3,567 results match your criteria Annals Of Epidemiology[Journal]

Job Loss and Fetal Growth Restriction: Identification of Critical Trimesters of Exposure.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

University of California Irvine, Center for Population, Inequality and Policy and Program in Public Health.

Purpose: Previous research suggests that job loss in a household during pregnancy may perturb fetal growth. However, this work often cannot rule out unmeasured confounding due to selection into job loss. Recent work using data on exogenous job loss (due to a plant closure) finds that a father's unexpected job loss during his spouse's pregnancy increases the risk of a low weight birth. Read More

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The where of when: Geographic variation in the timing of recent increases in US county-level heart disease death rates.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA, 30341.

Purpose: Within the context of local increases in US heart disease death rates, we estimated when increasing heart disease death rates began by county among adults aged 35-64 years and characterized geographic variation.

Methods: We applied Bayesian spatiotemporal models to vital statistics data to estimate the timing (i.e. Read More

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Home-to-Hospital Distance and Outcomes Among Community-Acquired Sepsis Hospitalizations.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, 615 Michael St, Ste. 205, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.

Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that longer distance from home-to-hospital is associated with worse outcomes among hospitalizations for community-acquired sepsis.

Methods: A secondary analysis of data from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) prospective cohort of 30,239 white and black US adults ≥ 45 years old was conducted. Self-reported hospitalizations for serious infection between 2003-2012 fulfilling 2/4 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria were included. Read More

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Ann Epidemiol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: HIV disparities continue to persist in the southern United States and among some populations. Early HIV diagnosis, prompt linkage to care, and viral suppression among persons with HIV in the South, in particular the Deep South, are critical to reduce disparities and achieve national prevention goals.

Methods: Estimated annual percent changes were calculated to assess trends during 2015-2019 in percentage distributions for stage of disease at the time of diagnosis, linkage to HIV medical care, and viral suppression. Read More

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Incidence, diagnoses and outcomes of ambulance attendances for chest pain: A population-based cohort study.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Cardiology, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; The Baker Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Aims: Non-traumatic chest pain is one of the most common reasons for calls for emergency assistance and places a significant burden on health services. This study aimed to determine age- and sex-specific incidences, diagnoses, and outcomes of patients with chest pain attended by paramedics using a large population-based sample.

Methods: Consecutive emergency medical services (EMS) attendances for non-traumatic chest pain in Victoria, Australia from January 2015 to June 2019 were included. Read More

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Neighborhood disparities in COVID-19 outcomes in New York city over the first two waves of the outbreak.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 27;70:45-52. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess the association of neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with COVID-19 incidence and mortality in New York City (NYC) over the first two waves of outbreak.

Methods: This retrospective study used neighborhood-level data from 177 modified ZIP code tabulation areas in NYC between March 01, 2020 and April 30, 2021.

Results: Neighborhoods that were most severely impacted in wave 1 were also more affected in wave 2. Read More

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Heterogeneous treatment effects in social policy studies: An assessment of contemporary articles in the health and social sciences.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 26;70:79-88. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA; Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY; Center for Opioid Epidemiology and Policy, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, 180 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016.. Electronic address:

Purpose: Social policies are important determinants of population health but may have varying effects on subgroups of people. Evaluating heterogeneous treatment effects (HTEs) of social policies is critical to determine how social policies will affect health inequities. Methods for evaluating HTEs are not standardized. Read More

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Variability in eating disorder risk and diagnosis in transgender and gender diverse college students.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 25;70:53-60. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN.

Purpose: To examine differences in elevated eating disorder risk and self-reported eating disorder diagnosis across subgroups of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) college students.

Methods: Data from 5057 TGD college students participating in the national Healthy Minds Study between 2014 and 2019 were analyzed. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses examined heterogeneity in prevalence and odds of elevated eating disorder risk, as measured by the SCOFF, and self-reported eating disorder diagnosis by gender, as well as by intersecting gender and sexual orientation identities. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential and rural-urban disease burden disparities across Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi, March 2020 - May 2021.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 25;71:1-8. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To quantify and compare SARS-CoV-2 transmission potential across Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi and selected counties.

Methods: To determine the time-varying reproduction number R of SARS-CoV-2, we applied the R package EpiEstim to the time series of daily incidence of confirmed cases (mid-March 2020 - May 17, 2021) shifted backward by 9 days. Median R percentage change when policies changed was determined. Read More

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Relationship between BMI trajectories and cardiometabolic outcomes in postmenopausal women - a growth mixture modelling approach.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California Irvine. Electronic address:

Purpose: The objective of this manuscript is to identify longitudinal trajectories of change in body mass index (BMI) after menopause and investigate the association of BMI trajectories with risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among postmenopausal women.

Methods: Using data from 68,132 participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials, we used growth mixture modeling (GMM) to develop BMI trajectories. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship between BMI trajectories with incident diabetes and CVD. Read More

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Hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and case-fatality outcomes in US veterans with COVID-19 disease between years 2020-2021.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 21;70:37-44. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT; George E. Wahlen Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT. Electronic address:

Purpose: Although veterans represent a significant proportion (7%) of the USA population, the COVID-19 disease impact within this group has been underreported. To bridge this gap, this study was undertaken.

Method: A total of 419,559 veterans, who tested positive for COVID-19 disease in the Veterans Affairs hospital system from March 1st, 2020 to December 31st, 2021 with 60-days follow-up, was included in this retrospective review. Read More

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Endometrial cancer risk factors in Singapore Chinese: a prospective cohort study.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 21;71:9-14. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA; Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA; Duquesne University, Rangos School of Health Sciences, Department of Health Administration and Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The incidence of Endometrial cancer (EC) has grown substantially in Asia over the past decade. However, few studies have addressed risk factors associated with EC incidence in Asian populations. We explored the association between reproductive and dietary risk factors and EC in the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS), one of the largest prospective cohort studies in Asia. Read More

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A Population-Based Susceptible, Infected, Recovered Simulation Model of the Spread of Influenza-Like-Illness in the Homeless versus Non-Homeless Population.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 17;70:68-73. Epub 2022 Apr 17.

University of Toronto, Department of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: To examine the prevalence and characteristics of influenza-like illness (ILI) related presentations among people experiencing homelessness compared to the general population as well as to use the Susceptible, Infected, Recovered (SIR) simulation model parameters β and γ to model infectious interactivity, recovery rate, and population-level basic reproduction number (R).

Methods: Using administrative health data from emergency department (ED) visits in the province of Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2017, an SIR model was used to calculate the R for ILI in both the general population and the population of homeless individuals.

Results: From 2010 to 2017, a total of 17,056 homeless and 85,553 non-homeless individuals presented with an ILI to an ED in Ontario. Read More

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Early adulthood overweight and obesity and risk of premenopausal ovarian cancer, and premenopausal breast cancer including receptor status: prospective cohort study of nearly 500,000 Danish women.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 8;70:61-67. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Unit of Virus, Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Gynecology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess the association between higher-than-normal BMI and incidence of premenopausal ovarian and breast cancers.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 461,646 women registered in the Danish Medical Birth Registry with self-reported early adulthood BMI ≥18.5 kg/m, without a history of cancer. Read More

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Emotional distress among survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult cancer or adult cancer.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Head and Neck Surgery & Communication Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC; Department of Population Health Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Purpose: We examined emotional distress in cancer survivors diagnosed as adolescents or young adults (AYAs) vs. cancer survivors diagnosed as middle/older adults and vs. the general population without a history of cancer. Read More

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Transactional sex, HIV and health among young cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men in Thailand.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 8;72:1-8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Health, Behavior & Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Division of HIV Prevention, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; Thailand Ministry of Public Health-U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand; Office of AIDS Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Department of Disease Control, Thailand Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA; Medical Affairs, Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA; Service Workers in Group Foundation (SWING), Bangkok, Thailand; Rainbow Sky Association of Thailand (RSAT), Bangkok, Thailand; Asia Pacific Coalition on Male Sexual Health Foundation (APCOM), Bangkok, Thailand.

Purpose: To examine how recent sex work is identified and the HIV risk factors and service needs among Thai cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) who exchange sex.

Methods: MSM and TGW in Bangkok and Pattaya who exchanged sex in the last year (n = 890) were recruited through social media, outreach, and word-of-mouth. Recent sex exchange was based on the primary question, "In the last 30 days, have you sold or traded sex"; secondary questions (regarding income source and client encounters) were also investigated. Read More

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Prevention-effective adherence trajectories among transgender women indicated for PrEP in the United States: a prospective cohort study.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 6;70:23-31. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: Adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) during periods of PrEP-indication (i.e., prevention-effective adherence) is critical for preventing HIV. Read More

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End-stage renal disease: incidence and prediction by coronary heart disease, and educational level. Follow-up from diagnosis of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes throughout Norway 1973-2017.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway; Oslo Diabetes Research Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To investigate incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and the association of education and coronary heart disease (CHD) with ESRD, in subjects throughout Norway followed from the diagnosis of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.

Methods: All new onset cases of type 1 diabetes 1973-2016 were followed for CHD and ESRD in nation-wide registries through 2017. Ten matched controls per case were selected from the National Population Register. Read More

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Clustering patterns in polysubstance mortality in the United States in 2017: a multiple correspondence analysis of death certificate data.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Apr 2. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Rocky Mountain Poison & Drug Safety, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO.

Purpose: The main goal of this analysis was to identify mortality patterns apparent when many drug classes are analyzed together.

Methods: The Drug Involved Mortality database is a registry of drug terms mentioned on death certificates of all drug-related deaths in the United States. Means of total number of drugs involved and percentages of specific drug combinations were calculated. Read More

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Predicting HPV vaccination among Tdap vaccinated adolescents in Georgia at the county level.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 28;70:74-78. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Clemson University, SC.

Purpose: Vaccinations are reported at the state level, but services are delivered at the county level through health departments (HD). This research contributes statistical models to predict county level HPV vaccination.

Methods: Using a cross sectional study design, secondary data were analyzed for the years 2016-2018 for all counties of GA. Read More

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Epidemiological predictive modeling: lessons learned from the Kuopio ischemic heart disease risk factor study.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 27;70:1-8. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Purpose: The use of predictive models in epidemiology is relatively narrow as most of the studies report results of traditional statistical models such as Linear, Logistic, or Cox regressions. In this study, a high-dimensional epidemiological cohort, collected within the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study in 1984-1989, was used to investigate the predictive ability of models with embedded variable selection.

Methods: Simple Logistic Regression with seven preselected risk factors was compared to k-Nearest Neighbors, Logistic Lasso Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Multilayer Perceptron in predicting cardiovascular death for the aged men from Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor for the long horizon of 30 ± 3 years: 746 predictor variables were available for 2682 men (705 cardiovascular deaths were registered). Read More

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Racial discrimination is associated with greater arterial stiffness and carotid intima-media thickness: The ELSA-Brasil study.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 26. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Purpose: The association between racial discrimination and subclinical cardiovascular markers remains under-examined. We aimed to investigate the association of race/skin color and racial discrimination with pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in the Brazilian context.

Methods: We used data from 13284 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline with information of PWV and 9850 for c-IMT. Read More

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Respiratory infectious disease outbreaks among people experiencing homeless: A systematic review of prevention and mitigation strategies.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Inner City Health Associates. 59 Adelaide St E, Toronto, ON M5C 1K6 Canada; University of Toronto, Temerty Faculty of Medicine. 1 King's College Cir, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8 Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: People experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at increased risk of respiratory infections and associated morbidity and mortality. To characterize optimal intervention strategies, we completed a systematic review of mitigation strategies for PEH to minimize the spread and impact of respiratory infectious disease outbreaks, including COVID-19.

Methods: The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (#2020 CRD42020208964) and was consistent with the preferred reporting in systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Read More

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Independent associations of inter-spousal gaps in age and education with long-term mortality and cancer survival: The Jerusalem Perinatal Study 1964-2016.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 20;70:32-36. Epub 2022 Mar 20.

Braun School of Public Health, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify factors responsible for variation in health among married individuals, we investigated the independent associations of gaps in spousal age and education (or "heterogamy") with all-cause and cause-specific mortality as well as with survival of cancer patients.

Methods: Using over four decades of follow-up data on 36,717 couples from Jerusalem (1964-2016), we compared heterogamous with homogamous couples.

Results: Having a less educated spouse was associated with an increased risk for several outcomes in both genders, such as all-cause mortality in males (hazard ratio [HR] = 1. Read More

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Cognitive impairment and low physical function among older Mexican Americans: findings from a 20-year follow-up.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 19;70:9-15. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Preventive Medicine and Population Health, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston TX; Department of Nutrition, Metabolism, and Rehabilitation Sciences, School of Health Professions, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston TX; Sealy Center on Aging, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston TX; Internal Medicine, Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston TX.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the association between cognitive impairment and low physical function over a 20-year follow-up period among older Mexican Americans.

Methods: The final sample included 1545 community-dwelling Mexican Americans age ≥ 65 years from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly, who scored moderate-high on Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and were non-disabled at baseline (1993/94). Cognitive impairment was defined at each observation wave as less than equal to 21 points on the Mini Mental State Examination. Read More

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The association between rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease among adults in the United States during 1999-2018, and age-related effect modification in relative and absolute scales.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 14. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences (CHEOS), St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: To explore the rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-cardiovascular diseases (CVD) association in relative and absolute risk scales among US adults aged ≥20 years over time and the effect modification of the association by age.

Methods: We analyzed aggregated data from all ten continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles. A sample of 35,062 complete-case subjects was considered. Read More

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Serious financial difficulties, psychological stress, and subclinical cardiovascular disease in Mexican women.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 12. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monterrey Institute of Technology, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico; Department of Medicine, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition, Avenida Vasco de Quiroga No.15, Mexico City 14080, Mexico. Electronic address:

Purpose: To investigate the association between serious financial difficulties (SFD), stress, and cardiovascular health in women.

Methods: We categorized 1759 employed and insured disease-free women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort according to their response to a question on SFD included in the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised administered in 2012 and 2016. We also measured perceived stress (n = 1598) and hair cortisol levels (n = 539) in study participants. Read More

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On selection bias in comparison measures of smartphone-generated population mobility: an illustration of no-bias conditions with a commercial data source.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 12;70:16-22. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: Passively generated cell-phone location ("mobility") data originally intended for commercial use has become frequently used in epidemiologic research, notably during the COVID-19 pandemic to study the impact of physical-distancing recommendations on aggregate population behavior (e.g., average daily mobility). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 active infection prevalence and seroprevalence in the adult population of St. Louis County.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 Mar 8. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Background: The true prevalence of COVID-19 is difficult to estimate due to the absence of random population-based testing. To estimate current and past COVID-19 infection prevalence in a large urban area, we conducted a population-based survey in St. Louis County, Missouri. Read More

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A prospective study of preconception asthma and spontaneous abortion.

Ann Epidemiol 2022 May 27;69:27-33. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationships among history of asthma, asthma severity, and spontaneous abortion (SAB).

Methods: Pregnancy Study Online is a preconception cohort study of North American couples. During the preconception period, female participants reported their history of physician-diagnosed asthma, age at first diagnosis, and use of asthma medications in the previous 4 weeks. Read More

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