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    580 results match your criteria Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials[Journal]

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    Rapid detection of carbapenemase activity of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 May 18;17(1):22. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Xin Hua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kong Jiang Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200092, China.
    Background: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been proved to be a useful tool for identification of pathogens directly isolated from blood cultures in clinical microbiology laboratories. β-Lactam antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae strains, and carbapenem is the superlative class of β-lactam antibiotics. Since the carbapenem resistance rate of Enterobacteriaceae strains raised year by year, efficient detection of carbapenemase activity and timely delivery of carbapenem susceptibility reports of Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from blood cultures is important for clinicians. Read More

    Mycotic aneurysm caused by Edwardsiella tarda successfully treated with stenting and suppressive antibiotic therapy: a case report and systematic review.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 May 10;17(1):21. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Division of Infectious Disease, Kobe University Hospital, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017, Japan.
    Background: Mycotic aneurysm is an uncommon disease which could be fatal without appropriate treatment. Although standard therapy for mycotic aneurysms consists of resection of the infected aorta and in situ graft replacement, some treat with endovascular stent-grafting because patients may not tolerate graft replacement due to underlying diseases. There are 6 more reported cases of mycotic aneurysm caused by Edwardsiella tarda. Read More

    Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among elderly living in nursing homes in Brazil: risk factors and molecular epidemiology.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 May 4;17(1):18. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu School of Medicine, University Hospital, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus poses a threat to elderly living in nursing homes. Studies focusing on the epidemiology of colonization may help in the design of infection control strategies.

    Objective: To identify factors associated with MRSA colonization and the dissemination of clones among nursing home residents. Read More

    Emergence of multidrug-resistant Providencia rettgeri isolates co-producing NDM-1 carbapenemase and PER-1 extended-spectrum β-lactamase causing a first outbreak in Korea.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 May 5;17(1):20. Epub 2018 May 5.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: Nosocomial outbreak due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has become serious challenge to patient treatment and infection control. We describe an outbreak due to a multidrug-resistant Providencia rettgeri from January 2016 to January 2017 at a University Hospital in Seoul, Korea.

    Methods: A total of eight non-duplicate P. Read More

    Raoultella planticola bacteremia-induced fatal septic shock following burn injury.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 May 4;17(1):19. Epub 2018 May 4.
    Advanced Emergency and Critical Care Medical Center, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan.
    Background: Raoultella planticola, a Gram-negative, aerobic bacillus commonly isolated from soil and water, rarely causes invasive infections in humans. Septic shock from R. planticola after burn injury has not been previously reported. Read More

    Hepatitis E virus infection in Turkey: a systematic review.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 May 2;17(1):17. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Medilife Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped single stranded RNA virus causes sporadic cases of hepatitis or outbreaks. The disease is generally self-limited although it may cause fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, elderly, those with underlying chronic hepatitis, immunosuppressed, and transplant recipients. It is transmitted through fecal-oral route and zoonotic transmission. Read More

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) phytochemicals-gingerenone-A and shogaol inhibit SaHPPK: molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and in vitro approaches.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Apr 2;17(1):16. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus Program), Systems and Synthetic Agrobiotech Center (SSAC), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center (PMBBRC), Research Institute of Natural Science (RINS), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a defense mechanism, harbored by pathogens to survive under unfavorable conditions. Among several antibiotic resistant microbial consortium, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most havoc microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus encodes a unique enzyme 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase (SaHPPK), against which, none of existing antibiotics have been reported. Read More

    Comparison of nephrotoxicity of Colistin with Polymyxin B administered in currently recommended doses: a prospective study.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 23;17(1):15. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Department of Internal Medicine & Critical Care Medicine, Max Smart Super Speciality Hospital, Saket, New Delhi, India.
    Background: The most important concern with polymyxins (Colistin and Polymyxin B) use is nephrotoxicity. There is no prospective data comparing nephrotoxicity of these two drugs, when administered in high doses and as per current recommendations. We conducted a prospective study to compare their trend of nephrotoxicity in our patient population. Read More

    Detection of Neisseria meningitidis in a paediatric patient with septic arthritis using multiplexed diagnostic PCR targeting meningitis/encephalitis (ME).
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 23;17(1):14. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation & Immunity (4i) and Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Background: Neisseria meningitidis is associated with meningitis and septicemia. Septic meningococcal arthritis is relatively uncommon and its diagnosis associated with clinical and microbiological challenges. Early recognition and treatment is required to prevent joint destruction. Read More

    Genetic contexts related to the diffusion of plasmid-mediated CTX-M-55 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase isolated from Enterobacteriaceae in China.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 23;17(1):12. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
    Background: CTX-M-55 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are being rapidly disseminated and transmitted in clinical practices around the world. The genetic contexts of the transferable plasmid-mediated bla gene in Enterobacteriaceae were detected and characterized in this study.

    Methods: Isolates were obtained from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between September 2015 and March 2016. Read More

    Factors associated to prevalence and treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections: a seven years retrospective study in three tertiary care hospitals.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 23;17(1):13. Epub 2018 Mar 23.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The increasing incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), has resulted in a difficult problem in the current clinical anti-infective treatment. We performed a retrospective analysis of prevalence and treatment for CRE infections patients.

    Methods: This study was conducted in three tertiary care hospitals from January 1, 2010 to December 30, 2016. Read More

    A case of Cardiobacterium valvarum endocarditis with cerebral hemorrhage after MVR, TVP and vegetation removal operation.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 22;17(1):11. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, China.
    Background: Cardiobacterium is a fastidious Gram-negative bacillus, and is a rare human pathogen in clinical settings. Herein, we describe a case of Cardiobacterium valvarum (C. valvarum) endocarditis with a rare complication of cerebral hemorrhage after mitral valve replacement (MVR), tricuspid valve prosthesis (TVP) and vegetation removal operation. Read More

    Application of next-generation sequencing to characterize novel mutations in clarithromycin-susceptible Helicobacter pylori strains with A2143G of 23S rRNA gene.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 22;17(1):10. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Sanmen People's Hospital, No. 117, Renmin Road, Sanmen, 317100, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Clarithromycin (CLR) resistance has become a predominant factor for treatment failure of Helicobacter pylori eradication. Although the molecular mechanism of CLR resistance has been clearly understood in H. pylori, it is lack of evidence of other genes involved in drug resistance. Read More

    Prenatal and postnatal antibiotic exposure influences the gut microbiota of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 19;17(1). Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Background: To explore the influences of prenatal antibiotic exposure, the intensity of prenatal and postnatal antibiotic exposure on gut microbiota of preterm infants and whether gut microbiota and drug resistant strains in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over a defined period are related.

    Methods: Among 28 preterm infants, there were two groups, the PAT (prenatal antibiotic therapy) group (12 cases), and the PAF (prenatal antibiotic free) group (12 cases). Fecal samples from both groups were collected on days 7 and 14. Read More

    Comparative and molecular analysis of MRSA isolates from infection sites and carrier colonization sites.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 15;17(1). Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), P.O. Box 1982, Dammam, 31441, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) constitutes a major global health concern causing hospital and community acquired infections. A wide diversity of MRSA genotypes are circulating in geographically related regions. Therefore understanding the molecular epidemiology of MRSA is fundamental to design control and clearance measures. Read More

    Quality control of malaria microscopy reveals misdiagnosed non-falciparum species and other microscopically detectable pathogens in Senegal.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Mar 15;17(1). Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Avenue Cheikh Anta Diop, BP 5005 Fann, Dakar, Senegal.
    Background: In developing countries, malaria diagnosis relies on microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In Senegal, national malaria control program (NMCP) regularly conducts supervisory visits in health services where malaria microscopy is performed. In this study, expert microscopists assessed the performance of laboratory technicians in malaria microscopy. Read More

    Dengue periodic outbreaks and epidemiological trends in Nepal.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Feb 23;17(1). Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Virology Unit, Central Department of Biotechnology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Dengue is a global health problem and expansion of its endemics towards new territories in the hilly regions in Nepal is a serious concern. It appeared as a new disease in Nepal in 2004 from Japanese traveler with sporadic cases every year and massive outbreaks in 2010, 2013 and 2016. The serotype was responsible for outbreak in particular year was dengue virus serotype-1 (DENV-1) in 2010, 2016; and DENV-2 in 2013. Read More

    Continued in vitro cefazolin susceptibility in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Feb 20;17(1). Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Objectives: In vitro trends of cefazolin and ceftriaxone susceptibilities from pediatric clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) between 2011 and 2016 were analyzed for surveillance.

    Methods: Our laboratory continues to use agar disk diffusion for staphylococcal susceptibilities applying Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute's 2012 breakpoints.

    Results: A total of 3992 MSSA clinical isolates in the last 6 years were analyzed for their in vitro cefazolin and ceftriaxone susceptibilities. Read More

    The frequency of Klebsiella pneumonia encoding genes for CTX-M, TEM-1 and SHV-1 extended-spectrum beta lactamases enzymes isolated from urinary tract infection.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Feb 13;17(1). Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.
    Background: The extended- spectrum β-lactamase producing bacteria are widely spread worldwide. The productions of these enzymes cause bacterial resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigated the frequency of K. Read More

    An evaluation of E. coli in urinary tract infection in emergency department at KAMC in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: retrospective study.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Feb 9;17(1). Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of PharmaceUTIscs, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, 22452, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). Read More

    Application of antimicrobial drugs in perioperative surgical incision.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Feb 3;17(1). Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.
    Infection in surgical incision often results in poor wound healing, and one of the main factors for wound infection is the use of antimicrobial agents. Rational use of antibiotics is one of the key factors to prevent incision infection in general surgery. The number of current clinical studies on antibiotic use before and during surgery is greater than that of systematic studies on antibiotic use after surgery. Read More

    Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and associated factors of Salmonella and Shigella infections among under five children in Arba Minch, South Ethiopia.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2018 Feb 1;17(1). Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Yirgachefe primary Hospital, Dilla, Ethiopia.
    Background: Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. Salmonella and Shigella specious are the major enteric pathogen causing diarrhea among children worldwide. Examination of stool sample is the most sensitive method to diagnose diarrheal disease in children. Read More

    Clinical and economic impact of the introduction of a nucleic acid amplification assay for Clostridium difficile.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Dec 4;16(1):77. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood St. Room 164, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Background: The clinical outcomes and cost implications of a diagnostic shift from an EIA- to PCR-based assay for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have not been completely described in the literature.

    Methods: The impact of the PCR-based assay on the incidence and duration of CDI therapy was compared to the EIA assay for patients with a negative CDI diagnostic result. Secondary clinical and economic outcomes were also evaluated. Read More

    Triple combination antibiotic therapy for carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: a systematic review.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 25;16(1):76. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Division of Pharmaceutics and Experimental Therapeutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Background: The spread of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CPKP) has become a significant problem worldwide. Combination therapy for CPKP is encouraging, but polymyxin resistance to many antibiotics is hampering effective treatment. Read More

    Molecular characterization of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 16;16(1):75. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Center for Surgical Infections & Biofilms, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Infectious diseases, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA.
    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is establishing as a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the healthcare community. The success of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to rapidly gain resistance to antimicrobial therapies and its capability to persist in an abiotic environment through the production of a biofilm. Our tertiary-care hospital has showed high incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates. Read More

    Herpes simplex virus-1 entrapped in Candida albicans biofilm displays decreased sensitivity to antivirals and UVA1 laser treatment.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 14;16(1):72. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Diagnostic, Clinic and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 87, 41125, Modena, Italy.
    Background: Recently, we published data suggesting a mutualistic relationship between HSV-1 and Candida. albicans; in particular: (a) HSV-1 infected macrophages are inhibited in their anti-Candida effector function and (b) Candida biofilm protects HSV-1 from inactivation. The present in vitro study is aimed at testing the effects of Candida biofilm on HSV-1 sensitivity to pharmacological and physical stress, such as antiviral drugs (acyclovir and foscarnet) and laser UVA1 irradiation. Read More

    New eight genes identified at the clinical multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii DMS06669 strain in a Vietnam hospital.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 14;16(1):74. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, HCM National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that can develop multidrug resistance. In this study, we characterized the genome of the A. baumannii strain DMS06669 (isolated from the sputum of a male patient with hospital-acquired pneumonia) and focused on identification of genes relevant to antibiotic resistance. Read More

    Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 14;16(1):73. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Background: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum.

    Objectives: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks.

    Methods: Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. Read More

    Intensive care antibiotic consumption and resistance patterns: a cross-correlation analysis.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 13;16(1):71. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Microbiology Department, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 16 Victor Babes, Timisoara, Romania.
    Background: Over recent decades, a dramatic increase in infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens has been observed worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between local resistance bacterial patterns and antibiotic consumption in an intensive care unit in a Romanian university hospital.

    Methods: A prospective study was conducted between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2013. Read More

    Biofilm and metallo beta-lactamase production among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 2;16(1):70. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Department of Microbiology, Nepalese Army Institute of Health Sciences, Syanobharyang, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are found to be associated with biofilm and metallo-β-lactamase production and are the common causes of serious infections mainly in hospitalized patients. So, the main aims of this study were to determine the rates of biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production (MBL) among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Read More

    Benzoylphenyl thiocyanates are new, effective inhibitors of the mycobacterial resuscitation promoting factor B protein.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 2;16(1):69. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry of Stress in Microorganisms, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Federal Research Centre "Fundamentals of Biotechnology" of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospect, 33 (2), Moscow, 119071, Russia.
    Background: Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) are the proteins involved in the process of reactivation of the dormant cells of mycobacteria. Recently a new class of nitrophenylthiocyanates (NPTs), capable of inhibiting the biological and enzymatic activities of Rpfs has been discovered. In the current study the inhibitory properties of the compounds containing both nitro and thiocyanate groups alongside with the compounds with the modified number and different spatial location of the substituents are compared. Read More

    Spondylodiskitis and endocarditis due to Streptococcus gordonii.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Oct 4;16(1):68. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Internal Medicine C, Shaare Zedek Medical Medicine, Affiliated with the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Background: Streptococcus gordonii is an infrequent cause of infective endocarditis (IE); associated spondylodiskitis has not yet been described in the literature.

    Purpose: We describe 2 patients who presented with new-onset, severe back pain; blood cultures revealed S. gordonii bacteremia, which led to the diagnosis of spondylodiskitis and IE. Read More

    Treating tuberculosis with high doses of anti-TB drugs: mechanisms and outcomes.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Oct 3;16(1):67. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    National Tuberculosis Clinical Laboratory, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, 9 Beiguan Street, Tongzhou District, Beijing, 101149, China.
    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as one of the most serious threats to public health in many parts of the world. The threat is even more severe in the developing countries where there is a lack of advanced medical amenities and contemporary anti-TB drugs. In such situations, dosage optimization of existing medication regimens seems to be the only viable option. Read More

    Evaluation of lytic bacteriophages for control of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Sep 22;16(1):66. Epub 2017 Sep 22.
    Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon, 24341, Republic of Korea.
    Background: The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria can cause serious clinical and public health problems. This study describes the possibility of using bacteriophages as an alternative agent to control multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Methods: The potential lytic bacteriophages (P22-B1, P22, PBST10, PBST13, PBST32, and PBST 35) were characterized by morphological property, heat and pH stability, optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI), and lytic activity against S. Read More

    Coagulase gene polymorphism, enterotoxigenecity, biofilm production, and antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine raw milk in North West India.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Sep 20;16(1):65. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, 302004, Rajasthan, India.
    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant bacterium responsible for various diseases in animals and humans. Preventive strategies could be better implemented by understanding the prevalence, genetic patterns, and the presence of enterotoxin and biofilm-producing genes along with the antibiotic susceptibility of this organism. This study was conducted in Rajasthan, the northwestern state of India, holding the largest population of cattle that makes it the second largest milk producer in India and no such prior information is available on these aspects. Read More

    Extended spectrum beta-lactamase and metallo beta-lactamase production among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from different clinical samples in a tertiary care hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Sep 19;16(1):62. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, OM Hospital and Research Center, Chabahil, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo beta-lactamase (MBL) production in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are the commonest modes of drug resistance among these commonly isolated bacteria from clinical specimens. So the main purpose of our study was to determine the burden of ESBL and MBL production in E. coli and K. Read More

    Vancomycin heteroresistance in coagulase negative Staphylococcus blood stream infections from patients of intensive care units in Mansoura University Hospitals, Egypt.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Sep 19;16(1):63. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt.
    Background: Vancomycin heteroresistance in coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) is a recent health concern especially in serious infections like bloodstream infections as it may lead to failure of therapy. Little information is available about the prevalence vancomycin heteroresistance in CoNS causing bloodstream infections in intensive care units (ICUs) patients of Mansoura University Hospitals (MUHs).

    Methods: This prospective study enrolled 743 blood samples collected from ICUs patients presented with clinical manifestations of bloodstream infections over the period extending from January 2014 to March 2016. Read More

    Paramedical staffs knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Sep 19;16(1):64. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dire Dawa University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.
    Background: The continuing emergence, development and spread of pathogenic organisms that are resistant to antimicrobials are a cause of increasing concern. The control of antimicrobial resistance requires knowledge of factors causing antimicrobial resistance, good attitudes towards the intervention strategies as well as changes in antibiotic prescribing behavior of health workers. Hence, this study was aimed to assess paramedical staffs' knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance and their antibiotics prescription practices in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. Read More

    A childhood-onset intestinal toxemia botulism during chemotherapy for relapsed acute leukemia.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Sep 18;16(1):61. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.
    Background: Botulism is a potentially fatal infection characterized by progressive muscle weakness, bulbar paralysis, constipation and other autonomic dysfunctions. A recent report suggested that cancer chemotherapy might increase the risk for the intestinal toxemia botulism in both adults and children.

    Case Presentation: We report a 5-year-old boy, who developed general muscle weakness, constipation, ptosis and mydriasis during the third induction therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. Read More

    Voriconazole and posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: a retrospective study.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Sep 11;16(1):60. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12850 E Montview Blvd, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.
    Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to minimize the clinical impact of posaconazole and voriconazole pharmacokinetic variability. However, its benefits on clinical outcomes are still being defined. Additionally, TDM data are limited for posaconazole IV and delayed-release tablet formulations among specific patient populations, including critically ill. Read More

    Diagnostic testing for Legionnaires' disease.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Aug 29;16(1):59. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Special Pathogens Laboratory, 1401 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15219, USA.
    Legionnaires' disease is commonly diagnosed clinically using a urinary antigen test. The urinary antigen test is highly accurate for L. pneumophila serogroup 1, however other diagnostic tests should also be utilized in conjunction with the urinary antigen as many other Legionella species and serogroups are pathogenic. Read More

    Transmission and characterization of bla in Enterobacter cloacae at a teaching hospital in Yunnan, China.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Aug 22;16(1):58. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Yunnan Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis, Yunnan Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, No. 295, Xichang Road, Wuhua, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
    Background: In recent years, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamases 1 (bla ) has been reported with increasing frequency and become prevalent. The present study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiological dissemination of the bla gene in Enterobacter cloacae isolates at a teaching hospital in Yunnan, China.

    Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using VITEK 2 system and E test gradient strips. Read More

    Extreme diversity and multiple SCCmec elements in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus found in the Clinic and Community in Beijing, China.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Aug 22;16(1):57. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.
    Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are recognized as a large reservoir of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) harboured by Staphylococcus aureus. However, data of SCCmec in CoNS are relatively absent particularly in China.

    Methods: Seventy-eight CoNS clinical and 47 community isolates were collected in Beijing. Read More

    PknB remains an essential and a conserved target for drug development in susceptible and MDR strains of M. Tuberculosis.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Aug 18;16(1):56. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Molecular Biology, National AIDS Research Institute, 73 G MIDC, Bhosari, Pune, 411 026, India.
    Background: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) protein kinase B (PknB) which is now proved to be essential for the growth and survival of M.tb, is a transmembrane protein with a potential to be a good drug target. Read More

    Molecular determination of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from raw meat in Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Aug 15;16(1):55. Epub 2017 Aug 15.
    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, National Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, P.O.Box 31, Holeta, Ethiopia.
    Background: Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. Read More

    Second-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication causing antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Aug 14;16(1):54. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1 Midorigaoka-higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, 078-8510, Japan.
    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rarely develops into antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC), in which the etiology of colitis remains unclear. We herein report a rare case of AAHC caused by second-line therapy for H. Read More

    An assessment on the role of endophytic microbes in the therapeutic potential of Fagonia indica.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Aug 1;16(1):53. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Molecular Systematics and Applied Ethno Botany Lab (MoSEL), Department of Biotechnology, Quaid I Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Background: Natural products of animals, plants and microbes are potential source of important chemical compounds, with diverse applications including therapeutics. Endophytic bacteria that are especially associated with medicinal plants presents a reservoir of therapeutic compounds. Fagonia indica has been recently investigated by numerous researchers because of its striking therapeutic potential especially in cancer. Read More

    Influence of borderline cefepime MIC on the outcome of cefepime-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia treated with a maximal cefepime dose: a hospital-based retrospective study.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Jul 24;16(1):52. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 5 Fu-Shin Street, Gueishan 333, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Background: We assessed the influence of current cefepime minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints and the maximal cefepime dose on treatment outcomes in patients with bacteremia caused by cefepime-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Methods: Adult patients hospitalized between July 2010 and June 2014 with a positive blood culture for cefepime-susceptible P. aeruginosa and receipt of cefepime as the primary therapy throughout the course were reviewed. Read More

    Molecular characterization and genetic relatedness of clinically Acinetobacter baumanii isolates conferring increased resistance to the first and second generations of tetracyclines in Iran.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Jul 19;16(1):51. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Bu Ali Research Institute, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background: The increasing resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to antibiotics has recently been regarded as a notable therapeutic difficulty. Evaluating resistance rates of some A. baumannii isolates to tetracyclines had an impact on understanding the antibiotic resistance dissemination. Read More

    Antimicrobial susceptibility among Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms collected from the Latin American region between 2004 and 2015 as part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Jul 12;16(1):50. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, 19426, USA.
    Background: The in vitro activity of tigecycline and comparator agents was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates collected in Latin American centers between 2004 and 2015 as part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S. Read More

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