Moscow Helmholtz Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, 14/19 Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya St., Moscow, Russia, 105062.
The worldwide prevalence of myopia varies within the range of 20-50% among the adult population of Europe and the United States reaching 60-90% in Asian countries. Reduction of pediatric myopia rates is an important task of medicine. From many reported conservative methods for stabilization of myopia, those that involve pharmaceutical measures are worth paying attention to. Read More
Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 5/12-aya Baumanskaya, Moscow, Russia, 105005.
This paper reviews studies on biomechanical properties of the anterior lens capsule. Early experiments in this field were more fundamental. Later studies were aimed mainly at assessing the mechanical stability of the capsule edge after manual or femtosecond laser capsulorhexis (capsulotomy) - an important step in modern minimally invasive phaco surgery. Read More
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known as a key mediator of angiogenesis, but there is also evidence of its broad significance in neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Cytokines of the VEGF family affect neovascularization and neural development in the brain, particularly during cerebral ischemia, in which there is a coordinated interaction of angiogenesis and neurogenesis that contributes to rapid functional recovery. This review examines the involvement of VEGF family members and their receptors in physiological and pathophysiological processes as well as the relationship between VEGF-A plasma levels and ischemic stroke. Read More
Research Institute of Eye Disease, 11 A, B, Rossolimo St., Moscow, Russia, 119021.
Despite the emergence of new approaches in the treatment of retinal vein thrombosis and post-thrombotic complications, namely, intravitreal pharmacotherapy and surgical treatment, laser photocoagulation continues to play a significant role in the management of patients with this pathology. Although the method of laser photocoagulation has been used for quite a long time, different views exist on its indications and execution in specific clinical situations. At that, not all opinions regarding the use of laser photocoagulation in thrombosis are based on convincing clinical studies. Read More
Ufa Eye Research Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Bashkortostan, 90 Pushkin St., Ufa, Russia, 450008.
Aim: to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of crosslinking in patients with progressive pellucid marginal corneal degeneration (PMCD).
Material And Methods: A total of 9 patients (16 eyes) with progressive PMCD were treated by standard crosslinking. The cornea was saturated with Dextralink solution and UV-A irradiated at 3 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Read More
Aim: to analyze the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in patients undergoing 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) with a high risk of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).
Material And Methods: This was a prospective consecutive study of 231 eyes of 227 patients. All eyes underwent vitrectomy with silicone oil/gas tamponade for RRD with a high risk of PVR: in 42 eyes the ILM was peeled (group 1) and in the remaining 189 eyes - was not (group 2). Read More
The aim of the study was to investigate the significance of anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibodies (AB) for ocular hydrodynamic disturbances in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The study was conducted using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The patients included had either high-tension (82 cases), or normal-tension (62 patients) glaucoma (HTG and NTG). Read More
Cheboksary branch of S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution, 10 Traktorostroiteley St., Cheboksary, Chuvash Republic, Russia, 428000.
Aim: to analyze corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (RF) readings obtained with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) before and after hyperopic femtolaser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) in children with anisometropia as well as to establish factors that may cause changes in these parameters.
Material And Methods: CH and RF were evaluated before and 1.5 years after FS-LASIK performed on amblyopic eyes of 28 patients aged 6-14 years. Read More
Aim: to evaluate the functional state of the retina in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) through different types of electroretinography (ERG).
Material And Methods: The total ERG (t-ERG), local macular ERG (m-ERG), and oscillatory potentials (OP) were recorded in 56 patients with verified APS.
Results: In most patients with APS, ERG was of abnormal appearance, particularly, t-ERG was notable for reliably lower a- and b-wave amplitudes (70% of cases), m-ERG - for lower amplitudes and shorter latency (64% of cases). Read More
Research Institute of Eye Diseases 11 A, B Rossolimo St., Moscow, Russia, 119021.
Aim: to study normal blood and lymph microcirculation of the upper and lower eyelids in different age groups.
Material And Methods: The study included 108 volunteers (216 eyes) aged from 20 to 80 years with no signs of changes in anterior segment structures, who were grouped by age ranges (20-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years, 51-60 years, 61-70 years, and 71-80 years) into 6 groups equal in gender and quantitative composition. In all volunteers, microcirculation of the upper and lower eyelids was examined by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) ('LASMA MC-1' peripheral blood and lymph flow analyzer and 'LASMA MC' laser diagnostic complex, LASMA LLC). Read More
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a multifactorial disease, etiopathogenesis of which largely depends on growth factors. Possessing a variety of medical and biological effects, these cytokines may influence the development and progression of POAG.
Aim: to reveal the role of genetic polymorphisms of growth factors in predisposition to developing POAG that is refractory to local hypotensive therapy. Read More
Aim: to comparatively analyze corneal aberrations after intrastromal corneal segments (ICS) and MyoRing implantation using femtosecond laser in patients with stage II-III keratoconus (KC) by Pentacam examination.
Material And Methods: We have operated on 135 patients (145 eyes) with stage II or III KC. Depending on surgical technique, all patients were divided into two groups. Read More
Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in older patients. An important role in angiogenesis is played by regulatory mechanisms (an increase in the number of proliferating endothelial and stromal cells and morphological alterations in the vascular network) induced by factors from the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. Since 2006, the key treatment of neovascular AMD includes agents that inhibit the activity of VEGF. Read More
Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) is a collection of symptoms of carotid and ophthalmic artery disease of common genesis accompanied by ischemia of eyeball membranes. Specifically, the intraocular blood flow becomes impaired due to inflow reduction or arrest, while the venous outflow remains patent. Causes of OIS include arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, aortoarteritis and other vascular diseases. Read More
The review discusses literature data on the clinical relevance of functional assessment of magno- (M), parvo- (P), and koniocellular (K) pathways. It also covers the differential contribution of the M, P, and K channels to visual impairments and how it determines the prognosis, early diagnosis, and treatment choice in patients with neurodegenerative diseases of the retina and brain. Selective changes in the performance of the visual channels are investigated by the example of glaucoma and optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Read More
Research Institute of Eye Diseases, 11 A, B, Rossolimo St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 119021; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 8-2 Malaya Trubetskaya St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991.
The review covers general clinical features of particular congenital anomalies of the human eye associated with its abnormal embryonic development. Principal literature sources on evaluation of congenital changes in the vitreous body and identification of its 'underdevelopment' in certain types of congenital cataracts have been studied. The said changes were analyzed with account to general pathology of the human body as well as local morphological manifestations. Read More
The paper presents an atypical case of solar retinopathy after short-term exposure to reflected focused sunbeams. An ophthalmoscopic peculiarity was the presence of intraretinal hemorrhage. The basis for establishing the diagnosis were spectral optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography findings. Read More
Early diagnosis of congenital glaucoma allows surgery to be performed at the stage of reversible glaucomatous alterations of the optic disc and retina. In primary congenital glaucoma, the main reason for visual acuity reduction following surgical stabilization of the intraocular pressure are corneal changes. These include an increased corneal diameter, Haab's striae, areas of thickening and a greater posterior elevation. Read More
Research Institute of Eye Diseases, 11 A,B Rossolimo St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 119021; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 2, str. 4 Bol'shaya Pirogovskaya St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991.
Granulomatous orbital cellulitis is one of the most common ocular manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's). The process is often refractory to conventional immunosuppressive therapy and requires a more radical treatment approach. However, surgical experience with this type of patients is limited. Read More
Aim: to report a clinical case of orbital dirofilariasis with attention to peculiarities of disease presentation, diagnostic measures, and treatment results.
Material And Methods: A patient with a history of spontaneously subsiding recurrent oedema of the lower eyelid suspicious of parasitic cyst formation. The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively by orbital ultrasound. Read More
A new method has been developed for the treatment of severe forms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) that involves the use of an original cyclosporine A (CyA) saturated soft contact lens (SCL) together with preservative-free artificial tears therapy.
Aim: to evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed treatment for KCS based on the use of medical SCL saturated with 0.05% CyA. Read More
Pterygium is widely distributed in regions with hot and dry climate. Frequent relapses of the disease are due to delayed epithelialization of postoperative corneal erosion, associated inflammation and formation of dry areas of the cornea. Effective stimulation of corneal epithelium regeneration in the postoperative period could reduce the frequency of relapses. Read More
Aim: to assess the relative risk (RR) of senile cataract in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to external gamma-rays over a long time period.
Material And Methods: The RR of cataract development was studied in a cohort of nuclear workers that were first employed in 1948-1982 and followed up till the end of 2008 (n=22,377; females, 25.4%). Read More
Aim: to assess the influence of the endothelial graft thickness on postoperative visual acuity following modified endothelial keratoplasty (UTDSAEK).
Material And Methods: The study included 49 patients with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and no concomitant disorders of either the retina or optic nerve. Ultrathin Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (UTDSAEK) was performed in all cases. Read More
Aim: to evaluate the ocular hypotensive efficacy of systemic beta-blockers in primary glaucoma patients suffering from arterial hypertension (AH).
Material And Methods: The study included 29 patients with POAG (58 eyes) aged from 47 to 83 years. Patients with stage I-III POAG received instillations of prostaglandin analogs and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Read More
The paper describes the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. As to steroid-induced glaucoma (SG), however, indicators of systemic and local cortisol metabolism are yet underinvestigated. Aim - to determine and compare systemic (plasma) and local (aqueous humour) cortisol concentrations in patients with SG and other types of glaucoma (OTG). Read More
Aim: to assess macular blood flow in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A).
Material And Methods: The study included 65 POAG patients and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers. Using OCT-A, blood flow parameters (Flow Area, Flow Index, and Vessel Density) were assessed in the para- and perifovea (0. Read More
Aim: to investigate neuromidin effectiveness in the treatment of patients with primary glaucoma and compensated intraocular pressure (IOP).
Material And Methods: A total of 40 patients (80 eyes) were examined. Of them, 10 eyes with early glaucoma, 36 eyes with moderate-stage glaucoma, 33 eyes with advanced glaucoma, and 1 eye with end-stage glaucoma. Read More
Aim: to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone intravitreal implant on the functional state of the eye in macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion.
Material And Methods: The study included two groups of patients: group 1 (control group) - 8 patients (16 eyes) without ocular pathology and group 2 (study group) - 8 patients (8 eyes) with macular edema on the background of newly diagnosed thrombosis of the central retinal vein. All the patients from the study group underwent insertion of an intravitreal dexamethasone implant - Ozurdex. Read More
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a frequent cause of vision deterioration. Often it is associated with type 1 neovascularization under the pigment retinal epithelium (RPE). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-angiography) enables non-invasive and contrast-free detection of neovessels in any retinal layer, which makes the method appropriate for diagnostics in CSCR. Read More
This is the first time the process of organizing the Clinic of Eye Diseases at the Moscow University has been traced and systematized basing on archival documents and publications - from rendering three beds for ophthalmology patients within the surgical clinic in 1805 to the establishment of a separate department of ophthalmology and subsequent foundation of the Hospital Eye Clinic in the Devich'e pole (Virgin's field) district in 1892. Read More
In this paper, technical details of visual evoked potentials (VEP) assessment and pattern electroretinography (PERG) are reviewed. Both methods are used to perform an objective functional examination of visual channels and to clarify the level, at which they have been damaged. Contributions of parvo- (P), magno- (M) and koniocellular (K) systems to the morphology of PERG and VEP responses are discussed with account to test conditions, selectively supportive of the activity of particular cell populations. Read More
Of the large number of polymers used in artificial tear formulations, natural polysaccharides - hydroxypropyl guar, sodium hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, dextran, etc., are gaining more and more popularity. Hydroxypropyl guar stands out through its ability to form a long-lasting structured matrix adhered to the damaged ocular surface and ensuring good wettability of the latter and regeneration of epithelial cells. Read More
Research Institute of Eye Diseases, 11 A, B, Rossolimo St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 119021; I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 8-2 Malaya Trubetskaya St., Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991.
The present review covers the use of chorioretinal photocoagulation, which is now a popular treatment for many diseases of the ocular fundus. The review includes a detailed 50-year history of the technology with account to both Russian and foreign achievements. The current state of the field is shown through Russian and foreign literature data. Read More
Paralytic lagophthalmos, resulting from facial nerve palsy, is a difficult medical and social issue that requires cooperation of different specialists. Complications that arise in paralytic lagophthalmos may cause significant vision loss and even eye loss. Various techniques of paralytic lagophthalmos correction are used to protect the cornea and restore eyelid anatomy and functions. Read More
Aim: to study peripheral refraction and the shape of the eyeball in children with different clinical refraction.
Material And Methods: Using an original method, peripheral refraction was measured at 10-12 degrees temporally and nasally from the fovea in 56 right eyes with different clinical, or axial, refraction of 20 boys and 36 girls aged 7 to 16 years (11.9±1. Read More
Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the value of information provided by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for identifying the palisades of Vogt (POV) in normal limbus.
Material And Methods: POV were studied in 15 healthy participants (30 eyes) without any anterior segment disease. Two examination methods were used: AS-OCT En Face imaging (RTVue XR Avanti, 3D Cornea protocol) and CLSM (HRT3). Read More
Aim: to evaluate functional results of reoperation performed according to the CIRCLE technology and using the VisuMax femtosecond laser and MEL-80 excimer laser in cases of regression of the refractive effect after SMILE surgery.
Material And Methods: We studied a group of post-SMILE patients. In those, who showed regression of the refractive effect at 1 year, reoperation was performed according to the CIRCLE technology and using the VisuMax femtosecond laser. Read More
The global prevalence of myopia in adults varies between 20-50% in Europe and the US and 60-90% in Asian countries. According to WHO, myopia is one of the five leading causes of blindness and low vision in the world. Prevention or deceleration of myopia progression is an important public health problem. Read More
Aim: to assess visual functions and ergonomics after bilateral versus unilateral implantation of Lentis Comfort LS-313 MF15 multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL) in aphakic eyes.
Material And Methods: A total of 20 patients with М LENTIS LS-313 MF15 MIOLs were followed up. Group 1 consisted of 12 patients after bilateral symmetric implantation, group 2 - of 8 patients after unilateral procedure. Read More
Aim: to comparatively evaluate the hypotensive effect of minimally invasive (type 1) and basic (type 2) subscleral removing of the external wall of Schlemm's canal with subsequent laser trabeculopuncture in patients with open-angle glaucoma (POAG).
Material And Methods: The main group included 60 patients (64 eyes) treated with the minimally invasive technique. The control group included 105 patients (105 eyes), who underwent the type 2 surgery. Read More
Aim: to identify the differences between serum cytokine profiles in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with or without uveal tract inflammation.
Material And Methods: Serum cytokine profiles were studied in two groups of patients: 20 children with JIA and JIA-associated uveitis and 33 children, who had no signs of uveitis under basic therapy for their JIA. All the patients showed drug remission of articular syndrome. Read More
Aim: to investigate morphological changes and visual acuity response to ranibizumab therapy in patients with different OCT-types of diabetic macular edema (DME) as well as different state of the inner and outer photoreceptor segments (IS and OS) and the outer limiting membrane (OLM); to study relationships between functional and morphological parameters before and after the treatment; to study the effect of glycated hemoglobin levels on morphological parameters and ME duration.
Material And Methods: The study included 113 patients (113 eyes) with DME, who underwent 3 once-monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (the mean patient age, 63.5±2. Read More
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) based lacrimal meniscometry is currently the most accurate method used to determine dimensions of tear meniscus. According to related literature, the latter gets reliably reduced after treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstructions. However, the relationship between morphometric parameters of tear meniscus and the intensity of epiphora has not been established. Read More