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    10390 results match your criteria Annals of Plastic Surgery[Journal]

    1 OF 208

    Labia Majora Augmentation Combined With Minimal Labia Minora Resection: A Safe and Global Approach to the External Female Genitalia.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Background: All the labia minora reduction techniques fail to treat the other component of the abnormally increased labia minora to majora ratio: the labia majora atrophy. The purpose of this study is to describe a technique of female genitalia beautification, which combines labia majora augmentation and conservative labia minora reduction.

    Methods: The hypertrophied labia minora were first treated by a conservative inferior wedge excision with a superior flap. Read More

    Basic Microvascular Anastomosis Simulation Hub Microsurgery Course: An Innovative Competency-Based Approach to Microsurgical Training for Early Year's Plastic Surgery Trainees.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    From the Department of Plastic Surgery, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Early year's plastic surgery trainees are faced with a large choice of microsurgery courses to select from. In the context of dwindling study budgets and busy on-call rotas, the pressure to select a high yield course that delivers value for money is of paramount importance.The Basic Microvascular Anastomosis Simulation Hub Microsurgery Course is a GBP £600 (US $790) 5-day 40-hour course based at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry increasing in popularity among junior trainees to fit this brief. Read More

    Labiaplasty, 24-Month Experience in 58 Patients: Outcomes and Statistical Analysis.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    From the Antiaging Group Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Because there has been a great raise in the interest of this type of surgery in our area, we decided to study if there were any differences among our patients and also to review our results.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review our experience with labiaplasty. We assessed surgical complications and quality outcomes and compared surgical results according to maternal parity. Read More

    Inhalation Injury in the Burned Patient.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Inhalation injury causes a heterogeneous cascade of insults that increase morbidity and mortality among the burn population. Despite major advancements in burn care for the past several decades, there remains a significant burden of disease attributable to inhalation injury. For this reason, effort has been devoted to finding new therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients who sustain inhalation injuries. Read More

    Fifty Years of Burn Care at Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    More than 50 years ago, Shriners Hospitals for Children expanded their philanthropy to include care for burned children. In so doing, the effects of their work weightily expanded from rehabilitation and quality of life outcomes to include survival proper. As the first facility dedicated to the care of burned children, originally designated the Shriners Burn Institute, the Galveston hospital remains the cornerstone of this endeavor. Read More

    Volume Resuscitation in Patients With High-Voltage Electrical Injuries.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Volume resuscitation of patients with high-voltage electrical injuries (>1000 V) is a more complex challenge than standard burn resuscitation. High voltages penetrate deep tissues. These deep injuries are not accounted for in resuscitation formulae dependent on percentage of cutaneous burn. Read More

    Evolution of a Burn Care Network.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Introduction: A private burn center started in Augusta, GA, in 1978 has expanded into a burn care network of 7 comprehensive burn centers. We have analyzed 2 years of admissions to this network to assess growth and the network's level of participation in national burn care.

    Materials And Methods: Total admissions to the network were quantified for years 2015 and 2016. Read More

    Carbon Monoxide and Cyanide Poisoning in the Burned Pregnant Patient: An Indication for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a small molecule poison released as a product of incomplete combustion. Carbon monoxide binds hemoglobin, reducing oxygen delivery. This effect is exacerbated in the burned pregnant patient by fetal hemoglobin that binds CO 2. Read More

    Course Review: AOTrauma-Hand Fixation for Surgeons.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, North Bristol NHS Trust, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Hand trauma forms an important part of plastic surgery and orthopedic training curricula. Although numerous practical hand trauma courses exist, there is always difficulty in achieving the right balance between educational content and practical workshops. AOTrauma-Hand Fixation for Surgeons is a 2. Read More

    Venous Thromboembolism Incidence After Craniofacial Surgery.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    From the Section of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Augusta University, Augusta, GA.
    Introduction: Current protocols for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after craniofacial surgery (CFS) vary widely with substantial disagreements in both indications and managements. An evidence-based approach to this issue requires the following: the incidence of postoperative VTE, comorbidities associated with coagulopathy, risk reduction after VTE prophylaxis, and complications attributable to prophylaxis. This study addresses the first two. Read More

    Does 2-Stage Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction Allow for a Larger Volume of the Definite Implant Compared With 1-Stage Reconstruction?
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Introduction: Breast reconstruction using implants is still the main breast reconstruction technique worldwide. Current debate within implant-based breast reconstruction is whether to perform a 1-stage (direct implant) or 2-stage (tissue expander/implant) reconstruction. Volume differences between a woman's native breast and changes in volume after breast reconstruction might be an important factor for a patient's choice between these types of reconstruction. Read More

    Experimental Study on Effects of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell-Seeded Silk Fibroin Chitosan Film on Wound Healing of a Diabetic Rat Model.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Background: Wound healing is a complex process that relies on growth factors and stimulation of angiogenesis. Tissue engineering materials composed of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and silk fibroin (SF)/chitosan (CS) may be able to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the wound-healing potential of ADSC-seeded SF/CS in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Read More

    One-Barrel Microsurgical Fibula Flap for Reconstruction of Large Defects of the Femur.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Various methods for reconstructing large femur bone defects after tumor resection have been introduced. In this study, we reviewed the clinical outcomes of using a 1-barrel free vascularized fibular graft (FVFG) protected by a lateral locking plate for large femoral defects not involving the knee joint.Between August 2007 and August 2013, we treated 7 patients with large femoral bone defects after tumor resection. Read More

    Assessment of the Effect of Autograft Orientation on Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Purpose: Given no definite consensus on the accepted autograft orientation during peripheral nerve injury repair, we compare outcomes between reverse and normally oriented autografts using an advanced magnetic resonance imaging technique, diffusion tensor imaging.

    Methods: Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-left sciatic nerve isolation without injury, reverse autograft-10-mm cut left sciatic nerve segment reoriented 180° and used to coapt the proximal and distal stumps, or normally oriented autograft-10-mm cut nerve segment kept in its normal orientation for coaptation. Animals underwent sciatic functional index and foot fault behavior studies at 72 hours, and then weekly. Read More

    Fat Grafting for Facial Rejuvenation and Contouring: A Rationalized Approach.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    From the Division of Plastic Surgery, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA.
    The clinical outcome after fat grafting for facial rejuvenation and contouring can be less optimal because lack of standardized techniques is performed by the surgeon for the procedure. In this review, the author has tried to provide a rationalized approach to fat grafting for facial rejuvenation and contouring. The preferred donor sites include low abdomen and inner thigh especially in younger patients. Read More

    Relationship Between Xanthelasma Palpebrarum and Hyperlipidemia.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S84-S86
    Background: Xanthelasma palpebrarum is a common periorbital lesion that occurs in middle-aged woman. Dyslipidemia was strongly associated with the occurrence of xanthelasma. Different treatment methods for xanthelasma were applied with comparable results. Read More

    Reconstruction of Defects in the Weight-Bearing Plantar Area Using the Innervated Free Medial Plantar (Instep) Flap.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Mar;80(3):245-251
    Background: Defects in the weight-bearing heel or forefoot are commonly derived from chronic wounds, acute trauma, or tumor excision. Reconstruction of such defects pose a significant challenge to provide a flap that is stable, durable, and sensate. Several flaps have been described for reconstruction of plantar defects, but recurrent ulcerations and/or the need of additional procedures are common. Read More

    Defining Infection in Breast Reconstruction: A Literature Review.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    From the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Summa Health System, Akron, OH.
    Purpose: Postoperative infection is the most common complications after implant-based immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), with reported rates ranging from less than 1% to 43%. This heterogeneity among the literature may be explained by a lack of consensus on the definition of postoperative infection. The purpose of this study was to review the prevalence of infection and how it is defined in studies involving prosthetic-based IBR. Read More

    Secondary Mastopexy After Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy and Staged Subcutaneous Expander/Implant Reconstruction.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Background: The acceptance of nipple-sparing mastectomy for the treatment of breast cancer in selected patients has introduced ancillary procedures to improve breast shape, correct ptosis, and enhance breast symmetry. Mastopexy before or at the time of nipple-sparing mastectomy has been performed to correct ptosis, but there have been no reports on secondary Wise pattern mastopexy after completion of staged subcutaneous expander/implant reconstruction.

    Methods: Between 2005 and 2015, 155 patients (255 breasts) underwent staged subcutaneous implant/expander-based reconstruction after inframammary nipple-sparing mastectomy. Read More

    The Impact of Residents on Patient Satisfaction.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Background: High-quality physician communication is the foundation for achieving high patient satisfaction. Increasing importance is placed on eliciting feedback from patients. However, there have been few studies looking at the impact of resident involvement on patient satisfaction. Read More

    Early Ambulation After Microsurgical Reconstruction of the Lower Extremity.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Successful outcomes after microsurgical reconstruction of the lower extremity include timely return to ambulation. Some combination of physical examination, ViOptix tissue oxygen saturation monitoring, and the implantable venous Doppler have shown promise in increasing sensitivity of current flap monitoring. We have incorporated this system into our postoperative monitoring protocol in an effort to initiate earlier dependency protocols. Read More

    Autologous Fat Grafting in the Treatment of Cleft Lip Volume Asymmetry.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Background: The goal of cleft lip repair is a symmetrical balanced lip with minimal scar. Fat grafting is an established procedure in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery for restoration or correction of contour deformity, volume loss, and improved tissue characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the use of fat grafting in correction of cleft lip volume asymmetry. Read More

    Gender Affirmation Surgery: A Synopsis Using American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program and National Inpatient Sample Databases.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Background: Gender affirmation surgery (GAS) is a heterogeneous group of body transformational procedures to match one's gender identity. There is a paucity of literature on the outcomes and safety profile of GAS. This study aims to examine trends and outcomes of GAS from 2010 to 2015 using the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program and National Inpatient Sample databases. Read More

    Successful Separation of Conjoined Twins: The Contemporary Experience and Historic Review in Memphis.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    From the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN.
    Conjoined twins are a rare phenomenon with historically poor outcomes after separation. We present a review of 8 sets of conjoined twins operated on in Memphis, Tenn, from 1953-2016. Except for 1 set of twins, before 2010, all experienced at least 1 fatality either before, during, or as a result of separation. Read More

    Masculinizing Top Surgery: A Systematic Review of Techniques and Outcomes.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Background: Chest wall masculinization by means of mastectomy is an important gender affirming surgery for transmasculine and non-binary patients. Limited data exist comparing commonly used techniques in masculinizing top surgery, and most are single institution studies.

    Methods: A systematic review was performed on primary literature dedicated specifically to the technical aspects and outcomes of mastectomy for masculinizing top surgery. Read More

    Skin Burn Associated With Photochemotherapy.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Objective: psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) phototherapy (PT) has become a standard treatment for several severe skin diseases. Photosensitization is done by oral psoralen intake. In minor cases, PUVA can lead to skin changes like erythema and hyperpigmentation. Read More

    Insurance Appeals for Pediatric Reconstructive Surgery: A Micro Cost Analysis and How-to Guide.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Mar;80(3):198-204
    Background: When insurance coverage for pediatric reconstructive procedures is denied, a stressful and time-consuming appeals process ensues. This article discusses the results of a micro cost analysis performed to better understand the time and monetary burden that the insurance process places on our clinic and families. We also advise plastic surgeons on how to appeal insurance denials for necessary reconstructive procedures. Read More

    Characterizing Breast Deformities After Massive Weight Loss: Utilizing the Pittsburgh Rating Scale to Examine Factors Affecting Severity Score and Surgical Decision Making in a Retrospective Series.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Mar;80(3):207-211
    Background And Objectives: Massive weight loss (MWL) can result in variable contour deformities of the breasts. The Pittsburgh Rating Scale (PRS) was designed to describe the multitude of deformities after MWL and recommends operations to consider for surgical improvement. We present the first comprehensive description of breast deformities in a large sample of MWL patients, examine factors affecting the severity of deformities, and report the correlation between PRS score and surgical decision making. Read More

    Management of the Cleft Nasal Tip: An Overview of Classic Techniques and Strategies.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.
    The challenges of cleft reconstruction have been present for centuries. However, understanding of the cleft nasal tip and the evolution of techniques decidedly began in the 20th century and refinement continues into the present day. Although a multitude of technical descriptions and case series have been published, a compendium of seminal techniques, which have shaped modern thought, has not been compiled in the literature. Read More

    Preventive Effect of Synthetic Tryptophan Metabolite on Silicone Breast Implant-Induced Capsule Formation.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Background: In the field of plastic surgery, capsular contracture after silicone breast implant surgery is a major clinical problem. This experimental study confirms that the synthetic tryptophan metabolite N-(3',4'-dimethoxycinnamonyl) anthranilic acid (Tranilast) reduces capsule formation and prevents capsular contracture.

    Methods: Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 2 groups. Read More

    Versatility of the Medial Femoral Condyle Flap for Extremity Reconstruction and Identification of Risk Factors for Nonunion, Delayed Time to Union, and Complications.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Background: The medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap has become a popular choice for treatment of small bony defects. We aim to describe outcomes after MFC flap treatment of upper and lower extremity osseous defects and test the null hypothesis that no factors influence risks for nonunion, increased time to union, and complications.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients undergoing MFC free vascularized bone flaps by the senior author between May 2010 and March 2016. Read More

    Association Between Cleft Lip and/or Cleft Palate and Family History of Cancer: A Case-Control Study.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Background: Cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL ± P) are among the most common congenital anomalies. Nevertheless, their etiologies remain poorly understood. Several studies have demonstrated increased rates of cancer among patients with CL ± P and their relatives, as well as increased risk of CL ± P among family members of cancer survivors. Read More

    Character of Gluteal Region Morphology in Young Chinese Females.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Background: The female gluteal morphology is an important secondary sexual characteristic and helps accentuate and define the female body shape. Despite the increasing prevalence of gluteal augmentations in our country, little data exist regarding the morphology of the gluteal region in young Chinese females. This study analyzed a convenience sample of Chinese females and their gluteal region. Read More

    Evaluation of Modifications to Tissue-Expander Breast Reconstruction, a Quality Improvement Assessment Within a Private Practice.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    From the Centra Medical Group Plastic Surgery Center, Liberty University College of Medicine, Lynchburg, VA.
    Background: As technology advances, surgical practice evolves over time. The author assesses a new approach to implant-based breast reconstruction and the impact of two changes implemented over several years.

    Methods: A series of tissue-expander reconstructions performed early in the author's experience were retrospectively compared with a similar number of cases prospectively performed. Read More

    Breast Reconstruction: A Century of Controversies and Progress.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Breast cancer treatment has dramatically changed over the past century. Since Halsted's first description of radical mastectomy in 1882, breast reconstruction has evolved slowly from being considered as a useless or even dangerous procedure by surgeons to the possibility nowadays of reconstructing almost any kind of defect. In this review on the development of breast reconstruction, we outline the historical milestone innovations that led to the current management of the mastectomy defect in an attempt to understand the economic, social and psychological factors, which contributed to slow down its acceptance for several decades. Read More

    Use of Vascularized Sural Nerve Grafts for Sciatic Nerve Reconstruction After Malignant Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Resection in the Lower Legs.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Background: Vascularized nerve grafting is normally associated with a good outcome, but can be difficult to use for nerve reconstruction in patients with long defects of the sciatic nerve given the graft thickness. We report 3 cases of large defect sciatic nerve reconstruction using the bilateral sural nerves of the lower legs harvested together with the fascia and lesser saphenous vein to form a vascularized flap.

    Methods: The subjects were 3 patients who required the reconstruction of a 10-cm or longer segment of the sciatic nerve. Read More

    Goal-Directed Fluid Resuscitation Protocol Based on Arterial Waveform Analysis of Major Burn Patients in a Mass Burn Casualty.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S21-S25
    From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
    Background: Adequate fluid titration during the initial resuscitation period of major burn patients is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol that used hourly urine output plus the arterial waveform analysis FloTrac (Edwards LifeSciences, Irvine, Calif) system for major burns to avoid fluid overload.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 major burn patients at the Tri-Service General Hospital after the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion on June 27, 2015. Read More

    A Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of the Effectiveness of ANT1 Soybean Extract Cream on Skin Recovery After Nd: YAG Laser Treatment.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S26-S29
    Nd:YAG laser has been used extensively for its versatility in treating many common aesthetic problems, but numerous adverse effects are often complained by recipients of Nd:YAG laser. This study introduces the ANT1 soybean extract cream, which was formulated to alleviate adverse effects after laser therapy. This study explores whether ANT1 enhances the repair mechanism of the postlaser skin, decreases laser-induced complication, and shortens recovery time. Read More

    The Incidence of Necrotizing Fasciitis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S75-S78
    Background: Little is known about the national population-based incidence rates of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) and related epidemiological profiles in Asian countries. We plastic surgeons always face and treat this complicated disease in the first line at the hospital.

    Methods: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance inpatient claims data from 2005 through 2010, we investigated the national annual incidence rate of NF by sex, age, year, month, beneficiary category, and region. Read More

    Free Flap Transfer for Head and Neck Reconstruction Using Local Anesthesia in Elderly Patients.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S30-S35
    Background: The incidence of skin cancer appearing on the head and neck areas is higher in elderly patients. Although free flap reconstruction is the mainstay after tumor excision, it is challenging to complete in elderly patients, owing to the high risk of complications and/or mortality rates associated with the use of general anesthesia. In this study, we used only local anesthesia in free tissue reconstruction of the head and neck in five elderly patients. Read More

    Postoperative Hematoma in Microvascular Reconstruction of the Head and Neck.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S15-S20
    Background: Free tissue transfer has become a safe and reliable means for repairing soft tissue and bony defects of the head and neck region. Although the success rate is high, the incidence of postoperative complications is common. One significant complication is postoperative hematoma formation. Read More

    Intensive Care Unit Versus Ward Management After Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction After Oral Cancer Ablation.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S11-S14
    Background: Whether postoperative care in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a necessity for patients undergoing head and neck free flap reconstruction remains debatable. In August 2012, our institute initiated a policy to care for these patients in the ICU, opposed to the previous policy of care in the ward. Thus, we used this opportunity to compare outcomes between these 2 care approaches. Read More

    Combined Use of Liposuction and Arthroscopic Shaving for Delayed Debulking of Free Flaps in Head and Neck Reconstruction.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S36-S39
    Background: Bulky appearance after free flap reconstruction in patients with head and neck cancer is common and requires revision to achieve improved final outcomes. Although different delayed debulking methods have been reported, the procedure can be technically difficult in patients with severe scaring after adjuvant radiotherapy. The present study proposes a combined method of liposuction and arthroscopic shaving for delayed contouring of free flaps in head and neck reconstruction. Read More

    Predominance of CD14+ Cells in Burn Blister Fluids.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S70-S74
    Background: Burn blister fluid contains several angiogenic factors to promote wound neovascularization. In our previous study, we found that deep partial-thickness burn (DPTB) wounds showed higher expression levels of angiogenin to enhance vascularization compared with superficial partial-thickness burn wounds. Neovascularization is a complex process that involves an interaction between circulating angiogenic cells and mediators. Read More

    Angiogenin Attenuates Scar Formation in Burn Patients by Reducing Fibroblast Proliferation and Transforming Growth Factor β1 Secretion.
    Ann Plast Surg 2018 Feb;80(2S Suppl 1):S79-S83
    Background: Deep burn wounds have a high tendency to form hypertrophic scars. Previously, we found that angiogenin promoted neovascularization during deep burn wound healing. However, the association between angiogenin and scar formation is unclear. Read More

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