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    Challenges in adult vaccination.
    Ann Med 2018 Jan 16:1-12. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    c Department of Medical Affairs , GlaxoSmithKline , Wavre , Belgium.
    Life-long primary prevention interventions beginning and continuing throughout an individual's lifetime are increasingly seen as key to meeting the global healthcare challenges that accompany demographic changes - a concept referred to as "Healthy aging". In this perspective, vaccination is seen as part of a triad, together with healthy diet and exercise. Current adult vaccine coverage is lower than target vaccination rates in most developed countries, and so vaccine preventable diseases continue to present a substantial burden on health and healthcare resources, especially in older individuals. Read More

    On Surmounting the Barriers to HPV Vaccination: We Can Do Better.
    Ann Med 2018 Jan 10:1-41. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    a Department of Medicine , Drexel University College of Medicine , Philadelphia , U.S.A.
    The major impediment to increased HPV vaccination coverage in young males and females is lack of health care provider recommendation. Despite its efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, HPV vaccination in females (49.5%) and males (37. Read More

    Maternal immunization: where are we now and how to move forward?
    Ann Med 2018 Jan 17:1-16. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    a R&D Department , GSK , Wavre , Belgium.
    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with elevated risks to both mother and infant from infectious disease. Vaccination of pregnant women, also called maternal immunization, has the potential to protect pregnant women, foetuses and infants from several vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G antibodies are actively transferred through the placenta to provide passive immunity to new-borns during the first months of life, until the time for infant vaccinations or until the period of greatest susceptibility has passed. Read More

    Longer time spent in bed attempting to sleep is associated with rapid renal function decline: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.
    Ann Med 2018 Jan 4:1-8. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    a Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College , Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan , China.
    Introduction: Prospective evidence on the relation between time in bed and renal dysfunction remains limited. We aimed to investigate the association of time spent in bed attempting to sleep (TSBS) with renal function decline in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.

    Methods: About 16,733 eligible participants with a mean age of 62. Read More

    The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease: a brief review.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 18:1-7. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    e Laboratory of Angiopathology , Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences , Moscow , Russia.
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Proper mitochondrial function is necessary in tissues and organs that are of high energy demand, including the heart. Mitochondria are very sensitive to nutrient and oxygen supply and undergo metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. Read More

    Autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the risk of Parkinson disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 20;50(1):83-90. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    h Biostatistics Center and School of Health Care Administration, College of Management , Taipei Medical University , Taipei , Taiwan.
    Backgrounds: In autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), the levels of inflammatory mediators are increased and microglia may be activated, resulting in an inflammatory state and the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. We investigated the association between ARDs and Parkinson disease (PD).

    Methods: We identified ARD patients through the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 2001 to 2012. Read More

    Mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation and common co-morbidities - a cohort study in primary care.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 27:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    f Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University , Malmö , Sweden.
    Objective: To study the association between cardiovascular co-morbidities and mortality risk in primary care patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Methods: The study population included all adults (n = 12,283) ≥ 45 years diagnosed with AF at 75 primary care centres in Sweden between 2001 and 2007. The outcome was mortality (until 2010) and data were explored for co-morbidities using Cox regression with hazard ratios (HRs). Read More

    Understanding modern-day vaccines: what you need to know.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 27:1-11. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    d Department of Family and Community Medicine , University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.
    Vaccines are considered to be one of the greatest public health achievements of the last century. Depending on the biology of the infection, the disease to be prevented, and the targeted population, a vaccine may require the induction of different adaptive immune mechanisms to be effective. Understanding the basic concepts of different vaccines is therefore crucial to understand their mode of action, benefits, risks, and their potential real-life impact on protection. Read More

    Pharmacological interventions for preventing acute mountain sickness: a network meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized clinical trials.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 23:1-9. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    b School of Oral Health, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences , Fiji National University , Suva , Fiji.
    Background: Individuals ascending to high altitude are at a risk of getting acute mountain sickness (AMS). The present study is a network meta-analysis comparing all the interventions available to prevent AMS.

    Methods: Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials evaluating the use of drugs to prevent AMS. Read More

    Clinical manifestations and outcomes of severe warfarin overanticoagulation: from the EWA study.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 23:1-8. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    a Heart Center , Turku University Hospital and University of Turku , Turku , Finland.
    Introduction: Severe warfarin overanticoagulation is a risk factor for bleeding, but there is little information on its manifestations, prognosis and factors affecting the outcome. We describe the manifestations and clinical outcomes of severe warfarin overanticoagulation in a large group of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).

    Material And Methods: All international normalized ratio (INR) samples (n = 961,431) in the Turku University Hospital region between 2003 and 2015 were screened. Read More

    Both youth and long-term vitamin D status is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood: a cohort study.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 7;50(1):74-82. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    b Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine , University of Turku , Turku , Finland.
    Objectives: To determine whether vitamin D status in childhood and adolescence (herein collectively referred to as youth) and the long-term status from youth to adulthood is associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in adulthood.

    Materials And Methods: This was a 31-year follow-up study of 2300 participants aged 3-18 years. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association of both (a) baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and (b) the mean of baseline and the latest follow-up 25OHD levels (continuous variable and quartiles) with incident T2DM and IFG (cut-off = 5. Read More

    Next generation sequencing applications for cardiovascular disease.
    Ann Med 2017 Oct 26:1-19. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    a Cardiogenetic Research Laboratory , Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    The Human Genome Project (HGP), as the primary sequencing of the human genome, lasted more than one decade to be completed using the traditional Sanger's method. At present, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology could provide the genome sequence data in hours. NGS has also decreased the expense of sequencing; therefore, nowadays it is possible to carry out both whole-genome (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) for the variations detection in patients with rare genetic diseases as well as complex disorders such as common cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Read More

    Effect of age, period and birth-cohort on the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Sardinian adults.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 16;50(1):68-73. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    a Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale , University of Sassari , Sassari , Italy.
    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited disorder common in Sardinia. In this study, the frequency variation of G6PD-deficiency across age groups and birth cohorts was investigated using Age-Period-Cohort analysis.

    Methods: Data were collected from the clinical records of 11,252 patients (6975 women, age range 17-94 years) who underwent endoscopy between 2000 and 2016 at a teaching hospital (University of Sassari), Italy. Read More

    Mechanical dispersion is associated with poor outcome in heart failure with a severely depressed left ventricular function and bundle branch blocks.
    Ann Med 2017 Oct 13:1-11. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    a Department of Cardiology, Clinical Hospital Center Zemun, Faculty of Medicine , University of Belgrade , Belgrade , Serbia.
    Objectives: Bundle branch blocks (BBB)-related mechanical dyssynchrony and dispersion may improve patient selection for device therapy, but their effect on the natural history of this patient population is unknown.

    Methods: A total of 155 patients with LVEF ≤ 35% and BBB, not treated with device therapy, were included. Mechanical dyssynchrony was defined as the presence of either septal flash or apical rocking. Read More

    Joint associations of sauna bathing and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk: a long-term prospective cohort study.
    Ann Med 2017 Oct 16:1-8. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    c Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition , University of Eastern Finland , Kuopio , Finland.
    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the joint impact of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and frequency of sauna bathing (FSB) on the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

    Design: CRF measured by respiratory gas analyses and sauna exposure were assessed at baseline in a prospective study of 2277 men. CRF was categorized as low and high (median cut-offs) and FSB as low and high (≤2 and 3-7 sessions/week, respectively). Read More

    The role of levothyroxine in obstetric practice.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 11;50(1):57-67. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    b Thyroid Research Group , Systems Immunity Research Institute, Cardiff University School of Medicine , Cardiff , UK.
    Thyroid hormones play a pivotal role in somatic growth, metabolic regulation and neurodevelopment. There is growing evidence regarding adverse obstetric and perinatal consequences of maternal thyroid hypofunction during early stages of pregnancy. These include: early pregnancy loss, preterm delivery and lower intelligence quotient (IQ) in children. Read More

    Genetic and ethnic modulation of cardiovascular toxicity of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 27;50(1):46-56. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    a Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine , Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University , Taipei , Taiwan.
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, including monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), are important as anticancer treatments through curbing tumour angiogenesis and growth. VEGF inhibitors have significant cardiovascular effects. By blocking VEGF receptors, ligands, or signal pathways, VEGF inhibitors disturb the balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction, undermine endothelial cell integrity, and activate cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Read More

    Case fatality of acute coronary events is improving even among elderly patients; the FINAMI study 1995-2012.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 3;50(1):35-45. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    c Department of Health , National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) , Helsinki , Finland.
    Aim: To examine trends in incidence and 28-day case fatality of myocardial infarction (MI) in persons aged 75-99 years in four areas of Finland.

    Methods And Results: The Finnish Acute Myocardial Infarction (FINAMI) register is a population-based MI register study, which during 1995-2012 recorded 30561 suspected acute coronary syndromes in persons aged ≥75 years. Of them, 16229 fulfilled the American Heart Association criteria for a definite, probable or possible MI or coronary death. Read More

    Enhancing the 'real world' prediction of cardiovascular events and major bleeding with the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores using multiple biomarkers.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 18;50(1):26-34. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    b Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences , University of Birmingham , Birmingham , UK.
    Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF)-European guidelines suggest the use of biomarkers to stratify patients for stroke and bleeding risks. We investigated if a multibiomarker strategy improved the predictive performance of CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED in anticoagulated AF patients.

    Methods: We included consecutive patients stabilized for six months on vitamin K antagonists (INRs 2. Read More

    Direct, indirect and total bilirubin and risk of incident coronary heart disease in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 18;50(1):16-25. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    a Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health , Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology , Wuhan , China.
    Background: Total bilirubin (TBIL) is known to be inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, however, whether this association is dose-response remains inconsistent and it is unclear which subtype of bilirubin is responsible for the potential protective effect.

    Methods: We included 12,097 participants who were free of CHD, stroke, cancer and potential liver, biliary and renal diseases at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010 and were followed-up until October 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of bilirubin with incident CHD risk. Read More

    Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 6;49(8):718-727. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    d Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health , University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , MN , USA.
    Objectives: This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study.

    Material And Methods: A dietary survey was conducted at baseline in cohorts subsamples including chemical analysis of food samples representing average consumptions. Ecologic correlations of dietary variables were computed across cohorts with 50-year all-cause mortality rates, where 97% of men had died. Read More

    A clinical decision-making algorithm for penicillin allergy.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 26;49(8):710-717. Epub 2017 Aug 26.
    a Department of Dermatology and Allergology , Tenon Hospital, APHP , Paris , France.
    Background: About 10% of subjects report suspected penicillin allergy, but 85-90% of these patients are not truly allergic and could safely receive beta-lactam antibiotics Objective: To design and validate a clinical decision-making algorithm, based on anamnesis (chronology, severity, and duration of the suspected allergic reactions) and reaching a 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value, to assess allergy risk related to a penicillin prescription in general practise.

    Study Design And Methods: All patients were included prospectively and explorated based on ENDA/EAACI recommendations. Results of penicillin allergy work-up (gold standard) were compared with results of the algorithm. Read More

    Oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold is inversely associated with fatal cardiovascular and all-cause mortality events.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 22;49(8):698-709. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    b Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition , University of Eastern Finland , Kuopio , Finland.
    Purpose: We aimed to assess the associations of oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (VO2 at AT) with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

    Design: VO2 at AT was assessed in 1663 middle-aged men in a cohort study. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for sudden cardiac death (SCD), fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Read More

    Role of lipids and intraplaque hypoxia in the formation of neovascularization in atherosclerosis.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 22;49(8):661-677. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    b Laboratory of Angiopathology , Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences , Moscow , Russia.
    According to the current paradigm, chronic vascular inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The plaque progression is typically completed with rupture and subsequent acute cardiovascular complications. Previously, the role of adventitial vasa vasorum in atherogenesis was underestimated. Read More

    Nutraceutical approaches to metabolic syndrome.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 22;49(8):678-697. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    c Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari , Università degli Studi di Milano , Milan , Italy.
    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), affecting at least 30% of adults in the Western World, is characterized by three out of five variables, from high triglycerides, to elevated waist circumference and blood pressure. MetS is not characterized by elevated cholesterolemia, but is rather the consequence of a complex interaction of factors generally leading to increased insulin resistance. Drug treatments are of difficult handling, whereas well-characterized nutraceuticals may offer an effective alternative. Read More

    PDTCM: a systems pharmacology platform of traditional Chinese medicine for psoriasis.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 24;49(8):652-660. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    a The Second Institute of Clinical Medicine , Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou , China.
    Introduction: Psoriasis is a refractory skin disorder, and usually requires a lifetime control. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is effective and safe for this disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TCM remedies for psoriasis are still not fully understood. Read More

    Comparisons of clinical impacts on individuals with Brugada electrocardiographic patterns defined by ISHNE criteria or EHRA/HRS/APHRS criteria: a nationwide community-based study.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 18;50(1):7-15. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    b Institute of Population Health Sciences , National Health Research Institutes , Zhunan , Taiwan.
    Introduction: Identifying Brugada electrocardiographic pattern (BrP) early is crucial to prevent sudden cardiac death. Two different diagnostic criteria proposed by International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiography (ISHNE) and Heart Rhythm Society/European Heart Rhythm Association/Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (HRS/EHRA/APHRS) were widely used in clinical practice. The difference in prevalence and prognosis of BrP by applying the two different criteria was never studied before. Read More

    ECG markers associated with ischemic stroke at young age - a case-control study.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 14;49(7):562-568. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    b Department of Neurology, Clinical Neurosciences , Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki , Helsinki , Finland.
    Introduction: Certain electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are associated with ischemic stroke (IS), especially cardioembolic subtype. Besides atrial fibrillation, markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or atrial pathology also reflect elevated risk. We studied the association of ECG markers with IS in young adults. Read More

    Dental stem cells: recent progresses in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 12;49(8):644-651. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    a Egas Moniz Cooperativa de Ensino Superior CRL , Caparica , Portugal.
    Since the disclosure of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), there have been an intense investigation on the characteristics of these cells and their potentialities. Dental stem cells (DSCs) are MSC-like populations with self-renewal capacity and multidifferentiation potential. Currently, there are five main DSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental follicle precursor cells (DFPCs). Read More

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of solitary pulmonary nodule: a review.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 23;49(7):626-635. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    a Department of Thoracic Surgery , University of L'Aquila, "G. Mazzini" Hospital , Teramo , Italy.
    Solitary pulmonary nodules are common radiologic findings and their detection has increased due to the introduction and improvement of diagnostics. Since a nodule can be an expression of early lung cancers, a proper classification and management are required because its treatment might lead to decreased morbidity and mortality. In this regard, prominent guidelines are available although they are characterized sometimes by discordant and misleading evidences. Read More

    Arterial stiffness in fertile women with metabolic syndrome.
    Ann Med 2017 Dec 23;49(8):636-643. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    a Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences , University of Tampere , Tampere , Finland.
    Introduction: Although metabolic syndrome (MetS) is evidently associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), recently its use has been questioned. We studied the utility of MetS diagnosis when estimating individual CVD risk.

    Methods: We compared 27 fertile women with MetS and 27 counterparts without the syndrome, matched pairwise according to well-known risk factors of CVD. Read More

    A review on cardiovascular effects of newer hypoglycaemic medications.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 9;49(7):603-612. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    b Department of Pharmacy , Methodist University Hospital , Memphis , TN , USA.
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Improvement in cardiovascular complications with glycaemic control and managing cardiovascular risk factors is well established. However, the impact of hypoglycaemic medications on CVD is of increasing importance. Read More

    Angiogenic profile and smoking in the Finnish Genetics of Pre-Eclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) cohort.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 9;49(7):593-602. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    a Medical and Clinical Genetics , University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital , Helsinki , Finland.
    Objectives: The biological mechanism by which smoking reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE) is unresolved. We studied serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF) and their ratio, in addition to soluble endoglin (sEng) in early and late pregnancy to ascertain whether these factors are altered in women who smoke.

    Subjects And Methods: First trimester serum samples were available from 217 women who later developed PE and 238 women who did not develop PE. Read More

    Comparison of treatments in patients with distal humerus intercondylar fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 14;49(7):613-625. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    b Department of Orthopedic Surgery , Ningbo Mingzhou Hospital , Ningbo , China.
    Introduction: Distal humerus intercondylar fractures are intra-articular comminuted fractures of the elbow that involve soft tissue injury. We evaluate different surgical approaches and elbow functional outcomes in the treatment of distal humerus fracture.

    Materials And Methods: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar databases were searched up to 29 July 2016. Read More

    Sepsis in Internal Medicine wards: current knowledge, uncertainties and new approaches for management optimization.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 27;49(7):582-592. Epub 2017 May 27.
    a Department of Medical Sciences , Gemelli Hospital, Catholic University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
    Sepsis represents a global health problem in terms of morbidity, mortality, social and economic costs. Although usually managed in Intensive Care Units, sepsis showed an increased prevalence among Internal Medicine wards in the last decade. This is substantially due to the ageing of population and to multi-morbidity. Read More

    Effects of selected dietary constituents on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in U.S. adults.
    Ann Med 2018 Feb 23;50(1):1-6. Epub 2017 May 23.
    f Department of Hypertension, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension , Medical University of Lodz , Lodz , Poland.
    Background And Aim: Growing evidence suggests that some of the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed the relationship between selected dietary constituents and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration in a population-based sample of United States adults.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010. Read More

    Gluten-related disorders: certainties, questions and doubts.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 11;49(7):569-581. Epub 2017 May 11.
    a Pediatrics Unit, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi" , University of Messina , Messina , Italy.
    In the last decade, the ingestion of gluten, a heterogeneous complex of proteins present in wheat, rice, barley and probably in oats, has been associated with clinical disorders, such as celiac disease, wheat allergy and recently to non-celiac gluten sensitivity or wheat intolerance syndrome. Gluten-related disorders, which are becoming epidemiologically relevant with an estimated global prevalence of about 5%, require the exclusion of gluten from the diet. For the past 5 years, an important shift in the availability of gluten-free products, together with increased consumption in the general population, has been recorded and is estimated to be about 12-25%. Read More

    Condomless sex and HIV transmission among serodifferent couples: current evidence and recommendations.
    Ann Med 2017 Sep 3;49(6):534-544. Epub 2017 May 3.
    c Section of Infectious Diseases , Yale School of Medicine , New Haven , CT , USA.
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global pandemic. The primary driver of HIV incidence is sexual transmission between serodifferent individuals. Condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are effective at preventing sexually transmitted HIV infections and are considered an integral component of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. Read More

    Effects of direct renin inhibition versus angiotensin II receptor blockade on angiotensin profiles in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.
    Ann Med 2017 Sep 17;49(6):525-533. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    a Department of Internal Medicine III, Clinical Division of Nephrology and Dialysis , Medical University of Vienna , Vienna , Austria.
    Background: Direct renin inhibition (DRI) is clinically inferior to other blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Thus far, the underlying molecular causes of this finding remain unknown.

    Methods: Twenty four patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages III-IV and albuminuria were randomized to DRI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Read More

    Asthma status is an independent risk factor for herpes zoster in children: a population-based cohort study.
    Ann Med 2017 Sep 23;49(6):504-512. Epub 2017 Apr 23.
    e College of Medicine, China Medical University , Taichung , Taiwan.
    Backgrounds: Literatures regarding the effects of childhood asthma on the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) is very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the risks of children developing HZ with asthma.

    Methods: From the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 300,649 patients who had asthma between 2000 and 2007 as an asthma cohort. Read More

    Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of literature studies.
    Ann Med 2017 Sep 17;49(6):513-524. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    d Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Division of Cardiology , Federico II University , Naples , Italy.
    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have an increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and carotid plaques are surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and predictors of CV events.

    Methods And Results: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between COPD and subclinical atherosclerosis. Read More

    Leptin predicts short-term major adverse cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease.
    Ann Med 2017 Aug 16;49(5):448-454. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    a Research Unit of Internal Medicine , Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu , Oulu , Finland.
    Introduction: Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We examined whether leptin predicts major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.

    Methods: Fasting plasma leptin levels were measured in 1327 male and 619 female CAD patients. Read More

    Electrocardiogram changes and atrial arrhythmias in individuals carrying sodium channel SCN5A D1275N mutation.
    Ann Med 2017 Sep 17;49(6):496-503. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    a Heart Center, Tampere University Hospital , Tampere , Finland.
    Introduction: The cardiac sodium channel SCN5A regulates atrioventricular and ventricular depolarization as well as cardiac conduction. Patients with cardiac electrical abnormalities have an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and cardio-embolic stroke. Optimal management of cardiac disease includes the understanding of association between the causative mutations and the clinical phenotype. Read More

    Efficacy of rasagiline for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: an updated meta-analysis.
    Ann Med 2017 Aug 15;49(5):421-434. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    a Department of Neurology , China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University , Changchun , China.
    Objective: Rasagiline is a second-generation potent selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B. The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of rasagiline in treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), both as monotherapy and combination therapy.

    Methods: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until 9 March 2016 using the keywords: Rasagiline, Azilect, Parkinson's disease. Read More

    Protective effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 agents on reperfusion injury for acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
    Ann Med 2017 Nov 31;49(7):552-561. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    a Department of Nephrology , Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Institute of Nephrology, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Research , Beijing , P.R. China.
    Background: The cardioprotective properties of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients against reperfusion injury remain unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess their role in the acute phase of AMI.

    Methods And Results: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing GLP-1 agents with placebo in AMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Cochrane libraries. Read More

    Association of sleep-disordered breathing with diabetes-associated kidney disease.
    Ann Med 2017 Sep 27;49(6):487-495. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    a Department of Internal Medicine II , University Hospital Regensburg , Regensburg , Germany.
    Introduction: Diabetes-associated kidney disease is characterized by impairment of renal function and albuminuria. The aim of the present study was to assess whether sleep-disordered breathing is associated with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate or increased urine-albumin-to-creatinine-ratio independently from known modulators of diabetes-associated kidney disease.

    Material And Methods: Estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine-albumin-to-creatinine-ratio were determined in the baseline survey of the DIACORE-SDB substudy, a prospectively planned study of Diabetes mellitus 2 patients. Read More

    Renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of patients with heart failure: summary of the available evidence.
    Ann Med 2017 Aug 10;49(5):384-395. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    a Heart Center, Satakunta Central Hospital , Pori , Finland.
    Heart failure syndrome results from compensatory mechanisms that operate to restore - back to normal - the systemic perfusion pressure. Sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in heart failure; norepinephrine contributes to maintenance of the systemic blood pressure and increasing preload. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover increases in patients with heart failure; norepinephrine exerts direct toxicity on cardiac myocytes resulting in a decrease of synthetic activity and/or viability. Read More

    Comorbidities and risk of mortality in patients with sleep apnea.
    Ann Med 2017 Aug 10;49(5):377-383. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    a Center of Sleep Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital , Taipei , Taiwan.
    Background: A variety of disorders, most notably cardiovascular diseases, was linked to sleep apnea (SA), but their impact on mortality of SA patients had not been systematically investigated. We aimed to develop a composite index based on the comorbidity burden to predict mortality risk.

    Methods: Using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 9853 adult SA patients were enrolled and their comorbidity profile at baseline was recorded. Read More

    Population-based birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese twins.
    Ann Med 2017 Sep 28;49(6):470-478. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    a National Center for Birth Defects Monitoring, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University , Chengdu , China.
    Background: Birth weight percentiles by gestational age are important for assessing prenatal growth and predicting postnatal outcomes of newborns. Several countries have developed nation-specific birth weight references for twins, but China still lacks such references.

    Methods And Results: Birth weight data for twins born between October 2006 and September 2015 were abstracted from the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. Read More

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