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    4909 results match your criteria Annals of biomedical engineering[Journal]

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    Effects of Population Variability on Knee Loading During Simulated Human Gait.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Cadaveric simulation models allow researchers to study native tissues in situ. However, as tests are conducted using donor specimens with unmatched kinematics, techniques that impose population average motions are subject to deviation from true physiologic conditions. This study aimed to identify factors which explain the kinetic variability observed during robotic simulations of a single human gait motion using a sample of human cadaver knees. Read More

    Cell Migration in 1D and 2D Nanofiber Microenvironments.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 312 Church St. SE, 7-132 Nils-Hasselmo Hall, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Read More

    SpinoBot: An MRI-Guided Needle Positioning System for Spinal Cellular Therapeutics.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Engineering, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
    The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) results in the death of motor neurons in voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS and few available treatments. In studies with small animal models, injection of cellular therapeutics into the anterior horn of the spinal cord has been shown to inhibit the progression of ALS. Read More

    Finite Element Design Optimization of a Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel Drug Delivery Device for Improved Retention.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Mechanical Engineering Kennecott Building, 1495 E 100 South, Rm. 1550, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.
    Drug-loaded hydrogel devices are emerging as an effective means of localized and sustained drug delivery for the treatment of corneal conditions and injuries. One such device uses a novel, thiolated crosslinked carboxymethylated, hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel (CMHA-S) film to deliver drug to the ocular surface upon placement into the inferior fornix of the eye. While proven to be very safe and effective, the CMHA-S film tends to dislodge in the highly-lubricated ocular environment, thereby reducing drug delivery efficiency and drug efficacy. Read More

    Cue-Signal-Response Analysis in 3D Chondrocyte Scaffolds with Anabolic Stimuli.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Articular cartilage is an avascular connective tissue responsible for bearing loads. Cell signaling plays a central role in cartilage homeostasis and tissue engineering by directing chondrocytes to synthesize/degrade the extracellular matrix or promote inflammatory responses. The aim of this paper was to investigate anabolic, catabolic and inflammatory pathways of well-known and underreported anabolic stimuli in 3D chondrocyte cultures and connect them to diverse cartilage responses including matrix regeneration and cell communication. Read More

    Engineering Analysis of Tricuspid Annular Dynamics in the Beating Ovine Heart.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Meijer Heart and Vascular Institute at Spectrum Health, Michigan, MI, USA.
    Functional tricuspid regurgitation is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the US. Furthermore, treatment of functional tricuspid regurgitation is suboptimal with significant recurrence rates, which may, at least in part, be due to our limited knowledge of the relationship between valvular shape and function. Here we study the dynamics of the healthy in vivo ovine tricuspid annulus to improve our understanding of normal annular deformations throughout the cardiac cycle. Read More

    Destabilization of the Upright Posture Through Elevation of the Center of Mass.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Kinesiology Program, Arizona State University, 550 N. 3rd Street, Phoenix, AZ, 85004, USA.
    The inverted pendulum model predicts that the major challenge for neural control of the upright posture is the inherent instability of the body due to the center of mass (COM) being above the base of support (BOS). If so, even slight elevation of the COM may substantially destabilize posture. The destabilizing effect of heavy load positioned above the COM has been demonstrated. Read More

    Mechanical Characterization and Material Modeling of Diabetic Aortas in a Rabbit Model.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.
    Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1. Read More

    The Effects of Visual Feedback Distortion with Unilateral Leg Loading on Gait Symmetry.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Biomedical Engineering, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA, 92504, USA.
    Our prior work provides evidence that visual feedback distortion drives an implicit adaptation; a gradual distortion of visual representation of step length modulated subjects' step lengths away from symmetry. To further explore the effect of the visual feedback distortion on unconscious change in step symmetry, we investigated whether such adaptation would occur even in the presence of altered limb mechanics by adding mass to one side of the leg. 26 subjects performed three 8-min trials (weight only, weight plus visual feedback, and weight plus visual feedback distortion) of treadmill walking. Read More

    Reparative Effects of Poloxamer P188 in Astrocytes Exposed to Controlled Microcavitation.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60607, USA.
    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a neurological dysfunction that can result from a sudden exposure to shockwave and lead to adverse health consequences. Currently, there are no preventive measures that specifically target bTBI. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain such injuries, including the generation of microcavitation (e. Read More

    Correction to: Impact Performance of Modern Football Helmets.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    University of Tennessee, College of Engineering, Sports Biomechanics Impact Research Lab, 416 East Stadium Hall, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.
    This erratum is to correct headings listing the impact location and speed in Figs. 5 and 6. The following provides corrected Figs. Read More

    Using a Teaching Intervention and Calibrated Peer Review™ Diagnostics to Improve Visual Communication Skills.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Program in Writing and Communication, Rice University, 6100 Main St - MS 630, Houston, TX, 77005, USA.
    Rice University's bioengineering department incorporates written, oral, and visual communication instruction into its undergraduate curriculum to aid student learning and to prepare students to communicate their knowledge and discoveries precisely and persuasively. In a tissue culture lab course, we used a self- and peer-review tool called Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR) to diagnose student learning gaps in visual communication skills on a poster assignment. We then designed an active learning intervention that required students to practice the visual communication skills that needed improvement and used CPR to measure the changes. Read More

    Blood Pump Design Variations and Their Influence on Hydraulic Performance and Indicators of Hemocompatibility.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    The Interface Group, Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Patients with ventricular assist devices still suffer from high rates of adverse events. Since many of these complications are linked to the flow field within the pump, optimization of the device geometry is essential. To investigate design aspects that influence the flow field, we developed a centrifugal blood pump using industrial guidelines. Read More

    The Advantages of Viscous Dissipation Rate over Simplified Power Loss as a Fontan Hemodynamic Metric.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Wallace H. Coulter School of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.
    Flow efficiency through the Fontan connection is an important factor related to patient outcomes. It can be quantified using either a simplified power loss or a viscous dissipation rate metric. Though practically equivalent in simplified Fontan circulation models, these metrics are not identical. Read More

    Role of Re-entry Tears on the Dynamics of Type B Dissection Flap.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    California Medical Innovations Institute, 11107 Roselle St., Rm. 211, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.
    Mortality during follow-up after acute Type B aortic dissection is substantial with aortic expansion observed in over 59% of the patients. Lumen pressure differential is considered a prime contributing factor for aortic dilation after propagation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between changes in vessel geometry with and without lumen pressure differential post propagation in an ex vivo porcine model with comparison with patient clinical data. Read More

    Low-Intensity Ultrasound Modulates Ca(2+) Dynamics in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Connexin 43 Hemichannel.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    In recent years, ultrasound has gained attention in new biological applications due to its ability to induce specific biological responses at the cellular level. Although the biophysical mechanisms underlying the interaction between ultrasound and cells are not fully understood, many agree on a pivotal role of Ca(2+) signaling through mechanotransduction pathways. Because Ca(2+) regulates a vast range of downstream cellular processes, a better understanding of how ultrasound influences Ca(2+) signaling could lead to new applications for ultrasound. Read More

    Beat-by-Beat Estimation of the Left Ventricular Pressure-Volume Loop Under Clinical Conditions.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    This paper develops a method for the minimally invasive, beat-by-beat estimation of the left ventricular pressure-volume loop. This method estimates the left ventricular pressure and volume waveforms that make up the pressure-volume loop using clinically available inputs supported by a short, baseline echocardiography reading. Validation was performed across 142,169 heartbeats of data from 11 Piétrain pigs subject to two distinct protocols encompassing sepsis, dobutamine administration and clinical interventions. Read More

    Should We Ignore What We Cannot Measure? How Non-Uniform Stretch, Non-Uniform Wall Thickness and Minor Side Branches Affect Computational Aortic Biomechanics in Mice.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    IBiTech - bioMMeda, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    In order to advance the state-of-the-art in computational aortic biomechanics, we investigated the influence of (i) a non-uniform wall thickness, (ii) minor aortic side branches and (iii) a non-uniform axial stretch distribution on the location of predicted hotspots of principal strain in a mouse model for dissecting aneurysms. After 3 days of angiotensin II infusion, a murine abdominal aorta was scanned in vivo with contrast-enhanced micro-CT. The animal was subsequently sacrificed and its aorta was scanned ex vivo with phase-contrast X-ray tomographic microscopy (PCXTM). Read More

    Using a Novel In Vitro Fontan Model and Condition-Specific Real-Time MRI Data to Examine Hemodynamic Effects of Respiration and Exercise.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Wallace H. Coulter School of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Several studies exist modeling the Fontan connection to understand its hemodynamic ties to patient outcomes (Chopski in: Experimental and Computational Assessment of Mechanical Circulatory Assistance of a Patient-Specific Fontan Vessel Configuration. Dissertation, 2013; Khiabani et al. in J Biomech 45:2376-2381, 2012; Taylor and Figueroa in Annu Rev Biomed 11:109-134, 2009; Vukicevic et al. Read More

    Knee Implant Loosening Detection: A Vibration Analysis Investigation.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Laboratory of Movement Analysis and Measurement, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Knee implant loosening is mainly caused by the weakness of the prosthesis-bone interface and is the main reason for surgical revisions. However, pre-operative diagnosis is difficult due to lack of accurate tests. In this study, we developed a vibration-based system to detect the loosening of the tibial implant of an instrumented knee prosthesis. Read More

    A Lower Limb-Pelvis Finite Element Model with 3D Active Muscles.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL, 32114, USA.
    A lower limb-pelvis finite element (FE) model with active three-dimensional (3D) muscles was developed in this study for biomechanical analysis of human body. The model geometry was mainly reconstructed from a male volunteer close to the anthropometry of a 50th percentile Chinese male. Tissue materials and structural features were established based on the literature and new implemented experimental tests. Read More

    Deep Arm/Ear-ECG Image Learning for Highly Wearable Biometric Human Identification.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX, 75080, USA.
    In this study, to advance smart health applications which have increasing security/privacy requirements, we propose a novel highly wearable ECG-based user identification system, empowered by both non-standard convenient ECG lead configurations and deep learning techniques. Specifically, to achieve a super wearability, we suggest situating all the ECG electrodes on the left upper-arm, or behind the ears, and successfully obtain weak but distinguishable ECG waveforms. Afterwards, to identify individuals from weak ECG, we further present a two-stage framework, including ECG imaging and deep feature learning/identification. Read More

    Implantable Systems for Stress Urinary Incontinence.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 11;45(12):2717-2732. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the involuntary urine leakage due to failure of the urethral closure mechanism, is a global health challenge with substantial human suffering and socioeconomic costs. Approximately 167 million male and female patients are predicted to suffer from SUI in 2018, worldwide. A wide range of surgical interventions are available for the treatment of SUI. Read More

    Monitoring Bone Tissue Engineered (BTE) Constructs Based on the Shifting Metabolism of Differentiating Stem Cells.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    School of Chemical, Biological & Materials Engineering, Sarkeys Energy Center, 100 E Boyd St. Room T-301, Norman, OK, 73019, USA.
    Ever-increasing demand for bone grafts necessitates the realization of clinical implementation of bone tissue engineered constructs. The predominant hurdle to implementation remains to be securing FDA approval, based on the lack of viable methods for the rigorous monitoring of said constructs. The study presented herein details a method for such monitoring based on the shifting metabolism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as they differentiate into osteoblasts. Read More

    Starting a Medical Technology Venture as a Young Academic Innovator or Student Entrepreneur.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Center for Bioengineering Innovation and Design, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Clark Hall 208, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.
    Following the footprints of Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg, there has been a misconception that students are better off quitting their studies to bring to life their ideas, create jobs and monetize their inventions. Having historically transitioned from manpower to mind power, we live in one of the most rapidly changing times in human history. As a result, academic institutions that are supposed to be pioneers and educators of the next generations have started to realize that they need to adapt to a new system, and change their policies to be more flexible towards patent ownership and commercialization. Read More

    Characterization and Separation of Cancer Cells with a Wicking Fiber Device.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 6;45(12):2933-2941. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Institute for Biological Interfaces of Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634, USA.
    Current cancer diagnostic methods lack the ability to quickly, simply, efficiently, and inexpensively screen cancer cells from a mixed population of cancer and normal cells. Methods based on biomarkers are unreliable due to complexity of cancer cells, plasticity of markers, and lack of common tumorigenic markers. Diagnostics are time intensive, require multiple tests, and provide limited information. Read More

    Physical and Chemical Enhancement of and Adaptive Resistance to Irreversible Electroporation of Pancreatic Cancer.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) can be used to treat cancer by electrical pulses, with advantages over traditional thermal approaches. Here we assess for the first time the IRE response of pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest forms of cancer, both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that both established and primary cancer cell lines can be destroyed by IRE, but with differential susceptibility and thresholds. Read More

    Simultaneous Measurement of Contraction and Calcium Transients in Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    BioMediTech Institute and Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 10, 33720, Tampere, Finland.
    Induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CM) provide a powerful platform for disease modeling and drug development in vitro. Traditionally, electrophysiological methods or fluorescent dyes (e.g. Read More

    Importance of Consistent Datasets in Musculoskeletal Modelling: A Study of the Hand and Wrist.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.
    Hand musculoskeletal models provide a valuable insight into the loads withstood by the upper limb; however, their development remains challenging because there are few datasets describing both the musculoskeletal geometry and muscle morphology from the elbow to the finger tips. Clinical imaging, optical motion capture and microscopy were used to create a dataset from a single specimen. Subsequently, a musculoskeletal model of the wrist was developed based on these data to estimate muscle tensions and to demonstrate the potential of the provided parameters. Read More

    Introducing Statistical Persistence Decay: A Quantification of Stride-to-Stride Time Interval Dependency in Human Gait.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Center for Research in Human Movement Variability, Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA.
    Stride-to-stride time intervals during human walking are characterised by predictability and statistical persistence quantified by sample entropy (SaEn) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) which indicates a time dependency in the gait pattern. However, neither analyses quantify time dependency in a physical or physiological interpretable time scale. Recently, entropic half-life (ENT½) has been introduced as a measure of the time dependency on an interpretable time scale. Read More

    A Simulation of the Viscoelastic Behaviour of Heel Pad During Weight-Bearing Activities of Daily Living.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 25;45(12):2750-2761. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    School of Life Sciences and Education, Staffordshire University, Leek Road, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 2DF, UK.
    Internal strain is known to be one of the contributors to plantar soft tissue damage. However, due to challenges related to measurement techniques, there is a paucity of research investigating the strain within the plantar soft tissue during daily weight-bearing activities. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive method for predicting heel pad strain during loading. Read More

    Applications of Light Emitting Diodes in Health Care.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 25;45(11):2509-2523. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, China.
    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become the main light sources for general lighting, due to their high lumen efficiency and long life time. Moreover, their high bandwidth and the availability of diverse wavelength contents ranging from ultraviolet to infrared empower them with great controllability in tuning brightness, pulse durations and spectra. These parameters are the essential ingredients of the applications in medical imaging and therapies. Read More

    Conservative Exposure Predictions for Rapid Risk Assessment of Phase-Separated Additives in Medical Device Polymers.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, 20993, USA.
    A novel approach for rapid risk assessment of targeted leachables in medical device polymers is proposed and validated. Risk evaluation involves understanding the potential of these additives to migrate out of the polymer, and comparing their exposure to a toxicological threshold value. In this study, we propose that a simple diffusive transport model can be used to provide conservative exposure estimates for phase separated color additives in device polymers. Read More

    Are DXA/aBMD and QCT/FEA Stiffness and Strength Estimates Sensitive to Sex and Age?
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 22;45(12):2847-2856. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, S.W., Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
    Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by simplifying a complex 3D bone structure to a 2D projection and is not equally effective for explaining fracture strength in women and men. Unlike DXA, subject-specific quantitative computed tomography-based finite element analysis (QCT/FEA) estimates fracture strength using 3D bone mineral distribution and geometry. By using experimentally-measured femoral stiffness and strength from a one hundred sample cadaveric cohort that included variations in sex and age, we wanted to determine if QCT/FEA estimates were able to better predict the experimental variations than DXA/aBMD. Read More

    The Influence of Body Mass Index, Sex, & Muscle Activation on Pressure Distribution During Lateral Falls on the Hip.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 22;45(12):2775-2783. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Injury Biomechanics and Aging Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.
    Hip fracture incidence rates are influenced by body mass index (BMI) and sex, likely through mechanistic pathways that influence dynamics of the pelvis-femur system during fall-related impacts. The goal of this study was to extend our understanding of these impact dynamics by investigating the effects of BMI, sex, and local muscle activation on pressure distribution over the hip region during lateral impacts. Twenty participants underwent "pelvis-release experiments" (which simulate a lateral fall onto the hip), including muscle-'relaxed' and 'contracted' trials. Read More

    Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Sep 22. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, The Ohio State University, 1080 Carmack Rd, 270 Bevis Hall, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.
    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e. Read More

    Investigation of Shape with Patients Suffering from Unilateral Lymphoedema.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering, College of Engineering, Swansea University Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea, SA1 8EN, UK.
    This study investigates the use of a 3D depth sensing camera for analysing the shape of lymphoedematous arms, and seeks to identify suitable metrics for monitoring lymphoedema clinically. A fast, simple protocol was developed for scanning upper limb lymphoedema, after which a robust data pre- and post-processing framework was built that consistently and quickly identifies arm shape and volume. The framework was then tested on 24 patients with mild unilateral lymphoedema, who were also assessed using tape measurements. Read More

    Random Electromyostimulation Promotes Osteogenesis and the Mechanical Properties of Rat Bones.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 19;45(12):2837-2846. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Division of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan.
    Exercise is often recommended as a promising non-pharmacologic countermeasure to prevent osteoporosis. However, elderly osteoporotic patients generally have physical fitness difficulties preventing them from performing effective and sustainable exercise. Electromyostimulation should be one effective modality for non-pharmacological prevention of osteoporosis without any voluntary physical movements. Read More

    Increasing Distribution of Drugs Released from In Situ Forming PLGA Implants Using Therapeutic Ultrasound.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 19;45(12):2879-2887. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.
    One of the challenges in developing sustained-release local drug delivery systems is the limited treatment volume that can be achieved. In this work, we examine the effectiveness of using low frequency, high intensity ultrasound to promote the spatial penetration of drug molecules away from the implant/injection site boundary upon release from injectable, phase inverting poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants. Fluorescein-loaded PLGA solutions were injected into poly(acrylamide) phantoms, and the constructs were treated daily for 14 days with ultrasound at 2. Read More

    A Nociceptive Role for Integrin Signaling in Pain After Mechanical Injury to the Spinal Facet Capsular Ligament.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 18;45(12):2813-2825. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 240 Skirkanich Hall, 210 S. 33rd St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104-6321, USA.
    Integrins modulate chemically-induced nociception in a variety of inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Yet, the role of integrins in mechanically-induced pain remains undefined, despite its well-known involvement in cell adhesion and mechanotransduction. Excessive spinal facet capsular ligament stretch is a common injury that induces morphological and functional changes in its innervating afferent neurons and can lead to pain. Read More

    Dual Contrast CT Method Enables Diagnostics of Cartilage Injuries and Degeneration Using a Single CT Image.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 18;45(12):2857-2866. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, POB 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.
    Cartilage injuries may be detected using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) by observing variations in distribution of anionic contrast agent within cartilage. Currently, clinical CECT enables detection of injuries and related post-traumatic degeneration based on two subsequent CT scans. The first scan allows segmentation of articular surfaces and lesions while the latter scan allows evaluation of tissue properties. Read More

    Development of a High-Throughput Magnetic Separation Device for Malaria-Infected Erythrocytes.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 18;45(12):2888-2898. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Scott Hall 4N201, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.
    This study describes a non-dilutive high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) device intended to continuously remove malaria-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) from the circulation. A mesoscale prototype device with disposable photo-etched ferromagnetic grid and reusable permanent magnet was designed with a computationally-optimized magnetic force. The prototype device was evaluated in vitro using a non-pathogenic analog for malaria-infected blood, comprised of 24% healthy RBCs, 6% human methemoglobin RBCs (metRBCs), and 70% phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Read More

    Spine Posture Influences Tactile Perceptual Sensitivity of the Trunk Dorsum.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 18;45(12):2804-2812. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    The purpose of the current work was to quantify the influence of posture-mediated skin deformation on trunk dorsum tactile perceptual sensitivity. Twelve young and healthy individuals were assessed while adopting three different spine postures (extension, neutral and flexion). Tactile sensitivity threshold tests (T10 and L4 vertebral levels) included measures of touch sensitivity, spatial acuity and stretch sensitivity. Read More

    Intestinal Mechanomorphological Remodeling Induced by Long-Term Low-Fiber Diet in Rabbits.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 14;45(12):2867-2878. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Surgery, GIOME, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.
    Short-term feeding with low-fiber diet remodels the mechanomorphological properties in the rabbit small intestine. The aims were to study the effect of feeding low-fiber diet for 5 months on mechanomorphological properties including the collagen fraction in the rabbit intestines. Fifteen rabbits were divided into an Intervention group (IG, n = 10) fed a low-fiber diet and a Control group (CG, n = 5) fed a normal diet for 5 months. Read More

    Ranges of Injury Risk Associated with Impact from Unmanned Aircraft Systems.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 14;45(12):2733-2741. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.
    Regulations have allowed for increased unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) operations over the last decade, yet operations over people are still not permitted. The objective of this study was to estimate the range of injury risks to humans due to UAS impact. Three commercially-available UAS models that varied in mass (1. Read More

    Fluid- and Biomechanical Analysis of Ascending Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm with Concomitant Aortic Insufficiency.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 13;45(12):2921-2932. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, CIS-EMSE, SAINBIOSE, 42023, Saint-Etienne, France.
    We present a comprehensive and original framework for the biomechanical analysis of patients affected by ascending thoracic aorta aneurysm and aortic insufficiency. Our aim is to obtain crucial indications about the role played by deranged hemodynamics on the ATAAs risk of rupture. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed using patient-specific geometries and boundary conditions derived from 4D MRI. Read More

    Poly-N-Acetyl Glucosamine (sNAG) Enhances Early Rotator Cuff Tendon Healing in a Rat Model.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 13;45(12):2826-2836. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    McKay Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 110 Stemmler Hall, 3450 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, 19104-6081, USA.
    Rotator cuff injuries frequently require surgical repairs which have a high failure rate. Biological augmentation has been utilized in an attempt to improve tendon repair. Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (sNAG) polymer containing nanofibers has been shown to increase the rate for healing of venous leg ulcers. Read More

    Why are Antagonist Muscles Co-activated in My Simulation? A Musculoskeletal Model for Analysing Human Locomotor Tasks.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 12;45(12):2762-2774. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.
    Existing "off-the-shelf" musculoskeletal models are problematic when simulating movements that involve substantial hip and knee flexion, such as the upstroke of pedalling, because they tend to generate excessive passive fibre force. The goal of this study was to develop a refined musculoskeletal model capable of simulating pedalling and fast running, in addition to walking, which predicts the activation patterns of muscles better than existing models. Specifically, we tested whether the anomalous co-activation of antagonist muscles, commonly observed in simulations, could be resolved if the passive forces generated by the underlying model were diminished. Read More

    A Novel Multi-objective Physiological Control System for Rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 12;45(12):2899-2910. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Product Development Group Zurich, ETH Zurich, CLA G 21.1, Tannenstrasse 3, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Various control and monitoring algorithms have been proposed to improve the left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy by reducing the still-occurring adverse events. We developed a novel multi-objective physiological control system that relies on the pump inlet pressure (PIP). Signal-processing algorithms have been implemented to extract the required features from the PIP. Read More

    Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets.
    Ann Biomed Eng 2017 Dec 7;45(12):2742-2749. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, USA.
    American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. Read More

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