49,617 results match your criteria Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences[Journal]


Self-efficacy matters: Influence of students' perceived self-efficacy on statistics anxiety.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Statistical knowledge is a key competency for psychologists in order to correctly interpret assessment outcomes. Importantly, when learning statistics (and its mathematical foundations), self-efficacy (defined as an individual's belief to successfully accomplish specific performance attainments) is a central predictor of students' motivation to learn, learning engagement, and actual achievement. Therefore, it is crucial to gain a better understanding of students' self-efficacy for statistics and its interrelations with statistics anxiety and students' belief in the relevance of statistics. Read More

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Excessive iodine in iodized household salt in Nepal.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Amrit Science Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Iodine is an essential trace element required for the regulation of physiological processes involving the thyroid gland. However, inadequate and excessive intake of iodine are responsible for health problems, such as iodine deficiency disorders, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, thyroid papillary cancer, and thyrotoxicosis. The Universal Salt Iodization (USI) program has become successful in providing supplemental iodine at the population level globally. Read More

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Gaze patterns reveal aesthetic distance while viewing art.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Cognition, Emotion and Methods in Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

For centuries, Western philosophers have argued that aesthetic experiences differ from common, everyday pleasing sensations, and further, that mental states, such as disinterested contemplation and aesthetic distance, underlie these complex experiences. We empirically tested whether basic perceptual processes of information intake reveal evidence for aesthetic distance, specifically toward visual art. We conducted two eye tracking experiments using appropriately matched visual stimuli (environmental scenes and representational paintings) with 59 participants using two different presentation durations (25 and 6 s). Read More

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Benefits of choir singing on complex auditory encoding in the aging brain: An ERP study.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Aging is accompanied by difficulties in auditory information processing, especially in more complex sound environments. Choir singing requires efficient processing of multiple sound features and could, therefore, mitigate the detrimental effects of aging on complex auditory encoding. We recorded auditory event-related potentials during passive listening of sounds in healthy older adult (≥ 60 years) choir singers and nonsinger controls. Read More

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The forgotten role of absorption in music reward.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Cognition, Development and Educational Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Interindividual differences in music-related reward have been characterized as involving five main facets: musical seeking, emotion evocation, mood regulation, social reward, and sensory-motor. An interesting concept related to how humans decode music as a rewarding experience is music transcendence or absorption (i.e. Read More

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Predictive models for human-AI nexus in group decision making.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA.

Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) have had a profound impact on our lives. Domains like health and learning are naturally helped by human-AI interactions and decision making. In these areas, as ML algorithms prove their value in making important decisions, humans add their distinctive expertise and judgment on social and interpersonal issues that need to be considered in tandem with algorithmic inputs of information. Read More

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Tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 as regulators of epithelial proliferation and survival.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Laboratory of Mucosal Barrier Pathobiology, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Epithelial cells are the first line of mucosal defense. In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells must establish a selectively permeable barrier that supports nutrient absorption and waste secretion while preventing the leakage of potentially harmful luminal materials. Key to this is the tight junction, which seals the paracellular space and prevents unrestricted leakage. Read More

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The dual GLP-1 and GLP-2 receptor agonist dapiglutide promotes barrier function in murine short bowel.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of General, Thoracic, Vascular and Transplantation Surgery, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany.

Short bowel syndrome can occur after extensive intestinal resection, causing intestinal insufficiency or intestinal failure, which requires long-term parenteral nutrition. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) pharmacotherapy is now clinically used to reduce the disease burden of intestinal failure. However, many patients still cannot be weaned off from parenteral nutrition completely. Read More

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Negative pressure promotes macrophage M1 polarization after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection via the lncRNA XIST/microRNA-125b-5p/A20/NF-κB axis.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Orthopedics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Experiments have demonstrated the regulation of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in tuberculosis (TB), and negative pressure treatment has been associated with the alleviation of TB. Here, we investigated the interaction of negative pressure and the lncRNA X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) in modulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Initially, we established an in vitro cell model of MTB infection and an in vivo mouse model of MTB infection, followed by treatment with negative pressure. Read More

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Longitudinal and situational associations between math anxiety and performance among early adolescents.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Education, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Studies have found math anxiety and achievement to be related from the beginning of formal schooling, but the knowledge regarding the direction of the relationship is vague. The purpose of the present study was to study this relationship. We investigated math anxiety from two points of view: trait and state anxiety. Read More

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Brain somatic mutations as RNA therapeutic targets in neurological disorders.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 8. Epub 2022 May 8.

SoVarGen Co., Ltd., Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Research into the genetic etiology of a neurological disorder can provide directions for genetic diagnosis and targeted therapy. In the past, germline mutations, which are transmitted from parents or newly arise from parental germ cells, were considered as major genetic causes of neurological disorders. However, recent evidence has shown that somatic mutations in the brain, which can arise from neural stem cells during development or over aging, account for a significant number of brain disorders, ranging from neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and neuropsychiatric to neoplastic disease. Read More

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From island biogeography to landscape and metacommunity ecology: A macroecological perspective of bat communities.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Institute of the Environment, Center for Environmental Sciences & Engineering, and Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

The equilibrium theory of island biogeography and its quantitative consideration of origination and extinction dynamics as they relate to island area and distance from source populations have evolved over time and enriched theory related to many disciplines in spatial ecology. Indeed, the island focus was catalytic to the emergence of landscape ecology and macroecology in the late 20th century. We integrate concepts and perspectives of island biogeography, landscape ecology, macroecology, and metacommunity ecology, and show how these disciplines have advanced the understanding of variation in abundance, biodiversity, and composition of bat communities. Read More

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Modifying the blood-brain barrier by targeting claudin-5: Safety and risks.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

The blood-brain barrier is a major obstacle to the delivery of drugs to the central nervous system. In the blood-brain barrier, the spaces between adjacent brain microvascular endothelial cells are sealed by multiprotein complexes known as tight junctions. Among the many components of the tight junction, claudin-5 has received the most attention as a target for loosening the tight-junction seal and allowing drugs to be delivered to the brain. Read More

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Social communication therapy for children at risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties: Protocol for a clinical trial.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Exposure to adverse environments are risk factors for neurodevelopmental problems in childhood. Children exposed to such environments may benefit from interventions that target social communication abilities, since these are protective factors for healthy neurodevelopment. This randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of Paediatric Autism Communication Therapy (PACT) in improving social communication development in young children at risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties living in poverty in Brazil. Read More

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Cross-talk of four types of RNA modification writers defines the immune microenvironment in severe asthma.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Adenine modifications, including m A, m A, APA, and A-to-I modifications, are the most impactful RNA modifications. These modifications are primarily produced by enzymes called writers. The main purpose of this study was to explore the cross-talk and potential roles of these writers in severe asthma. Read More

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Nutrition modeling tools: a qualitative study of influence on policy decision making and determining factors.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

New York Academy of Sciences, New York, New York.

Nutrition modeling tools (NMTs) generate evidence to inform policy and program decision making; however, the literature is generally limited to modeling methods and results, rather than use cases and their impacts. We aimed to document the policy influences of 12 NMTs and identify factors influencing them. We conducted semistructured interviews with 109 informants from 30 low- and middle-income country case studies and used thematic analysis to understand the data. Read More

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Embodied learning in multiple sclerosis using melodic, sound, and visual feedback: a potential rehabilitation approach.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

UMSC Hasselt, Pelt, Belgium.

Given the prevalence of motor and cognitive functions in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), we proposed that the theoretical framework of embodiment could provide a rehabilitation avenue to train these functions as one functional unit. PwMS (n = 31) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 30) underwent an embodied learning protocol. This involved learning a cognitive sequence while performing it through bodily stepping movement under three feedback conditions (melody, sound, and visual). Read More

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Mathematics-gender stereotype endorsement influences mathematics anxiety, self-concept, and performance differently in men and women.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Apr 16. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Centre for Mathematical Cognition, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

Mathematics anxiety (MA) is negatively associated with mathematics performance. Although some aspects, such as mathematics self-concept (M self-concept), seem to modulate this association, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In addition, the false gender stereotype that women are worse than men in mathematics can have a detrimental effect on women. Read More

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Cortistatin attenuates titanium particle-induced osteolysis through regulation of TNFR1-ROS-caspase-3 signaling in osteoblasts.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Orthopaedics, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China.

Aseptic loosening is a major complication of prosthetic joint surgery and is associated with impaired osteoblast homeostasis. Cortistatin (CST) is a neuropeptide that protects against inflammatory conditions. In this study, we found that expression of CST was diminished in patients with prosthetic joint loosening and in titanium (Ti) particle-induced animal models. Read More

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Math anxiety and deficient executive control: does reappraisal modulate this link?

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Apr 7. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities, Department of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

The literature suggests an interplay between executive control functions and emotion regulation processes, with each playing a key role in math anxiety. We examined the relation between the use of two different emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal and suppression) and the ability to reduce emotional interference in high-conflict situations (i.e. Read More

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Mathematics anxiety in deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing college students.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.

While mathematics anxiety (MA) has been widely researched in recent decades, this study addresses significant gaps: namely, research that explores the relationship between MA and self-reported mathematics experiences; samples adults with a range of MA levels; and controls for general anxiety. Additionally, the study sampled deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students, whose diverse life and educational experiences often differ from hearing students'. We investigated whether DHH students' experiences with mathematics (i. Read More

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Fortification of staple foods with calcium: a novel costing tool to inform decision making.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics Department, Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy (IECS), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Low calcium intake and its impact on maternal and child health are a major concern in low- and middle-income countries. Given the low calcium in diet, as well as the low adherence and acceptability of calcium pills in those settings, the discussion about policies to increase calcium intake has moved toward staple food fortification strategies. Nevertheless, there is scarce information on the economic feasibility of implementing these strategies. Read More

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Corrigendum for Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2020. 1478: 18-42.

Authors:

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Apr 27;1510(1):180-181. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

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Mathematical progression of avian egg shape with associated area and volume determinations.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Mar 25. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom.

Development of nondestructive techniques for estimating egg parameters requires a comprehensive approach based on mathematical theory. Basic properties used to solve theoretical and applied problems in this respect are volume (V) and surface area (S). There are respective formulae for calculating V and S of spherical, ellipsoidal, and ovoid eggs in classical egg geometry; however, the mathematical description and calculation of these parameters for pyriform eggs have remained elusive. Read More

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Mathematics anxiety-where are we and where shall we go?

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom.

In this paper, we discuss several largely undisputed claims about mathematics anxiety (MA) and propose where MA research should focus, including theoretical clarifications on what MA is and what constitutes its opposite pole; discussion of construct validity, specifically relations between self-descriptive, neurophysiological, and cognitive measures; exploration of the discrepancy between state and trait MA and theoretical and practical consequences; discussion of the prevalence of MA and the need for establishing external criteria for estimating prevalence and a proposal for such criteria; exploration of the effects of MA in different groups, such as highly anxious and high math-performing individuals; classroom and policy applications of MA knowledge; the effects of MA outside educational settings; and the consequences of MA on mental health and well-being. Read More

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Culture is not destiny, for reading: highlighting variable routes to literacy within writing systems.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Mar 21. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology and Foundations, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois.

Cross-writing system research in psychology and cognitive neuroscience has yielded important findings regarding how a writing system's structure can influence the cognitive challenges of learning to read and the neural underpinnings of literacy. The current paper reviews these differences and extends the findings to demonstrate diversity in how skilled reading is accomplished within a single writing system, English. We argue that broad clusters of behavioral and neural patterns found across writing systems can also be found within subpopulations who display atypical routes to skilled English reading, subpopulations including Chinese-English bilinguals, deaf native signers, compensated readers, and distortion-sensitive readers. Read More

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How have COVID-19 stringency measures changed scholarly activity?

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Mar 21. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

College of Health & Human Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.

Government restrictions to the movement of people due to the COVID-19 pandemic have had a wide range of effects on scientific activity. Here, we show that during the pandemic there has been a reduction in the number of registered non-COVID-19 clinical trials. Furthermore, using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker Stringency Index (SI) as an indicator of COVID-19-related workplace adjustment (e. Read More

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Evidence of cortical thickness increases in bilateral auditory brain structures following piano learning in older adults.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2022 Mar 15. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Geneva Musical Minds Lab, Geneva School of Health Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland HES-SO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Morphological differences in the auditory brain of musicians compared to nonmusicians are often associated with life-long musical activity. Cross-sectional studies, however, do not allow for any causal inferences, and most experimental studies testing music-driven adaptations investigated children. Although the importance of the age at which musical training begins is widely recognized to impact neuroplasticity, there have been few longitudinal studies examining music-related changes in the brains of older adults. Read More

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