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    2295 results match your criteria Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism[Journal]

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    Does Anaemia Have Major Public Health Importance in Children Aged 6-59 Months in the Duggina Fanigo District of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia?
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Nov 16;72(1):3-11. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Assistant Professor at Department of Biochemistry, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.
    Background: Globally, a large number of children aged 6-59 months are affected by anaemia. In Ethiopia, like other developing countries, more than 40% of children under 5 years are affected by anaemia. Anaemia during infancy and childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earning potential in their adult life. Read More

    Impaired Enterohormone Response Following a Liquid Test Meal in Gastrectomized Patients.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Nov 14;71(3-4):211-216. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition Unit, Naples, Italy.
    Background: Total gastrectomy (TG) is responsible for symptoms or disturbance of alimentary status (changes in body weight, food intake per meal and frequency of meal per day) which, in turn are responsible for weight loss and malnutrition. The study evaluates the gut hormone responses in totally gastrectomized (TG) patients after a liquid meal test.

    Methods: Twenty total gastrectomized cancer-free patients (12 M, 8 F, 56. Read More

    Saturated Fat Intake Is Related to Heart Rate Variability in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Nov 14;71(3-4):224-233. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Gynecological Endocrinology Unit, Division of Endocrinology, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Background/aims: There is a heightened risk for cardiovascular diseases in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect subclinical cardiovascular disease, with a putative association between HRV and dietary fat. This study evaluated HRV in PCOS and control women based on the dietary intake of saturated fatty acid (SFA). Read More

    Synergistic Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on Antiproliferative Action of Anticancer Drugs in a Cancer Cell Line Model.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Nov 14;71(3-4):247-252. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Science, Kurashiki, Japan.
    Background/aims: It has been found experimentally and clinically that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exerts an anticancer effect and that it has a minimal adverse event profile relative to other anticancer drugs. Any synergy between EPA and other anticancer drugs could be of therapeutic relevance, especially in elderly or high-risk patients. Therefore, we investigated the synergism between anticancer drugs and EPA experimentally. Read More

    Serum Transaminase Concentrations and the Presence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Are Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentrations in Adolescent Girls Who Are Overweight and Obese.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Nov 14;71(3-4):234-241. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Metabolic Syndrome Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background/aims: Vitamin D deficiency has become endemic globally and its etiology is complex. Few studies have investigated the determinants of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH D). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between lifestyle patterns, liver functional tests (LFTs), and the presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with serum 25-OH D in apparently healthy girls. Read More

    Impact of Early Infant Growth, Duration of Breastfeeding and Maternal Factors on Total Body Fat Mass and Visceral Fat at 3 and 6 Months of Age.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Nov 14;71(3-4):203-210. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Pediatrics, Subdivision of Endocrinology, Erasmus MC/Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: Accelerated gain in fat mass in the first months of life is considered to be a risk factor for adult diseases, given the tracking of infancy fat mass into adulthood. Our objective was to assess the influence of early growth, type of feeding and maternal variables on fat mass in early life.

    Methods: In 300 healthy term infants, we longitudinally measured fat mass percentage (FM%) by air-displacement-plethysmography at 1, 3, and 6 months and abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat measured by ultrasound at 3 and 6 months. Read More

    Biochemical, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors Related with Weight Maintenance after Weight Loss Secondary to a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Nov 14;71(3-4):217-223. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Background/aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of lifestyle factors and molecular biomarkers on the maintenance of the weight lost after a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet.

    Design: After 3 months on a diet, patients (n = 335) remained with no controlled diet during 3 years and they were revaluated.

    Results: Using linear regression, in the group of responders, we detected that a positive weight loss at 3 months, serum levels of leptin at 3 months, and each 30 min per week of physical activity were associated with weight loss maintenance. Read More

    The Relationship between Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes Is Intriguing: Glimpses from the Spect-China Study.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Oct 13;71(3-4):195-202. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Objective: Vitamin D is a multifunctional vitamin for our body. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common metabolic disease. Whether T2DM affects the serum 25(OH)D level has not been reported. Read More

    Insulin Regimens to Treat Hyperglycemia in Hospitalized Patients on Nutritional Support: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Oct 6;71(3-4):183-194. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Background: The best insulin regimen to treat hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients on nutritional support (NS) is unclear.

    Methods: We searched electronic databases to identify cohort studies or randomized clinical trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of different insulin regimens used to treat hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients on NS on diverse outcomes: mean blood glucose (MBG), hypoglycemia, length of stay in hospital, and mortality.

    Results: Seventeen studies from a total of 5,030 were included. Read More

    The High Incidence of Bacteremia in Children Undergoing Surgery Can Be Prevented by Bifidobacterium Supplementation.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:31-36. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
    Major surgical procedures can alter intestinal microbiota and disrupt the intestinal barrier function, leaving the patient at risk for infection. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Although the efficacy of administering probiotics perioperatively to adults has been reported, the clinical significance of probiotics in children undergoing surgery is still unclear. Read More

    Effects of Synbiotics to Prevent Postoperative Infectious Complications in Highly Invasive Abdominal Surgery.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:23-30. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
    Postoperative infectious complication (POIC) is one of the most common complications following highly invasive abdominal surgeries, such as hepatectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatoduodenectomy. The surgical stress temporarily deteriorates the intestinal microenvironment, and the fecal concentrations of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus decrease following highly invasive abdominal surgery. In parallel with these changes, the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid also decrease after surgery. Read More

    Type 2 Diabetes and Bacteremia.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:17-22. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: A high proportion of type 2 diabetes cases are associated with host genetic and environmental factors. During the past decade, microorganisms that inhabit the gut have emerged as contributors to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, manipulation of the human gut microbiota will provide essential clues regarding new therapeutic targets for diabetes. Read More

    Bacterial Translocation from the Gut to the Distant Organs: An Overview.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:11-16. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Center for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
    Background: The intestinal epithelial layer is the chief barricade between the luminal contents and the host. A healthy homeostatic intestinal barrier is pivotal for maintaining gastrointestinal health, which impacts the overall health as it safeguards the gut-blood axis and checks gut microbes including potential pathogens from entering into the circulation.

    Summary: Under healthy milieus, the intestinal barrier is generally very dynamic and effective, with luminal side being heavily infested with a wide variety of gut microbes while the basolateral side remains virtually sterile. Read More

    Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN: A Novel Culture-Independent Analytical Method for Detection of Bacteria in the Bloodstream.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 28;71 Suppl 1:4-10. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Basic Research Department, Yakult Central Institute, Tokyo, Japan.
    We have developed a highly sensitive microbial analytical system, the Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN (YIF-SCAN), based on reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, to quantify the intestinal microbiota. Targeting ribosomal RNA "molecules," which are present in abundant copies in the microorganisms, YIF-SCAN is at least hundreds of times more sensitive (detection limits: 102-3 cells/g feces, 1 cell/mL blood) than conventional DNA-based methods, and hence enables highly sensitive and precise detection of viable microorganisms in various types of samples, such as stools, blood etc. Specifically, this high analytical sensitivity enables more accurate and reliable detection (compared with conventional culture methods) of microorganisms migrating in the blood, bacteremia, in patients with different diseases such as pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia, neonates with clinically diagnosed sepsis, and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or ischemic stroke. Read More

    Status of Vitamin A and Related Compounds and Clinical Outcomes in Maternal-Infant Pairs in the Midwestern United States.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Sep 22;71(3-4):175-182. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Allied Health Professions, Medical Nutrition Education, 984045 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.
    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for pregnant women, and other vitamin A-related compounds, including lutein and lycopene, have been associated with maternal-infant outcomes. The objective of this study was to quantify the status of vitamin A and related compounds in maternal-infant pairs at the time of delivery, and to determine its impact on clinical outcomes.

    Methods: Maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 189 mother-infant pairs. Read More

    Estimating Usual Intake in the 2nd Bavarian Food Consumption Survey: Comparison of the Results Derived by the National Cancer Institute Method and a Basic Individual Means Approach.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Sep 21;71(3-4):164-174. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Background: The valid estimation of the usual dietary intake remains a challenge till date. We applied the method suggested by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to data from the 2nd Bavarian Food Consumption Survey (BVS II) and compared it to an individual means approach.

    Methods: Within the cross-sectional BVS II, 1,050 Bavarian residents aged 13-80 years participated in a personal interview and completed three 24-h dietary recalls by telephone interview. Read More

    Savoring Sweet: Sugars in Infant and Toddler Feeding.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;70 Suppl 3:38-46. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    The Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
    During the first years of life, the sweetness of sugars has a capacity to hinder or to help in laying a strong nutritional foundation for food preferences that often extend over a lifetime. Aside from supplying 4 g/kcal of energy, sugars are non-nutritive. However, sugars have a powerful attribute, sweetness, which strongly influences human food preference. Read More

    Type 1 Taste Receptors in Taste and Metabolism.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;70 Suppl 3:27-36. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Rutgers University Department of Nutritional Sciences, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
    Our sense of taste allows us to evaluate the nutritive value of foods prior to ingesting them. Sweet taste signals the presence of sugars, and savory taste signals the presence of amino acids. The ability to identify these macronutrients in foods was likely crucial for the survival of our species when nourishing food sources were sparse. Read More

    Flavor Perception and Preference Development in Human Infants.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;70 Suppl 3:17-25. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    The College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, USA.
    As most parents and caregivers are aware, feeding children a nutritionally balanced diet can be challenging. Children are born with a biological predisposition to prefer sweet and to avoid bitter foods such as green leafy vegetables. It has been hypothesized that this predisposition evolved to attract children to energy-dense foods while discouraging the consumption of toxins. Read More

    Does Breastfeeding Shape Food Preferences? Links to Obesity.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;70 Suppl 3:8-15. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Kinesiology, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA.
    The first 2 years of life have been recognized as a critical window for obesity prevention efforts. This period is characterized by rapid growth and development and, in a relatively short period of time, a child transitions from a purely milk-based diet to a more varied solid-food diet. Much learning about food and eating occurs during this critical window, and it is well-documented that early feeding and dietary exposures predict later food preferences, eating behaviors, and dietary patterns. Read More

    Reduced Serum Phosphorus Levels Were Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Men But Not in Women: A Cross-Sectional Study among the Japanese Population.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Sep 8;71(3-4):150-156. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Iida Municipal Hospital, Nagano, Japan.
    Background: Reduced serum phosphorus (SP) levels are reported to be associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, there have been a few gender-specific studies although SP levels are substantially different between men and women.

    Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Read More

    Benefits of Curcumin Supplementation on Antioxidant Status in β-Thalassemia Major Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Sep 8;71(3-4):136-144. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: β-Thalassemia major, the most common inherited anemia in the world, is associated with imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin supplementation on markers of oxidative stress in patients with β-Thalassemia.

    Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was performed on 61 β-thalassemia major patients. Read More

    Clinical Significance of Area of Psoas Major Muscle on Computed Tomography after Gastrectomy in Gastric Cancer Patients.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Sep 8;71(3-4):145-149. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Surgery, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: The measurement of a single abdominal image on computed tomography (CT) can provide an estimate of the total body skeletal muscle. We evaluate the change of the area of the psoas major muscle (PMMA) in a CT which was performed routinely after gastrectomy in gastric cancer.

    Methods: A total of 119 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled for the study. Read More

    Simple Age Specific Cutoff Value for Sarcopenia Evaluated by Computed Tomography.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Sep 8;71(3-4):157-163. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Objective: Until now, cutoff values of low skeletal muscle mass using computed tomography (CT) were driven by optimal stratification to predict mortality in cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the simple, age-specific, cutoff value of low skeletal muscle mass by CT in healthy adults.

    Design: This is a retrospective, observational, single-center study. Read More

    Effects of Inadequate Amino Acid Mixture Intake on Nutrient Supply of Adult Patients with Phenylketonuria.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 Aug 26;71(3-4):129-135. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Adult phenylketonuria (PKU) patients often reduce their intake of amino acid mixture (AAM) to less than the prescribed amounts. Effects of reduced AAM intake on nutrient supply were evaluated.

    Methods: Nutrient intake was calculated in 20 adult PKU patients based on a structured food record and complemented by laboratory assessment of nutritional status. Read More

    Revised Reference Values for Potassium Intake.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 11;71(1-2):118-124. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    German Nutrition Society, Bonn, Germany.
    Background: The nutrition societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland have revised the reference values for potassium intake in January 2017.

    Methods: For adults, the estimated value was based on the 24-h urinary potassium excretion and on preventive considerations regarding hypertension and stroke. The estimated values for children and adolescents were extrapolated from the adult estimated value considering differences in body mass. Read More

    Paediatric Home Parenteral Nutrition in the Czech Republic and Its Development: Multicentre Retrospective Study 1995-2011.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 29;71(1-2):99-106. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Paediatric Surgery, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and University Hospital Motol, In Memoriam, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Background: Treatment quality and outcomes of paediatric home parenteral nutrition (HPN) program during its development in the Czech Republic.

    Methods: A retrospective study of patients receiving HPN from May 1995 till June 2011.

    Results: Sixty-six patients were treated in 8 centres. Read More

    Clinical Outcomes of Dietary Replacement of Saturated Fatty Acids with Unsaturated Fat Sources in Adults with Overweight and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 29;71(1-2):107-117. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Carle Illinois College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.
    Background: Obesity and dyslipidemia are frequently treated with dietary interventions before pharmacotherapy is given. Diets high in unsaturated fat have proven advantageous to disease treatment.

    Aims: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the evidence of the effect of saturated fatty acids (SFA) replacement with unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in metabolically healthy adults with overweight and obesity on markers of dyslipidemia and body composition. Read More

    Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with and without Liver Cirrhosis.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 22;71(1-2):91-98. Epub 2017 Jul 22.
    Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Metabolic Diseases, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland.
    Background/aims: Cystic fibrosis (CF) liver disease is the third most frequent cause of death in CF patients. Although it alters fatty acid (FA) metabolism, data concerning the profile of FA in CF patients with liver cirrhosis is lacking. This study aimed to assess the FA composition of serum phospholipids in CF patients with and without liver cirrhosis. Read More

    β-Carotene Concentration and Its Association with Inflammatory Biomarkers in Spanish Schoolchildren.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 14;71(1-2):80-87. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Sección Departamental de Química Analítica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Aim: To examine the correlation between inflammatory biomarkers and plasma β-carotene levels in children.

    Methods: A total of 564 Spanish schoolchildren aged 9-12 were observed and studied. Plasma β-carotene levels were assessed by HPLC. Read More

    Long-Term Health Impact of Early Nutrition: The Power of Programming.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 6;70(3):161-169. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Division of Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University of Munich Medical Center, Munich, Germany.
    The Power of Programming conference 2016 at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich brought together about 600 researchers and other stakeholders from around the world who reviewed the recent evidence on the lasting health impact of environment and nutrition during early life, from pre-pregnancy to early childhood. The conference was hosted by the Early Nutrition Project, a multidisciplinary research collaboration funded by the European Commission with collaborating researchers from 35 institutions in 15 countries in Europe, the United States and Australia. The project explores the early origins of obesity, adiposity and associated non-communicable diseases, underlying mechanisms and opportunities for prevention. Read More

    Low Oxygen Consumption is Related to a Hypomethylation and an Increased Secretion of IL-6 in Obese Subjects with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 4;71(1-2):16-25. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    University of Navarra, Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Physiology, School of Pharmacy and Nutrition, Pamplona, Spain.
    Background: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation is an epigenetic modification involved in gene expression regulation, usually via gene silencing, which contributes to the risks of many multifactorial diseases. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of resting oxygen consumption on global and gene DNA methylation as well as protein secretion of inflammatory markers in blood cells from obese subjects with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS).

    Methods: A total of 44 obese participants with SAHS were categorized in 2 groups according to their resting oxygen consumption. Read More

    International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids 2016 Debate: For Science-Based Dietary Guidelines on Fats, Meta-Analysis and Systematic Reviews Are Decisive.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 4;71(1-2):26-30. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    ScienceVoice Consulting, Denver, CO, USA.
    This paper summarizes a debate on whether meta-analyses and systematic reviews are decisive in formulating guidelines for dietary fat. Held during the 12th congress of the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids in Stellenbosch, South Africa, September 7, 2016, the debate was hosted by the International Union of Nutritional Sciences and the International Expert Movement to Improve Dietary Fat Quality (IEM, www.theiem. Read More

    Predictive Accuracy of Calf Circumference Measurements to Detect Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-Defined Malnutrition in Hospitalized Older Patients.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 24;71(1-2):10-15. Epub 2017 Jun 24.
    Department of Nutrition and Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Tamana Regional Health Medical Center, Kumamoto, Japan.
    Background/aims: The ability to readily diagnose sarcopenia and malnutrition in a clinical setting is essential. This study is aimed at clarifying the calf circumference (CC) cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass (SMM), according to the Asian Work Group for Sarcopenia's criteria definition of sarcopenia, and those for European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition, in hospitalized Japanese patients.

    Methods: The study involved 1,164 patients aged ≥65 years. Read More

    Association between Thyroid Function and Body Mass Index: A 10-Year Follow-Up.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 16;70(4):338-345. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background/aims: We aimed to evaluate the association between change in thyroid function tests within the euthyroid range and body mass index (BMI) in persons with normal weight at baseline.

    Methods: This study investigated 1,100 normal-weight euthyroid persons in a population-based cohort study, Tehran Thyroid Study. BMI was calculated and serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) and free T4 (FT4) were assayed at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. Read More

    Prevalence of Hyponatremia and Its Associated Morbimortality in Hospitalized Patients Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 16;71(1-2):1-7. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid-IEN, Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Background: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hyponatremia (HN) and its associated morbimortality in hospitalized patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN).

    Methods: A retrospective study including 222 patients receiving total PN (parenteral nutrition group [PNG]) over a 7-month period in a tertiary hospital and 176 matched to 179 control subjects without PN (control subjects group [CSG]). Demographic data, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), date of HN detection-(serum sodium or SNa <135 mmol/L)-intrahospital mortality, and hospital length-of-stay (LOS) were registered. Read More

    Relationship between Sodium Intake and Water Intake: The False and the True.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 15;70 Suppl 1:51-61. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    INSERM Unit 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
    Background: Generally, eating salty food items increases thirst. Thirst is also stimulated by the experimental infusion of hypertonic saline. But, in steady state, does the kidney need a higher amount of water to excrete sodium on a high than on a low sodium intake? This issue is still controversial. Read More

    Under What Conditions do Water-Intervention Studies Significantly Improve Child Body Weight?
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 15;70 Suppl 1:62-67. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA, USA.
    There are particular conditions that may optimize the effects of drinking-water interventions on body weight change and risk of obesity. Strategic planning to create and sustain conditions for optimal effects of drinking water may maximize the impact of school-based interventions to reduce childhood obesity. This paper proposes questions about the target population, type of diet and activity level that will be maintained during the intervention, and planned intervention message(s). Read More

    Shifting Focus: From Hydration for Performance to Hydration for Health.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 15;70 Suppl 1:4-12. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Danone Research, Hydration and Health Department, Palaiseau, France.
    Over the past 10 years, literature on hydration biomarkers has evolved considerably - from (de)hydration assessment towards a more global definition of biomarkers of hydration in daily life. This shift in thinking about hydration markers was largely driven by investigating the differences that existed between otherwise healthy individuals whose habitual, ad-libitum drinking habits differ, and by identifying physiological changes in low-volume drinkers who subsequently increase their water intake. Aside from obvious differences in urinary volume and concentration, a growing body of evidence is emerging that links differences in fluid intake with small, but biologically significant, differences in vasopressin (copeptin), glomerular filtration rate, and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease. Read More

    Polycystic Kidney Disease and the Vasopressin Pathway.
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 15;70 Suppl 1:43-50. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis. Increased vasopressin concentrations, measured by its surrogate copeptin, have been associated with disease severity as well as disease progression in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and in experimental studies vasopressin has been shown to directly regulate cyst growth. Blocking vasopressin effects on the kidney via the vasopressin V2-receptor and lower circulating vasopressin concentration are potential treatment opportunities that have been the subject of study in PKD in recent years. Read More

    The Discovery of Water Channels (Aquaporins).
    Ann Nutr Metab 2017 15;70 Suppl 1:37-42. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Center for Systems Biology and Program in Membrane Biology/Division of Nephrology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    The movement of water into and out of cells is a fundamental biological process that is essential for life. Such water movement not only regulates the activity of individual cells but also is responsible for the functioning of many organ systems and for maintaining whole body water balance. It had long been suspected that water movement across biological cell membranes was in some way enhanced or facilitated by pores or channels, but the search to identify these channels was long and tedious. Read More

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