design Optimization of a Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel Drug Delivery Device for Improved Retention.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 17;46(2):211-221. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Mechanical Engineering Kennecott Building, 1495 E 100 South, Rm. 1550, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
    Drug-loaded hydrogel devices are emerging as an effective means of localized and sustained drug delivery for the treatment of corneal conditions and injuries. One such device uses a novel, thiolated crosslinked carboxymethylated, hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (CMHA-S) film to deliver drug to the ocular surface upon placement into the inferior fornix of the eye. While proven to be very safe and effective, the CMHA-S film tends to dislodge in the highly-lubricated ocular environment, thereby reducing drug delivery efficiency and drug efficacy. Read More

    Cue-Signal-Response Analysis in 3D Chondrocyte Scaffolds with Anabolic Stimuli.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 16;46(2):345-353. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Articular cartilage is an avascular connective tissue responsible for bearing loads. Cell signaling plays a central role in cartilage homeostasis and tissue engineering by directing chondrocytes to synthesize/degrade the extracellular matrix or promote inflammatory responses. The aim of this paper was to investigate anabolic, catabolic and inflammatory pathways of well-known and underreported anabolic stimuli in 3D chondrocyte cultures and connect them to diverse cartilage responses including matrix regeneration and cell communication. Read More

    Engineering Analysis of Tricuspid Annular Dynamics in the Beating Ovine Heart.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 14;46(3):443-451. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Meijer Heart and Vascular Institute at Spectrum Health, Michigan, MI, USA.
    Functional tricuspid regurgitation is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the US. Furthermore, treatment of functional tricuspid regurgitation is suboptimal with significant recurrence rates, which may, at least in part, be due to our limited knowledge of the relationship between valvular shape and function. Here we study the dynamics of the healthy in vivo ovine tricuspid annulus to improve our understanding of normal annular deformations throughout the cardiac cycle. Read More

    Destabilization of the Upright Posture Through Elevation of the Center of Mass.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 13;46(2):318-323. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Kinesiology Program, Arizona State University, 550 N. 3rd Street, Phoenix, AZ, 85004, USA.
    The inverted pendulum model predicts that the major challenge for neural control of the upright posture is the inherent instability of the body due to the center of mass (COM) being above the base of support (BOS). If so, even slight elevation of the COM may substantially destabilize posture. The destabilizing effect of heavy load positioned above the COM has been demonstrated. Read More

    Mechanical Characterization and Material Modeling of Diabetic Aortas in a Rabbit Model.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 9;46(3):429-442. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.
    Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1. Read More

    The Effects of Visual Feedback Distortion with Unilateral Leg Loading on Gait Symmetry.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 8;46(2):324-333. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Biomedical Engineering, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA, 92504, USA.
    Our prior work provides evidence that visual feedback distortion drives an implicit adaptation; a gradual distortion of visual representation of step length modulated subjects' step lengths away from symmetry. To further explore the effect of the visual feedback distortion on unconscious change in step symmetry, we investigated whether such adaptation would occur even in the presence of altered limb mechanics by adding mass to one side of the leg. 26 subjects performed three 8-min trials (weight only, weight plus visual feedback, and weight plus visual feedback distortion) of treadmill walking. Read More

    Reparative Effects of Poloxamer P188 in Astrocytes Exposed to Controlled Microcavitation.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Feb 6;46(2):354-364. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60607, USA.
    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a neurological dysfunction that can result from a sudden exposure to shockwave and lead to adverse health consequences. Currently, there are no preventive measures that specifically target bTBI. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain such injuries, including the generation of microcavitation (e. Read More

    Using a Teaching Intervention and Calibrated Peer Review™ Diagnostics to Improve Visual Communication Skills.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 3;46(3):513-524. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Program in Writing and Communication, Rice University, 6100 Main St - MS 630, Houston, TX, 77005, USA.
    Rice University's bioengineering department incorporates written, oral, and visual communication instruction into its undergraduate curriculum to aid student learning and to prepare students to communicate their knowledge and discoveries precisely and persuasively. In a tissue culture lab course, we used a self- and peer-review tool called Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR) to diagnose student learning gaps in visual communication skills on a poster assignment. We then designed an active learning intervention that required students to practice the visual communication skills that needed improvement and used CPR to measure the changes. Read More

    Blood Pump Design Variations and Their Influence on Hydraulic Performance and Indicators of Hemocompatibility.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 1;46(3):417-428. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    The Interface Group, Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Patients with ventricular assist devices still suffer from high rates of adverse events. Since many of these complications are linked to the flow field within the pump, optimization of the device geometry is essential. To investigate design aspects that influence the flow field, we developed a centrifugal blood pump using industrial guidelines. Read More

    The Advantages of Viscous Dissipation Rate over Simplified Power Loss as a Fontan Hemodynamic Metric.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Mar 1;46(3):404-416. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Wallace H. Coulter School of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.
    Flow efficiency through the Fontan connection is an important factor related to patient outcomes. It can be quantified using either a simplified power loss or a viscous dissipation rate metric. Though practically equivalent in simplified Fontan circulation models, these metrics are not identical. Read More

    Role of Re-entry Tears on the Dynamics of Type B Dissection Flap.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 30;46(1):186-196. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    California Medical Innovations Institute, 11107 Roselle St., Rm. 211, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.
    Mortality during follow-up after acute Type B aortic dissection is substantial with aortic expansion observed in over 59% of the patients. Lumen pressure differential is considered a prime contributing factor for aortic dilation after propagation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in vessel geometry with and without lumen pressure differential post propagation in an ex vivo porcine model with comparison with patient clinical data. Read More

    Low-Intensity Ultrasound Modulates CaDynamics in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Connexin 43 Hemichannel.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 30;46(1):48-59. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    In recent years, ultrasound has gained attention in new biological applications due to its ability to induce specific biological responses at the cellular level. Although the biophysical mechanisms underlying the interaction between ultrasound and cells are not fully understood, many agree on a pivotal role of Casignaling through mechanotransduction pathways. Because Caregulates a vast range of downstream cellular processes, a better understanding of how ultrasound influences Casignaling could lead to new applications for ultrasound. Read More

    Beat-by-Beat Estimation of the Left Ventricular Pressure-Volume Loop Under Clinical Conditions.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Jan 25;46(1):171-185. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    This paper develops a method for the minimally invasive, beat-by-beat estimation of the left ventricular pressure-volume loop. This method estimates the left ventricular pressure and volume waveforms that make up the pressure-volume loop using clinically available inputs supported by a short, baseline echocardiography reading. Validation was performed across 142,169 heartbeats of data from 11 Piétrain pigs subject to two distinct protocols encompassing sepsis, dobutamine administration and clinical interventions. Read More

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