4,324 results match your criteria Annals Of Botany[Journal]


Associations between phytohormones and cellulose biosynthesis in land plants.

Ann Bot 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA.

Background: Phytohormones are small molecules that regulate virtually every aspect of plant growth and development; from basic cellular processes, such as cell expansion and division, to whole plant environmental responses. While the phytohormone levels and distribution thus tell the plant how to adjust itself, the corresponding growth alterations are actuated by cell wall modification/synthesis and internal turgor. Plant cell walls are complex polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrixes that surround all plant cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa121DOI Listing

Corner's rules pass the test of time: little effect of phenology on leaf-shoot and other scaling relationships.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Centro de Investigación en Ecosistemas de la Patagonia (CIEP), Camino Baguales s/n, Coyhaique, Chile.

Background And Aims: The twig cross-sectional area and the surface area of leaves borne on it are expected to be isometrically correlated across species (Corner's rules). However, how stable this relationship remains in time is not known. We studied the interspecific and intraspecific twig leaf area-cross-sectional area (la-cs) and other scaling relationships, including the leaf-shoot mass (lm-sm) scaling relationship, across a complete growing season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa124DOI Listing

Frequency distribution of foliar nickel is bimodal in the ultramafic flora of Kinabalu Park (Sabah, Malaysia).

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia.

Background And Aims: The aim of this study was to test the frequency distributions of foliar elements from a large dataset from Kinabalu Park (Sabah, Malaysia) for departure from unimodality, indicative of a distinct ecophysiological response associated with hyperaccumulation.

Methods: We collected foliar samples (n = 1533) comprising 90 families, 198 genera and 495 plant species from ultramafic soils, and foliar samples (n = 177) comprising 45 families, 80 genera and 120 species from non-ultramafic soils and corresponding soil samples (n = 393 from ultramafic soils and n = 66 from non-ultramafic soils) from Kinabalu Park (Sabah, Malaysia). The data were geographically- (Kinabalu Park) and edaphically- (ultramafic soils) constrained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa119DOI Listing

A functional-structural model of upland rice root systems reveals the importance of laterals and growing root tips for phosphate uptake from wet and dry soils.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Institute of Bio- and Geosciences: Agrosphere (IBG 3), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany.

Background And Aims: Upland rice is often grown where water and phosphorus (P) are limited. To better understand the interaction between water and P availability, functional-structural models that mechanistically represent small-scale nutrient gradients and water dynamics in the rhizosphere are needed.

Methods: Rice was grown in large columns using a P-deficient soil at three P supplies in the topsoil (deficient, suboptimal, non-limiting) in combination with two water regimes (field capacity versus drying periods). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa120DOI Listing

Do food trichomes occur in Pinguicula (Lentibulariaceae) flowers?

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Cracow, Poland.

Background And Aims: Floral food bodies (including edible trichomes) are a form of floral reward for pollinators. This type of nutritive reward has been recorded in several angiosperm families: Annonaceae, Araceae, Calycanthaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Himantandraceae, Nymphaeaceae, Orchidaceae, Pandanaceae and Winteraceae. Although these bodies are very diverse in their structure, their cells contain food material: starch grains, protein bodies or lipid droplets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa123DOI Listing

Genome-wide genotyping elucidates the geographical diversification and dispersal of the polyploid and clonally propagated yam (Dioscorea alata L.).

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

CIRAD, UMR AGAP, Montpellier, France.

Background And Aims: Inferring the diffusion history of many human-dispersed species is still not straightforward due to unsolved past human migrations. The centre of diversification and routes of migration of the autopolyploid and clonally propagated greater yam, Dioscorea alata, one of the oldest edible tubers is still unsolved. Here, we address yam demographic and dispersal history using a worldwide sample. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa122DOI Listing

Root secondary growth: an unexplored component of soil resource acquisition.

Ann Bot 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Plant Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Background And Aims: Despite recent progress in elucidating the molecular basis of secondary growth (cambial growth), the functional implications of this developmental process remain poorly understood. Targeted studies exploring how abiotic and biotic factors affect this process, as well as the relevance of secondary growth to fitness of annual dicotyledonous crop species under stress, are almost entirely absent from the literature. Specifically, the physiological role of secondary growth in roots has been completely neglected yet entails a unique array of implications for plant performance that are distinct from secondary growth in shoot tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa068DOI Listing

Interlinking moss functional traits. A commentary on: 'Water economy responses to water level drawdown in peat mosses'.

Authors:
Tomáš Hájek

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czechia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa108DOI Listing

Endopolyploidy is a common response to UV-B stress in natural plant populations, but its magnitude may be affected by chromosome type.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlarska, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: UV-B radiation damages the DNA, cells, and photosynthetic apparatus of plants. Plants commonly prevent this damage by synthetizing UV-B protective compounds. Recent laboratory experiments in Arabidopsis and cucumber indicate that plants can also respond to UV-B stress with endopolyploidy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa109DOI Listing

Earlier onset of flowering and increased reproductive allocation of an annual invasive plant in the north of its novel range.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.

Background And Aims: It remains unclear whether invasive species can maintain both high biomass and reproductive output across their invaded range. Along latitudinal gradients, allocation theory predicts that faster flowering onset at high latitudes results in maturation at smaller size and thus reduced reproductive output. For annual invasive plants, more favourable environmental conditions at low latitudes likely result in stronger competition of co-occurring species, potentially driving selection for higher investment in vegetative biomass, while harsher climatic conditions and associated reproductive uncertainty at higher latitudes could reduce selection for vegetative biomass and increased selection for high reproductive investment (stress-gradient hypothesis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa110DOI Listing

A relic of the past: current genetic patterns of the palaeoendemic tree Nothofagus macrocarpa were shaped by climatic oscillations in central Chile.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Laboratorio Ecotono, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, INIBIOMA-CONICET, Bariloche, Argentina.

Background And Aims: The Mediterranean-type forest of central Chile is considered a "biodiversity hotspot" and a relic of a wider ancient distribution produced by past climatic oscillations. Nothofagus macrocarpa, commonly known as 'roble de Santiago', is a threatened palaeoendemism of this forest, poorly represented in the protected area system. This tree has been repeatedly misidentified as the sister species N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa111DOI Listing

Nickel hyperaccumulation in New Caledonian Hybanthus (Violaceae) and occurrence of nickel-rich phloem in Hybanthus austrocaledonicus.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Background And Aims: Hybanthus austrocaledonicus (Violaceae) is a Ni hyperaccumulator endemic to New Caledonia. One of the specimens stored at the local herbarium had a strip of bark with a remarkably green phloem tissue attached to the sheet containing over 4 Wt% Ni. This study aimed to collect field samples from the original H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa112DOI Listing

Archaeosporites rhyniensis gen. et sp. nov. (Glomeromycota, Archaeosporaceae), from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert - a fungal lineage morphologically unchanged for more than 400 million years.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

SNSB-Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, Richard-Wagner-Straße, Munich, Germany.

Background And Aims: Structurally preserved arbuscular mycorrhizas from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert represent core fossil evidence of the evolutionary history of mycorrhizal systems. Moreover, Rhynie chert fossils of glomeromycotan propagules suggest that this lineage of arbuscular fungi was morphologically diverse by the Early Devonian; however, only a small fraction of this diversity has been formally described and critically evaluated.

Methods: Thin sections, previously prepared by grinding wafers of chert from the Rhynie beds, were studied by transmitted light microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa113DOI Listing

Directional change in leaf dry matter γ13C during leaf development is widespread in C3 plants.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, Australia.

Background And Aims: The stable carbon isotope ratio of leaf dry matter (γ13Cp) is generally a reliable recorder of intrinsic water-use efficiency in C3 plants. Here, we investigated a previously reported pattern of developmental change in leaf δ13Cp during leaf expansion, whereby emerging leaves are initially 13C-enriched compared to mature leaves on the same plant, with their δ13Cp decreasing during leaf expansion until they eventually take on the δ13Cp of other mature leaves.

Methods: We compiled data to test whether the difference between mature and young leaf δ13Cp differs between temperate and tropical species, or between deciduous and evergreen species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa114DOI Listing

Functional dissection of HGGT and HPT in barley vitamin E biosynthesis via CRISPR/Cas9-enabled genome editing.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Institute of Genetics and Regenerative Biology, Key Laboratory for Cell and Gene Engineering of Zhejiang Province, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background And Aims: Vitamin E (tocochromanol) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant and an essential nutrient for human health. Among cereal crops, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains a high level of vitamin E, which includes both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa115DOI Listing

Does masting scale with plant size? High reproductive variability and low synchrony in small and unproductive individuals.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Background And Aims: In a range of plant species, the distribution of individual mean fecundity is skewed and dominated by a few highly fecund individuals. Larger plants produce greater seed crops, but the exact nature of the relationship between size and reproductive patterns are poorly understood. This is especially clear in plants that reproduce by exhibiting synchronized quasi-periodic variation in fruit production: a process which is called masting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa118DOI Listing

Specific mycorrhizal associations involving the same fungal taxa in common and threatened Caladenia (Orchidaceae): implications for conservation.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, ANU College of Science, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Background And Aims: In orchid conservation, quantifying the specificity of mycorrhizal associations, and establishing which orchid species use the same fungal taxa, is important for sourcing suitable fungi for symbiotic propagation and selecting sites for conservation translocation. For Caladenia subgenus Calonema (Orchidaceae), which contains 58 threatened species, we ask: (1) How many taxa of Serendipita mycorrhizal fungi do threatened species of Caladenia associate with? (2) Do threatened Caladenia share orchid mycorrhizal fungi with common Caladenia? (3) How geographically widespread are mycorrhizal fungi associated with Caladenia?

Methods: Fungi were isolated from 127 Caladenia species followed by DNA sequencing of the ITS sequence locus. We used a 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa116DOI Listing

Leaf traits and performance vary with plant age and water availability in Artemisia californica.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 6. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background And Aims: Leaf functional traits are strongly tied to growth strategies and ecological processes across species, but few efforts have linked intraspecific trait variation to performance across ontogenetic and environmental gradients. Plants are believed to shift towards more resource-conservative traits in stressful environments and as they age. However, uncertainty in how intraspecific trait variation aligns with plant age and performance in the context of environmental variation may limit our ability to use traits to infer ecological processes at larger scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa106DOI Listing

Impact of genome duplication on secondary metabolite composition in non-cultivated species: A systematic meta-analysis.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 6. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

Background And Aims: Whole genome duplication is known to influence ecological interactions and plant physiology, however, despite abundant case studies, much is still unknown about the typical impact of genome duplication on plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). In this study, we assessed the impact of polyploidy events on PSM characteristics in non-cultivated plants.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare composition and concentration of PSMs among closely-related plant species or species-complexes differing in ploidy level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa107DOI Listing

The role of perennation traits in plant community soil frost stress responses.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Aims: Herbaceous plants can survive periods of prolonged freezing as belowground structures or seed, which can be insulated from cold air by soil, litter or snow. Belowground perennial structures vary in both form and their exposure to soil frost, and this structural variation thus may be important in determining the responses of plant communities to frost stress.

Methods: We conducted a suite of snow removal experiments in a northern temperate old field over three years to examine the relative freezing responses of different plant functional groups based on belowground perennation traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa104DOI Listing

Red flowers differ in shades between pollination systems and across continents.

Ann Bot 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Background And Aims: Floral colour is a primary signal in plant-pollinator interactions. The association between red flowers and bird pollination is well known, explained by the "bee avoidance" and "bird attraction" hypotheses. Nevertheless, the relative importance of these two hypotheses has rarely been investigated on a large scale, even in terms of colour perception per se. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa103DOI Listing

Environmental pressures on stomatal size may drive plant genome size evolution: evidence from a natural experiment with Cape geophytes.

Ann Bot 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská, Brno, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: The idea that genome (size) evolution in eukaryotes could be driven by environmental factors is still vigorously debated. In extant plants, genome size correlates positively with stomatal size, leading to the idea that conditions enabling the existence of large stomata in fossil plants also supported growth of their genome size. We test this inductive assumption in drought-adapted, prostrate-leaved Cape (South Africa) geophytes where, compared with their upright-leaved geophytic ancestors, stomata develop in a favourably humid microclimate formed underneath their leaves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa095DOI Listing

Diversity of parental environments increases phenotypic variation in Arabidopsis populations more than genetic diversity but similarly affects productivity.

Ann Bot 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

CIDE-CSIC, C. Naquera Km 4.5, Montcada, Valencia, Spain.

Background And Aims: The observed positive diversity effect on ecosystem functioning has been scarcely assessed in terms of intraspecific trait variability within populations. Intraspecific phenotypic variability could stem both from underlying genetic diversity and plasticity in response to environmental cues. The latter might derive from modifications on plant's epigenome and potentially last multiple generations in response to previous environmental conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa100DOI Listing

Leaf chemical defences and insect herbivory in oak: accounting for canopy position unravels marked genetic relatedness effects.

Ann Bot 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, BIOGECO, Cestas, France.

Background And Aims: Highly controlled experiments document that plant genetic diversity and relatedness can shape herbivore communities and patterns of herbivory. Evidence from the field is however scarce and inconsistent. We assessed whether a genetic signal underlying herbivory can be detected in oak woodlands when accounting for variation at smaller (within-tree) and larger (among-stand) scales. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa101DOI Listing

Inter- and intraspecific variation in grass phytolith shape and size: a geometric morphometrics perspective.

Ann Bot 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Center for Theoretical Study, Joint Research Institute of Charles University and Czech Academy of Sciences, Husova, Praha, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: The relative contributions of inter- and intraspecific variation in phytolith shape and size have only been investigated in a limited number of studies. However, a detailed understanding of phytolith variation patterns among populations or even within a single plant specimen is of key importance for the correct taxonomic identification of grass taxa in fossil samples and for the reconstruction of vegetation and environmental conditions in the past. In this study, we used geometric morphometric analysis for the quantification of different sources of phytolith shape and size variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa102DOI Listing

Differential regulatory pathways associated with drought-inhibition and post-drought recuperation of rhizome development in perennial grass.

Ann Bot 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Plant Biology and Pathology; Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Background And Aims: Rhizomes are key organs for the establishment of perennial grass stands and adaptation to environmental stress. However, mechanisms regulating rhizome initiation and elongation under drought stress and during post-drought recovery remain unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate molecular factors and metabolic processes involved in drought effects and post-drought recovery in rhizome growth in perennial grass species by comparative transcriptomic and proteomic profiling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa099DOI Listing

Investigating tree and fruit growth through functional-structural modelling: Implications of carbon autonomy at different scales.

Ann Bot 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Centre for Horticultural Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia.

Background And Aims: It is often convenient and common for experimental studies to assume that some topological units are autonomous with regard to carbon. Some plant models simulate carbon allocation employing complex approaches that require calibration and fitted parameters. For whole tree canopy simulations, more simple carbon allocation models can provide useful insights. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa098DOI Listing

Estimation of maize plant height and leaf area index dynamic using unmanned aerial vehicle with oblique and nadir photography.

Ann Bot 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (North China), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background And Aims: High throughput phenotyping is a limitation in plant genetics and breeding due to large-scale experiments in the field. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can help to extract plant phenotypic traits rapidly and non-destructively with high efficiency. The general aim of this study is to estimate the dynamic plant height and leaf area index (LAI) by nadir and oblique photography with UAV, and to compare the integrity of the established three-dimensional (3D) canopy by these two methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa097DOI Listing

Effects of intrinsic environmental predictability on intra-individual and intra-population variability of plant reproductive traits and eco-evolutionary consequences.

Ann Bot 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal, Madrid, Spain.

Background And Aims: It is widely accepted that changes in the environment affect mean trait expression, but little is known about how the environment shapes intra-individual and intra-population variance. Theory suggests that intra-individual variance might be plastic and under natural selection, rather than reflecting developmental noise, but evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. Here, we experimentally tested whether differences in intrinsic environmental predictability affect intra-individual and intra-population variability of different reproductive traits, and whether intra-individual variability is under selection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa096DOI Listing

Orchid Conservation - from theory to practice.

Ann Bot 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Background: Given the exceptional diversity of orchids (26,000+ species), improving strategies for the conservation of orchids will benefit a vast number of taxa. Furthermore, with rapidly increasing numbers of endangered orchids, and low success rates in orchid conservation translocation programs worldwide, it is evident that our progress in understanding the biology of orchids is not yet translating into widespread effective conservation.

Scope: We highlight unusual aspects of the reproductive biology of orchids that can have important consequences for conservation programs such as specialisation of pollination systems, low fruit set but high seed production, and the potential for long-distance seed dispersal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa093DOI Listing

Differences in xylem development between Dutch and Japanese tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) correlate with cytokinin levels in hypocotyls.

Ann Bot 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, Japan.

Background And Aims: Dutch tomato cultivars tend to have a greater yield than Japanese cultivars even if they are grown under the same conditions. Factors contributing to the increased yield of the Dutch cultivars were a greater light use efficiency and greater leaf photosynthetic rate. On the other hand, the relationship between tomato yields and anatomical traits is still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa094DOI Listing

V-Mango: A functional-structural model of mango tree growth, development and fruit production.

Ann Bot 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

CIRAD, UPR HortSys, Saint-Pierre, La Réunion, France.

Background And Aims: Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the fifth most widely produced fruit in the world. Its cultivation, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, raises a number of issues such as the irregular fruit production across years, phenological asynchronisms that lead to long periods of pest and disease susceptibility, and the heterogeneity of fruit quality and maturity at harvest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa089DOI Listing

Temporal dynamics of sexual dimorphism in a dioecious species.

Ann Bot 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR, Evo-Eco-Paleo, Lille, France.

Background And Aims: Sexual dimorphism for floral traits is common in dioecious plant species. Beyond its significance for understanding how selection acts on plant traits through male versus female reproductive function, sexual dimorphism has also been proposed as a possible risky characteristic for insect pollinated plants, as it could drive pollinators to forage mostly on male plants. However, even though most flowering plant species spread their flowering across several weeks or months, the temporal variation of floral phenotypes and sexual dimorphism are rarely investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa088DOI Listing

A willow drawing from 1786: the earliest depiction of intraspecific trait variation in plants?

Ann Bot 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

School of Divinity, History and Philosophy, University of Aberdeen, College Bounds, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Background And Aims: The study of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) in plants has a long history, dating back to the 4th century BC. Its existence was widely acknowledged by the end of the 18th century, although systematic and experimental studies commenced only a century later. However, the historiography of ITV has many gaps, especially with regards to early observations and visual documents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa091DOI Listing

Reconstruction of the spatio-temporal diversification and ecological niche evolution of Helianthemum (Cistaceae) in the Canary Islands using Genotyping-by-Sequencing data.

Ann Bot 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Universidad de Sevilla, c/ Profesor García González, Sevilla, Spain.

Background And Aims: Several biogeographic models have been proposed to explain the colonization and diversification patterns of Macaronesian lineages. In this study, we calculated the diversification rates and explored what model better explains the current distribution of the 15 endemic species to the Canary Islands belonging to Helianthemum sect. Helianthemum (Cistaceae). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa090DOI Listing

Ecophysiology with barley eceriferum (cer) mutants:  the effects of humidity and wax crystal structure on yield and vegetative parameters.

Ann Bot 2020 May 3. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloees Vej, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Background And Aims: In addition to preventing water loss, plant cuticles must also regulate nutrient loss, leaching. The eceriferum mutants in Hordeum vulgare (barley) potentially influence these functions by altering epicuticular wax structure and composition.

Methods: Cultivar Bonus and five of its cer mutants were grown under optimal conditions for vegetative growth and maturation, and nine traits were measured. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa086DOI Listing

On the modeling of tropical tree growth: the importance of intra-specific trait variation, non-linear functions and phenotypic integration.

Ann Bot 2020 May 3. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, U.S.A.

Background And Aims: The composition and dynamics of plant communities arises from individual-level demographic outcomes, which are driven by interactions between phenotypes and the environment. Functional traits that can be measured across plants are frequently used to model plant growth and survival. Perhaps surprisingly, species average trait values are often used in these studies and, in some cases, these trait values come from other regions or averages calculated from global databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa085DOI Listing

The role of multiple reproductive barriers: Strong post-pollination interactions govern cytotype isolation in a tetraploid-octoploid contact zone.

Ann Bot 2020 Apr 30. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

CFE, Centre for Functional Ecology - Science for People & the Planet, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, Coimbra, Portugal.

Background And Aims: Polyploidy is an important contributor to sympatric speciation and assortative mating is a key mechanism driving cytotype interactions at contact zones. While strong reproductive barriers can mediate the coexistence of different cytotypes in sympatry, positive frequency-dependent mating disadvantage ultimately drives the transition to single-ploidy populations. However, comprehensive estimates of reproductive isolation among cytotypes and across multiple barriers are rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa084DOI Listing

Time-resolved laboratory µ-XRF reveals silicon distribution in relation to manganese toxicity in soybean and sunflower.

Ann Bot 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Background And Aims: Synchrotron- and laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) is a powerful technique to quantify the distribution of elements in physically large intact samples, including live plants, at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. However, analysis of light elements with atomic number (Z) less than that of phosphorus is challenging due to the need for a vacuum which of course is not compatible with live plant material, or the availability of a helium environment.

Method: A new laboratory µ-XRF instrument was used to examine the effects of silicon (Si) on the manganese (Mn) status of soybean (Glycine max) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grown at elevated Mn in solution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa081DOI Listing

Assessing the variation in Manganese Use Efficiency Traits in Scottish Barley Landrace Bere (Hordeum vulgare L.).

Ann Bot 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK.

Background And Aims: Manganese (Mn) deficiency in barley is a global problem. It is difficult to detect in the early stages of symptom development and is commonly pre-emptively corrected by Mn foliar sprays that can be costly. Landraces adapted to marginal lands around the world represent a genetic resource for potential sustainability traits including mineral use efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa079DOI Listing

Lack of strong selection pressures maintains wide variation in floral traits in a food-deceptive orchid.

Ann Bot 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Research Institute for Forest and Nature, Gaverstraat, Geraardsbergen, Belgium.

Background And Aims: Angiosperms vary remarkably in traits such as colour, size and shape of flowers, yet such variation generally tends to be low within species. In deceptive orchids, however, large variation in floral traits has been described, not only between, but also within populations. Nonetheless, the factors driving variation in floral traits in deceptive orchids remain largely unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa080DOI Listing

How plant allometry influences bud phenology and fruit yield in two Vaccinium species.

Ann Bot 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Laboratoire d'écologie végétale et animale, Département des Sciences Fondamentales, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada.

Background And Aims: Understanding how plant allometry, plant architecture, and phenology contribute to fruit production can identify those plant traits that maximize fruit yield. In this study, we compared these variables and fruit yield for two shrub species, Vaccinium angustifolium and Vaccinium myrtilloides to test the hypothesis that phenology is linked to the plants' allometric traits, which are predictors of fruit production.

Methods: We measured leaf and flower phenology and the aboveground biomass of both Vaccinium sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa083DOI Listing

Model-assisted comparison of sugar accumulation patterns in ten fleshy fruits highlights differences between herbaceous and woody species.

Ann Bot 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

INRAE, UR1115, Unité Plantes et Systèmes de Culture Horticoles, Avignon, France.

Background And Aims: Sugar composition is a key determinant of fruit quality. Soluble sugars and starch concentrations in fruits vary greatly from one species to another. The aim of this paper was to investigate similarities and differences in sugar accumulation strategies across ten contrasting fruit species using a modeling approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcaa082DOI Listing