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    2326 results match your criteria Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism[Journal]

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    Changes in Dietary Patterns and the Nutritional Status in Men in the Metallurgical Industry in Poland Over A 21-Year Period.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Feb 21;72(2):161-171. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.
    Background/aims: The study was carried out to evaluate the changes in the eating habits and lipid parameters in a 21-year follow-up on a group of 435 men living in Poland.

    Methods: The studied population was composed of the same subjects: a group of men who were first studied in the years 1987-1989 and in 2008-2010. The following data was gathered: body mass, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration in blood serum. Read More

    Long-Term Vitamin D Supplementation and the Effects on Recurrence and Metabolic Status of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 or 3: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Feb 21;72(2):151-160. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.
    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the recurrence and metabolic status of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 (CIN2/3).

    Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among 58 women diagnosed with CIN2/3. Participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups to receive either 50,000 IU vitamin D3 (n = 29) or placebo (n = 29) every 2 weeks for 6 months. Read More

    Validity of Predictive Equations for Resting Energy Expenditure in Greek Adults.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 30;72(2):134-141. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Hydration Science Lab, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA.
    Aim: To examine the validity of published resting energy expenditure (REE) equations in Greek adults, and if indicated, develop new cohort-specific predictive REE equations.

    Methods: Indirect calorimetry and anthropometric data were obtained from 226 adult volunteers of diverse age groups and body mass index ranges (18-60 years, 16.6-67. Read More

    Circulating Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids as Biomarkers for Dietary Intake across Subgroups: The CODAM and Hoorn Studies.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 25;72(2):117-125. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Aims: To evaluate whether participant characteristics and way of expressing circulating fatty acids (FA) influence the strengths of associations between self-reported intake and circulating levels of linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

    Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed in pooled data from the CODAM (n = 469) and Hoorn (n = 702) studies. Circulating FA were measured by gas liquid chromatography and expressed as proportions (% of total FA) and concentrations (µg/mL). Read More

    Increased Serum Leptin Levels in New-Onset, Untreated Female Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Positively Associated with Inflammatory Markers.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 30;72(2):142-148. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Background/aims: Previous studies have suggested that leptin was associated with atherosclerosis and involved in inflammation. Gender differences between leptin and inflammatory markers have been evaluated less in untreated patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Methods: In this study, a total of 394 consecutive Chinese patients who received coronary artery angiography were enrolled, including 243 patients with CAD and 151 non-CAD controls. Read More

    Usefulness of Totally Implantable Central Venous Access Devices in Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Study.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 19;72(2):112-116. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Surgery, Innoshima Ishikai Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Background/aims: The need for totally implantable central venous access devices (TICVADs) has increased with increased opportunities in the use of chemotherapy and parenteral nutrition. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of TICVAD implantation and use in patients aged ≥85 years.

    Methods: Between January 2010 and August 2016, 117 patients underwent TICVAD implantation and their records were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    The Effectiveness of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet Intervention in Persons with Arterial Hypertension and Obesity: A Key Role of the Patients' Personality Profile.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 19;72(2):104-111. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Dietetics, Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Background/aims: Benefits resulting from weight loss and dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet in the treatment of arterial hypertension led to a search for a better therapy that would include psychological factors. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between the personality traits included in the Big Five personality traits and the effectiveness of treatment for weight loss in patients with essential hypertension and excessive body weight.

    Methods: The study involved 84 patients with essential hypertension, overweight or obesity, managed by a hypertensiologist. Read More

    Erythrocytes and Skeletal Muscle Unsaturated and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Are Positively Correlated after Caloric Restriction and Exercise.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 19;72(2):126-133. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Laboratory of Physical Activity Science, Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, University of Balearic Islands, and CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Background: Nutritional intervention studies with fatty acid (FA) supplements assess the efficacy of the intervention by measuring the changes in erythrocyte membrane lipid profiles reflected in tissue composition changes. The aim was to determine the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on erythrocytes lipid composition and to compare and correlate these changes with skeletal muscle acid profiles after CR.

    Methods: Erythrocytes were obtained from 11 healthy men before and after 4 weeks of 33% CR in post-exercise conditions; muscle biopsies were obtained from the same athletes after 4 weeks of 33% CR in post-exercise conditions. Read More

    Epicardial Fat Thickness in Non-Obese Neurologically Impaired Children: Association with Unfavorable Cardiometabolic Risk Profile.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 18;72(2):96-103. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Pediatric Surgery Unit, Children's Hospital, Istituto Mediterraneo di Eccellenza Pediatrica, Palermo, Italy.
    Background: Cardiovascular risk is reported in disabled children and epicardial fat (EF) is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No data on the EF thickness (EFT) evaluation in disabled children have been published.

    Objective: We investigated EFT in neurologically impaired (NI) children; its relationship with their metabolic profile was also considered. Read More

    Vitamin D: Classic and Novel Actions.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 18;72(2):87-95. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Background: Classically, vitamin D has been implicated in bone health by promoting calcium absorption in the gut and maintenance of serum calcium and phosphate concentrations, as well as by its action on bone growth and reorganization through the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts cells. However, in the last 2 decades, novel actions of vitamin D have been discovered. The present report summarizes both classic and novel actions of vitamin D. Read More

    Response to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Micronutrients, Essential Fatty Acids and Bone Health in Phenylketonuria".
    Ann Nutr Metab 2018 Jan 16;72(1):80-81. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Maternal and Cord Blood Adiponectin Concentrations in Small for Gestational Age: A Meta-Analysis.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 22;72(1):57-64. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Background: Adiponectin, which may have a growth-promoting effect through its insulin-sensitizing action, is thought to play a key role in fetal growth. This study was performed to determine whether maternal and/or cord blood adiponectin concentrations differ between small for gestational age (SGA) and healthy controls.

    Methods: Databases were searched to identify good quality English language studies providing the number of SGA and healthy controls, and the means and standard deviations of maternal or cord blood adiponectin concentration in both groups. Read More

    Retinol and Betacarotene Status in Mother-Infant Dyads and Associations between Them.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 21;72(1):50-56. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.
    Background/aims: Assessing the diet and biochemical indicators of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in high-risk populations is crucial in cases where this deficiency is mainly caused by chronically inadequate intake. This study aimed to determine the retinol and betacarotene status in mother-infant dyads, and to evaluate the associations between them.

    Methods: Umbilical cord serum, maternal serum, and colostrum were collected from 134 healthy mothers living in a risk region for VAD. Read More

    Difference between Methods for Estimation of Basal Metabolic Rate and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients with Osteogenesis Imperfecta.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 21;72(1):21-29. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Postgraduate Program in Child and Adolescent Health, University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Background/aims: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a bone disease characterized by bone fragility, deformities, and multiple fractures. The aim of this study was to compare the different methods of measuring the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition (BC) in pediatric patients with OI.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study included 52 individuals with a median age of 9 (5. Read More

    Clinical Implications of New Insights into Hepcidin-Mediated Regulation of Iron Absorption and Metabolism.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 22;71 Suppl 3:40-48. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    MRC Unit The Gambia, Fajara, The Gambia; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    The fact that humans must balance their need for iron against its potential for causing harm has been known for several centuries, but the molecular mechanisms by which we achieve this feat have only been revealed in the last 2 decades. Chief amongst these is the discovery of the master-regulatory liver-derived hormone hepcidin. By switching off ferroportin in enterocytes and macrophages, hepcidin exerts fine control over both iron absorption and its distribution among tissues. Read More

    Iron and Cognitive Development: What Is the Evidence?
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 22;71 Suppl 3:25-38. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Nutrition and Health Sciences Doctoral Program, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    The theoretical irreversible damage that iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia can exert on child development makes a compelling argument for action to alleviate the burden. However, a critical analysis of evidence from iron interventions in early life is necessary to determine whether and how iron interventions improve cognitive outcomes. Key iron interventions used in clinical and public health practice include oral iron supplementation and, in young children, iron-containing multiple micronutrient powders. Read More

    Meeting the Iron Needs of Low and Very Low Birth Weight Infants.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 22;71 Suppl 3:16-23. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Low birth weight (LBW), defined as a birth weight of <2,500 g, affects 16% of all newborns and is a risk factor for impaired neurodevelopment as well as adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes, including hypertension. LBW infants include both term, small for gestational age infants and preterm infants. Most LBW infants have only marginally LBW (2,000-2,500 g). Read More

    Iron Nutriture of the Fetus, Neonate, Infant, and Child.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 22;71 Suppl 3:8-14. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    MRC Unit The Gambia, MRC International Nutrition Group, Fajara, The Gambia.
    Iron is a key nutrient and is essential for the developing fetus, neonate, infant, and child. Iron requirements are high during early stages of life because it is critically important for the production of new red blood cells and muscle cells as well as brain development. Neonates, infants, and children obtain iron from dietary sources including breast milk (lactoferrin) and heme- and non-heme-containing foods. Read More

    Vitamin D Status and Resting Metabolic Rate May Modify through Expression of Vitamin D Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator-1 Alpha Gene in Overweight and Obese Adults.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 19;72(1):43-49. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Resting metabolic rate (RMR) used to prognosticate and measure the amount of energy required. Vitamin D is known as a new predictor of RMR. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between vitamin D effects on RMR in connection with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) gene expression. Read More

    Ghrelin is Negatively Correlated with Iron in the Serum in Human and Mice.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 14;72(1):37-42. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Pharmacology and Laboratory of Prevention and Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Biochemistry, Nantong University Medical School, Nantong, China.
    Background/aims: The studies in the patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) implied the existence of the association of ghrelin with iron or hepcidin levels in the plasma under the pathophysiological conditions. We hypothesized that fasting may be able to affect iron metabolism via ghrelin under the physiological conditions.

    Methods: We investigated the effects of fasting on serum ghrelin and iron contents in healthy volunteers (23-31 years) and C57BL/6 male mice (8-week-olds) under the physiological conditions. Read More

    Nutritional Screening and Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized Patients with Crohn's Disease.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;71(3-4):266-272. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.
    Background/aims: Hospitalized patients with Crohn's disease (CD) can develop severe nutritional deficits. However, the nutritional screening tools with the most utility for such patients are still unknown.

    Methods: Nutritional status of 40 CD patients was assessed on admission using several screening tools and laboratory tests. Read More

    Repeated Combined Chemotherapy with Cisplatin Lowers Carnitine Levels in Gastric Cancer Patients.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 13;71(3-4):261-265. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan.
    Background/aims: Carnitine plays an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids. It has also been reported that the administration of anticancer drugs may lead to reductions in serum carnitine levels due to decreased activity of organic cation transporter novel 2, which plays a role in the reabsorption of carnitine in the tubules of the kidney. We therefore studied the change in carnitine levels when chemotherapy was administered repeatedly to patients with gastric cancer. Read More

    Association Between Urinary Alpha1-Microglobulin Levels and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 12;72(1):30-36. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Background: We aimed to explore the association between urinary alpha1-microglobulin (A1M) levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Chinese population.

    Study: We performed a cross-sectional study among 2,215 Chinese who attended their annual health examination at First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University. Urinary A1M-creatinine ratio and other clinical and laboratory parameters were measured. Read More

    Revised Reference Values for the Intake of Sodium and Chloride.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Dec 12;72(1):12-17. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Sports and Health, University of Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany.
    Background: In January 2017, the nutrition societies of -Germany, Austria and Switzerland revised the reference values for sodium and chloride intake.

    Methods: For adults, the estimated value for sodium intake was derived on the basis of a balance study. The estimated values for children and adolescents were extrapolated from this estimated value considering differences in body mass. Read More

    Efficacy of a New Post-Mouthwash Intervention (Wiping Plus Oral Nutritional Supplements) for Preventing Aspiration Pneumonia in Elderly People: A Multicenter, Randomized, Comparative Trial.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71(3-4):253-260. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Background/aims: Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death among the elderly (≥90-year-old) in nursing homes. Studies suggest that its incidence could be reduced by oral care interventions. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a new oral care intervention: wiping plus oral nutritional supplements (ONS). Read More

    Does Anaemia Have Major Public Health Importance in Children Aged 6-59 Months in the Duggina Fanigo District of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia?
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Nov 16;72(1):3-11. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Assistant Professor at Department of Biochemistry, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.
    Background: Globally, a large number of children aged 6-59 months are affected by anaemia. In Ethiopia, like other developing countries, more than 40% of children under 5 years are affected by anaemia. Anaemia during infancy and childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earning potential in their adult life. Read More

    Impaired Enterohormone Response Following a Liquid Test Meal in Gastrectomized Patients.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;71(3-4):211-216. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Naples, Italy.
    Background: Total gastrectomy (TG) is responsible for symptoms or disturbance of alimentary status (changes in body weight, food intake per meal and frequency of meal per day) which, in turn are responsible for weight loss and malnutrition. The study evaluates the gut hormone responses in totally gastrectomized (TG) patients after a liquid meal test.

    Methods: Twenty total gastrectomized cancer-free patients (12 M, 8 F, 56. Read More

    Saturated Fat Intake Is Related to Heart Rate Variability in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;71(3-4):224-233. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Background/aims: There is a heightened risk for cardiovascular diseases in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect subclinical cardiovascular disease, with a putative association between HRV and dietary fat. This study evaluated HRV in PCOS and control women based on the dietary intake of saturated fatty acid (SFA). Read More

    Synergistic Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Antiproliferative Action of Anticancer Drugs in a Cancer Cell Line Model.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;71(3-4):247-252. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Science, Kurashiki, Japan.
    Background/aims: It has been found experimentally and clinically that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exerts an anticancer effect and that it has a minimal adverse event profile relative to other anticancer drugs. Any synergy between EPA and other anticancer drugs could be of therapeutic relevance, especially in elderly or high-risk patients. Therefore, we investigated the synergism between anticancer drugs and EPA experimentally. Read More

    Serum Transaminase Concentrations and the Presence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Are Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentrations in Adolescent Girls Who Are Overweight and Obese.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;71(3-4):234-241. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background/aims: Vitamin D deficiency has become endemic globally and its etiology is complex. Few studies have investigated the determinants of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH D). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between lifestyle patterns, liver functional tests (LFTs), and the presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with serum 25-OH D in apparently healthy girls. Read More

    Impact of Early Infant Growth, Duration of Breastfeeding and Maternal Factors on Total Body Fat Mass and Visceral Fat at 3 and 6 Months of Age.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;71(3-4):203-210. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Pediatrics, Subdivision of Endocrinology, Erasmus MC/Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: Accelerated gain in fat mass in the first months of life is considered to be a risk factor for adult diseases, given the tracking of infancy fat mass into adulthood. Our objective was to assess the influence of early growth, type of feeding and maternal variables on fat mass in early life.

    Methods: In 300 healthy term infants, we longitudinally measured fat mass percentage (FM%) by air-displacement-plethysmography at 1, 3, and 6 months and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat measured by ultrasound at 3 and 6 months. Read More

    Biochemical, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors Related with Weight Maintenance after Weight Loss Secondary to a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;71(3-4):217-223. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Background/aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of lifestyle factors and molecular biomarkers on the maintenance of the weight lost after a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet.

    Design: After 3 months on a diet, patients (n = 335) remained with no controlled diet during 3 years and they were revaluated.

    Results: Using linear regression, in the group of responders, we detected that a positive weight loss at 3 months, serum levels of leptin at 3 months, and each 30 min per week of physical activity were associated with weight loss maintenance. Read More

    The Relationship between Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes Is Intriguing: Glimpses from the Spect-China Study.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 13;71(3-4):195-202. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Objective: Vitamin D is a multifunctional vitamin for our body. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disease. Whether T2DM affects the serum 25(OH)D level has not been reported. Read More

    Insulin Regimens to Treat Hyperglycemia in Hospitalized Patients on Nutritional Support: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 6;71(3-4):183-194. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Division of Endocrinology, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Background: The best insulin regimen to treat hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients on nutritional support (NS) is unclear.

    Methods: We searched electronic databases to identify cohort studies or randomized clinical trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of different insulin regimens used to treat hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients on NS on diverse outcomes: mean blood glucose (MBG), hypoglycemia, length of stay in hospital, and mortality.

    Results: Seventeen studies from a total of 5,030 were included. Read More

    The High Incidence of Bacteremia in Children Undergoing Surgery Can Be Prevented by Bifidobacterium Supplementation.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:31-36. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Major surgical procedures can alter intestinal microbiota and disrupt the intestinal barrier function, leaving the patient at risk for infection. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Although the efficacy of administering probiotics perioperatively to adults has been reported, the clinical significance of probiotics in children undergoing surgery is still unclear. Read More

    Effects of Synbiotics to Prevent Postoperative Infectious Complications in Highly Invasive Abdominal Surgery.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:23-30. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
    Postoperative infectious complication (POIC) is one of the most common complications following highly invasive abdominal surgeries, such as hepatectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatoduodenectomy. The surgical stress temporarily deteriorates the intestinal microenvironment, and the fecal concentrations of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus decrease following highly invasive abdominal surgery. In parallel with these changes, the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid also decrease after surgery. Read More

    Type 2 Diabetes and Bacteremia.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:17-22. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: A high proportion of type 2 diabetes cases are associated with host genetic and environmental factors. During the past decade, microorganisms that inhabit the gut have emerged as contributors to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, manipulation of the human gut microbiota will provide essential clues regarding new therapeutic targets for diabetes. Read More

    Bacterial Translocation from the Gut to the Distant Organs: An Overview.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:11-16. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Center for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
    Background: The intestinal epithelial layer is the chief barricade between the luminal contents and the host. A healthy homeostatic intestinal barrier is pivotal for maintaining gastrointestinal health, which impacts the overall health as it safeguards the gut-blood axis and checks gut microbes including potential pathogens from entering into the circulation.

    Summary: Under healthy milieus, the intestinal barrier is generally very dynamic and effective, with luminal side being heavily infested with a wide variety of gut microbes while the basolateral side remains virtually sterile. Read More

    Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN: A Novel Culture-Independent Analytical Method for Detection of Bacteria in the Bloodstream.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:4-10. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Basic Research Department, Yakult Central Institute, Tokyo, Japan.
    We have developed a highly sensitive microbial analytical system, the Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN (YIF-SCAN), based on reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, to quantify the intestinal microbiota. Targeting ribosomal RNA "molecules," which are present in abundant copies in the microorganisms, YIF-SCAN is at least hundreds of times more sensitive (detection limits: 102-3 cells/g feces, 1 cell/mL blood) than conventional DNA-based methods, and hence enables highly sensitive and precise detection of viable microorganisms in various types of samples, such as stools, blood etc. Specifically, this high analytical sensitivity enables more accurate and reliable detection (compared with conventional culture methods) of microorganisms migrating in the blood, bacteremia, in patients with different diseases such as pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia, neonates with clinically diagnosed sepsis, and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or ischemic stroke. Read More

    Status of Vitamin A and Related Compounds and Clinical Outcomes in Maternal-Infant Pairs in the Midwestern United States.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 22;71(3-4):175-182. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Allied Health Professions, Medical Nutrition Education, 984045 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.
    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for pregnant women, and other vitamin A-related compounds, including lutein and lycopene, have been associated with maternal-infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to quantify the status of vitamin A and related compounds in maternal-infant pairs at the time of delivery, and to determine its impact on clinical outcomes.

    Methods: Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 189 mother-infant pairs. Read More

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