1,689 results match your criteria Annals Of Tropical Paediatrics[Journal]


Primary tuberculous cerebellar abscess: case report.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):367-9

Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Tuberculous cerebellar abscess is a rare manifestation of central nervous system tuberculosis. An 8-year-old boy is described who presented with acute hydrocephalus and right hemiparesis owing to a cerebellar abscess. Read More

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February 2012

Bilateral symmetrical facial swelling owing to tuberculous gummas.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):363-5

Departments of Pathology and Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India

Metastatic tuberculous abscesses and gummas are unusual forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. They result from haematogeneous spread of the mycobacterium from a primary focus during a period of impaired immunity. A 5-year-old boy is reported who presented with spinal tuberculosis and bilateral subcutaneous swelling of the cheeks owing to tuberculous gummas. Read More

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February 2012

Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as tuberculosis in an infant.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):357-61

Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

A 4-month-old infant presented with continued fever, unresolving bronchopneumonia and household contact with sputum-smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) and showed marginal improvement on anti-TB chemotherapy. Recurrent pneumothorax prompted the clinical diagnosis of TB to be revised. High-resolution CT scan of the chest and open lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Read More

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February 2012

Clinical profiles of 13 children with Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):351-6

Kothari Medical & Research Institute, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India.

Background: Bikaner region is endemic for both P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Read More

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February 2012

Serum zinc levels are low in children with simple febrile seizures compared with those in children with epileptic seizures and controls.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):345-9

Department of Pediatrics, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital and The CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, 12A Nageswara Road, Chennai, India. [email protected] rediffmail.com

Aim: To investigate serum zinc levels in children with simple febrile and epileptic seizures and compare them with controls.

Methods: A prospective, case-control study was conducted between July 2009 and September 2010 in Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, Chennai. Sixty-seven children (22 with epileptic seizures, 23 with simple febrile seizures and 22 controls) were enrolled. Read More

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February 2012

Immediate versus as-needed acetaminophen for post-immunisation pyrexia.

Authors:
B Dhingra D Mishra

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):339-44

Department of Pediatrics, Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya, Maulana Azad Medical College, Delhi, India.

Background: Local and minor systemic adverse events are frequently seen after routine immunisation with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus. Antipyretics are frequently prescribed for these events and prophylactic administration of acetaminophen is occasionally recommended.

Objective: To determine whether prophylactic administration of acetaminophen has any effect in reducing the incidence of post-vaccination side-effects. Read More

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February 2012

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its correlates among HIV-infected children at an HIV clinic in New Delhi.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):331-7

Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College and Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background: With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS have decreased markedly. However, high adherence to ART (>95%) is necessary for a good therapeutic outcome. There is a paucity of data on paediatric adherence to ART and its correlates from developing countries, particularly India. Read More

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February 2012

Relationship of household food insecurity to anaemia in children aged 6-59 months among families in rural Indonesia.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):321-30

Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Anaemia is a significant global public health problem in developing countries with adverse health effects on young children. Household food insecurity, which reflects a household's access, availability and utilisation of food, has not been well characterised in relation to anaemia in children.

Objective: To examine the relationship of household food insecurity with anaemia (Hb <11 g/dl) in children. Read More

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February 2012

Co-morbidity: exploring the clinical overlap between pneumonia and diarrhoea in a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):311-9

Clinical Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: There is limited information on risk factors for pneumonia and pneumonia-related deaths in children who also have diarrhoea.

Aim: To identify risk factors for the above in order to improve strategies for case management and to develop appropriate public health messages.

Methods: All children under 5 years of age admitted to the Special Care Ward, Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) from 1 September to 31 December 2007 were considered for enrollment if they also had diarrhoea. Read More

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February 2012

Opportunities for chemoprophylaxis in children with culture-confirmed tuberculosis.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):301-10

Desmond Tutu Tuberculosis Centre, Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.

Background And Objectives: Chemoprophylaxis is an effective strategy to prevent progression of tuberculosis (TB) in vulnerable children who have had contact with an infectious source of TB. However, many operational gaps prevent implementation of routine chemoprophylaxis in high-burden settings. The TB exposure status and disease spectrum in children diagnosed with culture-confirmed TB are described and missed opportunities for chemoprophylaxis are highlighted. Read More

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February 2012

Missed opportunities for prevention of tuberculosis in children.

Authors:
S M Graham

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):297-9

Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne Department of Paediatrics, Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

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February 2012

Big hopes for the children of the world: a review of the Millennium Development Goals.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):287-95

Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

The Millennium Development Goals are a set of eight goals drafted by the United Nations in 2000 with the aim of improving the health and welfare of people worldwide. The goals provide specific targets to be met by 2015, using the 1990 basis as a standard. This review presents these goals as they relate to children, discussing progress and future aims. Read More

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February 2012

Randomised trials in child health in developing countries 2011.

Authors:
T Duke

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(4):283-5

Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

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February 2012

Steroid-unresponsive hypereosinophilic syndrome.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):273-7

Department of Pediatrics, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, India.

Hypereosinophilic syndrome in children is rare and is characterised by sustained over-production of eosinophils. An 11-year-old boy was diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome as per standard criteria. He was treated initially with intravenous methylprednisolone, followed by oral prednisolone, to which he showed a limited response. Read More

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November 2011

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after pertussis infection.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):269-72

Department of Paediatric Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, University of Istanbul, Turkey.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system which is usually precipitated by a viral infection or vaccination. A 3-month-old boy is reported who developed ADEM a week after full recovery from pertussis. MRI detected a high-intensity lesion extending from the pons to the mesencephalon, compatible with ADEM. Read More

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November 2011

Organophosphate poisoning in a 12-day-old infant: case report.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):263-7

Department of Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi.

A 12-day-old infant girl was admitted with increasing lethargy and respiratory distress. Initial treatment was for pneumonia but deterioration despite appropriate treatment prompted review of her diagnosis and consideration of organophosphate poisoning. There was a brisk response to atropine. Read More

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November 2011

Fatal bronchiolitis obliterans complicating Stevens-Johnson syndrome following treatment with nimesulide: a case report.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):259-61

Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Nimesulide is a frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and antipyretic effects in children. In view of fatal adverse drug reactions, however, its safety has been questioned. A 5-year-old boy developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome following use of nimesulide which was later complicated by rapidly progressive fatal bronchiolitis obliterans. Read More

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November 2011

Cranial nerve palsies in typhoid fever: report of three cases.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):255-8

Department of Paediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College & Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Neurological manifestations of enteric fever are well known. However, isolated cranial nerve palsies are rare. A 4-year-old boy and two girls aged 5 and 11 years with culture-proven typhoid fever are described, two of whom developed palatal palsy and the other sixth cranial nerve palsy. Read More

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November 2011

Cardiac echinococcosis associated with cerebrovascular occlusive disease and subcutaneous bullous eruptions and ulcers.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):251-4

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Cardiac involvement is an uncommon complication of echinococcosis. It is usually asymptomatic and may only be diagnosed incidentally. A 7-year-old boy was admitted with acute stroke and bullous and ulcerated skin lesions. Read More

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November 2011

Management of harlequin ichthyosis in low-income countries.

Authors:
G Rossi D Mesia

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):247-9

Médécins sans Frontières, Rome, Italy.

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a very rare severe form of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, usually associated with stillbirth and early neonatal death. A newborn girl with HI is described. She presented in a critical condition with severe universalis hyperkeratosis, diffuse scales and deep erythematous fissures. Read More

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November 2011

Adherence to tablet and liquid formulations of antiretroviral medication for paediatric HIV treatment at an urban clinic in Uganda.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):235-45

Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Major obstacles remain in scaling up paediatric HIV treatment, including limited paediatric anti-retroviral drug options for resource-limited settings, challenges with adherence to liquid formulations and treatment fatigue with lifelong therapy.

Aim: To determine levels of adherence to HAART in HIV-infected children at 12, 24, 36 and 48 weeks of follow-up and to compare adherence levels before and after switching from syrup to fixed-dose combination (FDC)-tablet anti-retroviral formulations.

Methods: HIV-infected children aged between 6 months and 12 years were initiated on anti-retroviral therapy at Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Care Clinic, Kampala. Read More

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November 2011

Comparison of a rapid commercial test, Enterocheck WB(®), with automated blood culture for diagnosis of typhoid fever.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):231-4

Department of Paediatrics, Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital, The CHILDS Trust Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, India.

Background: Rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever is very important in the timely initiation of therapy.

Objectives: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the Enterocheck WB(®) test.

Methods: In a prospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of Enterocheck WB(®) that detects IgM antibodies to Salmonella typhi were compared with blood culture using BacT/Alert. Read More

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November 2011

Longitudinal study of vitamin D status in the 1st 6 months of life.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):225-30

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Unlabelled: Although hypovitaminosis D has been reported in the neonatal period and infancy, there is currently little information on the longitudinal changes in vitamin D status throughout early infancy.

Aim: To estimate, in Al Ain, UAE, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and longitudinal changes and risk factors in infants between birth and 6 months of age.

Methods: Serum 25-OH-vitamin-D levels were measured after birth and 6 months later in 27 infants of mothers of Middle Eastern or Asian origin who were pregnant between the months of September and November 2007. Read More

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November 2011

Diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs used to identify electrolyte disturbances in children with diarrhoea.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):219-24

School of Child & Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: No studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs of electrolyte disturbances in children with dehydrating diarrhoea.

Aims: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of clinical signs previously reported to be associated with plasma sodium and potassium disturbances in children.

Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study of 476 children aged 6 weeks to 2 years, admitted to a rehydration unit in Cape Town, South Africa. Read More

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November 2011

Colorectal polyps: a frequently-missed cause of rectal bleeding in Egyptian children.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):213-8

Departments of Pediatrics, Cairo University, Egypt.

Objectives: Colorectal polyps are important causes of rectal bleeding but they have been infrequently reported in Egyptian children. The prevalence and characteristics of colorectal polyps in a consecutive cohort of Egyptian children with rectal bleeding are presented.

Methods: A total of 174 children aged 2-12 years [mean (SD) 6. Read More

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November 2011

Effect of cryptosporidial and giardial diarrhoea on social maturity, intelligence and physical growth in children in a semi-urban slum in south India.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):205-12

Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Early childhood diarrhoea is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recurrent and persistent diarrhoea affect growth and cognition in children as young as 6 years.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of early childhood cryptosporidial and giardial diarrhoea on growth and development in children in a semi-urban slum in India. Read More

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November 2011

Enteric protozoa and human potential.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):201-3

University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, USA.

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November 2011

Community-based interventions to improve neonatal survival in low-resource settings.

Authors:
L McKenzie M Ellis

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(3):191-9

Centre for Child & Adolescent Health, School of Community & Social Medicine, University of Bristol, UK.

As child mortality declines globally, neonatal mortality (death in the 1st month of life) has become an increasingly important cause of under-5 deaths. Emerging evidence showing the effectiveness of low-cost community-based interventions proves that expensive hospital interventions are not needed to make progress with newborn survival in low-income countries where the vast majority of deaths occur. This paper discusses the use of two approaches to community-based interventions: home visits by community health workers and participatory women's groups. Read More

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November 2011

A case of congenital measles during the 2010 South African epidemic.

Ann Trop Paediatr 2011 ;31(2):185-8

Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Congenital measles is a well recognised but uncommon transplacental infection in the post-vaccine era. A 4-day-old infant is described who presented with uncomplicated congenital measles during the 2010 South African measles outbreak. Clinicians working in regions affected by measles outbreaks should be mindful of waning vaccine-induced measles immunity where infections among pregnant women may result in a resurgence of congenital measles. Read More

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