4,635 results match your criteria Annals Of Botany[Journal]

Macroevolutionary trends and diversification dynamics in Atripliceae (Amaranthaceae s.l., Chenopodioideae): a first approach.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Biotecnología Sustentable (LIBioS), Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Roque Sáenz Peña 352, B1876BXD Bernal, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background And Aims: Atripliceae evolved and diversified by dispersals and radiations across continents on both hemispheres, colonizing similar semi-arid, saline-alkaline environments throughout the world. Meanwhile, its species developed different life forms, photosynthetic pathways, mono- or dioecy, and different morphological features in flowers, fruiting bracteoles, and seeds. In this study, we introduce a first approach to the macroevolutionary patterns and diversification dynamics of the Atripliceae to understand how time, traits, speciation, extinction, and new habitats influenced the evolution of this lineage. Read More

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Unravelling the paradox in physical dormant species: Elucidating the onset of dormancy after dispersal and dormancy-cycling.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Germplasm Conservation Laboratory, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.

Background: For species that produce seeds with a water-impermeable coat, i.e. physical dormancy (PY), it has been widely recognised in the available literature that (i) seeds shed at a permeable state cannot become impermeable after dispersal; and (ii) dormancy-cycling, i. Read More

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Complex floral traits shape pollinator attraction to ornamental plants.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Entomology, Center for Pollinator Research, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background And Aims: Ornamental flowering plant species are often used in managed greenspaces to attract and support pollinator populations. In natural systems, selection by pollinators is hypothesized to result in convergent multimodal floral phenotypes which are more attractive to specific pollinator taxa. In contrast, ornamental cultivars are bred via artificial selection by humans, and exhibit diverse and distinct phenotypes. Read More

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Caution with colour calculations: spectral purity is a poor descriptor of flower colour visibility.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Behavioural Physiology and Sociobiology, University of Würzburg, Germany.

Background: The colours of flowers are of key interest to plant and pollination biologists. An increasing number of studies investigates the importance of saturation of flower colours (often called "spectral purity" or "chroma") for visibility to pollinators, but the conceptual, physiological and behavioural foundations for these metrics as well as used calculations rest on slender foundations.

Methods: We discuss the caveats of colour attributes that are derived from human perception, and in particular spectral purity and chroma, as variables in flower colour analysis. Read More

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A protoxylem pathway to evolution of the pith? A hypothesis based on the Early Devonian euphyllophyte Leptocentroxyla.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University Humboldt, Arcata, California, USA.

Background And Aims: The Early Devonian (Emsian, 400-395 Ma) tracheophyte Leptocentroxyla tetrarcha Bickner et Tomescu emend. Tomescu et McQueen combines plesiomorphic Psilophyton-type tracheid thickenings with xylem architecture intermediate between the plesiomorphic basal euphyllophyte haplosteles and the complex actinosteles of Middle Devonian euphyllophytes. We document xylem development in Leptocentroxyla based on anatomy and explore its implications, which may provide a window into the evolution of pith. Read More

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The role of plant-soil feedback in long-term species coexistence cannot be predicted from its effects on plant performance.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Institute of Botany, the Czech Academy of Sciences, Zámek, Průhonice, Czech Republic.

Background: Despite many studies on the importance of competition and plants' associations with mutualists and pathogens on plant performance and community organisation, joint effects of these two factors remain largely unexplored. Even less is known about how these joint effects vary through plant's life in different environmental conditions and how they contribute to species long-term coexistence.

Methods: We investigated the role of plant-soil feedback (PSF) in intra- and interspecific competition, using two co-occurring dry grassland species as models. Read More

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Requirement and functional redundancy of two large ribonucleotide reductase subunit genes for cell cycle, chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthesis in tomato.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

The State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Background And Aims: Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), functioning in the de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), is crucial for DNA replication and cell cycle progression. In most plants, the large subunits of RNR have more than one homologous gene. However, it is still unknown what the different functions of these homologous genes in the plant development are. Read More

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Tannin phenotyping of the Vitaceae reveals a phylogenetic linkage of epigallocatechin in berries and leaves.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

CIRAD, UMR - PVBMT, Toamasina, Madagascar.

Background And Aims: Condensed tannins, responsible for berry and wine astringency, may have been selected during grapevine domestication (Narduzzi et al., 2015). This work examines the phylogenetic distribution of condensed tannins throughout the Vitaceae phylogenetic tree. Read More

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Stoichiometry versus ecology: the relationships between genome size and guanine-cytosine content, and tissue nitrogen and phosphorus in grassland herbs.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Botany, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, 793 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: Plant tissue nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and genome traits, such as genome size and guanine-cytosine (GC) content, scale with growth or metabolic rates and are linked to plant ecological strategy spectra. Tissue NP stoichiometry and genome traits are reported to affect plant growth, metabolic rates, or ecological strategies in contrasting ways, although the elemental costs for building and maintaining DNA are typically overlooked.

Methods: We formulated stoichiometry- and ecology-based predictions on the relationship between genome size and GC content to tissue N, P, and N:P and tested them on a set of 130 herbaceous species from a temperate grassland using ordinary, phylogenetic, and quantile regression. Read More

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Seed macro- and micro- morphology in Allium (Amaryllidaceae) and its phylogenetic significance.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Background And Aims: Macro- and micro-morphology of seeds are diagnostic characteristics of importance in delimiting taxa in Allium (Amaryllidaceae). However, there is no consensus on phylogenetic significance of testa cell characteristics and whether they reflect different evolutionary levels recognized in Allium.

Methods: The seeds of 95 species (98 samples) representing 15 subgenera and 58 sections of Allium were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for such traits as periclinal wall surface area of ten testa cells, distance between testa cells (macro-morphology), testa cell shapes, arrangement and structure of anticlinal and periclinal walls (micro-morphology). Read More

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Hydathodes in ferns: their phylogenetic distribution, structure, and function.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Institute of Systematic Botany and Ecology, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

Background And Aims: Ferns are the second largest group of vascular plants and are distributed nearly worldwide. Although ferns have been integrated into some comparative ecological studies focussing on hydathodes, there is a considerable gap in our understanding of the functional anatomy of these secretory tissues that are found on the vein endings of many fern leaves. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phylogenetic distribution, structure and function of fern hydathodes. Read More

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Plant photosynthetic overcompensation under nocturnal warming: lack of evidence in subtropical evergreen trees.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Zhejiang Tiantong Forest Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Background And Aims: Increased plant photosynthesis under nocturnal warming is a negative feedback mechanism to overcompensate for nighttime carbon loss to mitigate climate warming. This photosynthetic overcompensation effect has been observed in dry deciduous ecosystems but whether it exists in subtropical wet forest trees is unclear.

Methods: Two subtropical evergreen tree species (Schima superba and Castanopsis sclerophylla) were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to ambient and elevated nighttime temperature. Read More

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Root grafts matter for inter-tree water exchange - a quantification of water translocation between root grafted mangrove trees using field data and model based indication.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Technische Universität Dresden, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Department of Forest Sciences, Chair of Forest Biometrics and Systems Analysis, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

Background And Aims: Trees interconnected through functional root grafts can exchange resources, but the effect of exchange on trees remains under debate. A mechanistic understanding of resources exchange via functional root grafts will help understand their ecological implications for tree water exchange for individual trees, groups of trees, and forest stands.

Methods: To identify the main patterns qualitatively describing the movement of sap between grafted trees, we reviewed available literature on root grafting in woody plants that focus on tree allometry and resource translocation via root grafts. Read More

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Phylotranscriptomic Analyses Reveal Multiple Whole-Genome Duplication Events, the History of Diversification and Adaptations in the Araceae.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Background And Aims: The Araceae are one of the most diverse monocot families with numerous morphological and ecological novelties. Plastid and mitochondrial genes have been used to investigate the phylogeny, and interpret shifts in the pollination biology and biogeography of the Araceae. In contrast, the role of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the evolution of eight subfamilies remains unclear. Read More

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Tracking population genetic signatures of local extinction with herbarium specimens.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Große Steinstraße 79/80, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany.

Background And Aims: Habitat degradation and landscape fragmentation dramatically lower population sizes of rare plant species. Decreasing population sizes may, in turn, negatively affect genetic diversity and reproductive fitness which can ultimately lead to local extinction of populations. Although such extinction vortex dynamics have been postulated in theory and modelling for decades, empirical evidence from local extinctions of plant populations is scarce. Read More

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Genetic control of the operculum and capsule morphology of Eucalyptus globulus.

Ann Bot 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

Background And Aims: The petaline operculum that covers the inner whorls until anthesis and the woody capsule that develops after fertilization are reproductive structures of eucalypts that protect the flower and seeds. Although they are distinct organs, they both develop from flower buds and this common ontogeny suggests shared genetic control. In Eucalyptus globulus their morphology is variable and we aimed to identify the QTL underlying this variation and determine whether there is common genetic control of these ecologically and taxonomically important reproductive structures. Read More

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Genotypic variation rather than ploidy level determines functional trait expression in a foundation tree species in the presence and absence of environmental stress.

Ann Bot 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706 USA.

Background And Aims: At the population level, genetic diversity is a key determinant of a tree species' capacity to cope with stress. However, little is known about the relative importance of the different components of genetic diversity for tree stress responses. We compared how two sources of genetic diversity, genotype and cytotype (i. Read More

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The nature and genomic landscape of repetitive DNA classes in Chrysanthemum nankingense shows recent genomic changes.

Ann Bot 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Landscaping, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Biology of Ornamental Plants in East China, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Background And Aims: Tandemly repeated DNA and transposable elements represent most of the DNA in higher plant genomes. High-throughput sequencing allows a survey of the DNA in a genome, but whole-genome assembly can miss a substantial fraction of highly repeated sequence motifs. Chrysanthemum nankingense (2n = 2x = 18; genome size = 3. Read More

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Nonlinear model reveals a predominant moisture limit on juniper growth across the southern Tibetan Plateau.

Ann Bot 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.

Background And Aims: Tree growth in plateau forests is critically limited by harsh climatic conditions. Many mathematical statistics have been used to identify the relationship between tree growth and climatic factors, but there is still uncertainty regarding the relative importance of these factors across different regions. We tested major climatic limits at 30 sites to provide insights into the main climatic limits for juniper trees (Juniperus tibetica Kom. Read More

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Plant Seeds and Floristic Preservation in the Anthropocene.

Rowan F Sage

Ann Bot 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S3B2 Canada.

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Kinetochore size scales with chromosome size in bimodal karyotypes of Agavoideae.

Ann Bot 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: In eukaryotes, the total kinetochore size (defined as a chromosomal region containing CENH3-positive nucleosomes) per nucleus strongly correlates with genome size, a relationship that has been hypothesized to stem from general intracellular scaling principles. However, it could also come from the mechanics of the cell division, if larger chromosomes within a karyotype required larger kinetochores to move properly.

Methods: We selected seven species of the plant subfamily Agavoideae whose karyotypes are characterized by the presence of small and very large chromosomes. Read More

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Nitrogen fixation and other biogeochemically important features of Atacama Desert giant horsetail plant microbiomes inferred from metagenomic contig analysis.

Ann Bot 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Basic Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Chillan, Chile.

Background And Aims: Canyon streambeds in the hyperarid Atacama Desert surprisingly harbor magnificent groves of endemic giant horsetail wetland plants, Equisetum xylochaetum. Our previous metagenomic study of eukaryotes closely associated with this plant indicated that the microbiome included prokaryotes that might likewise influence host success and environment. We explored this possibility by using metagenomic sequence to characterize prokaryote taxa and functional genes present in the microbiome of Equisetum xylochaetum sampled from remote sites differing in degree of anthropogenic disturbance. Read More

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An overlooked dispersal route of Cardueae (Asteraceae) from the Mediterranean to East Asia revealed by phylogenomic and biogeographic analyses of Atractylodes.

Ann Bot 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Systematic & Evolutionary Botany and Biodiversity Group, MOE Laboratory of Biosystem Homeostasis and Protection, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background And Aims: The East Asian-Tethyan disjunction pattern and its formation mechanisms have long been of interest to researchers. Here, we studied the biogeographic history of Asteraceae tribe Cardueae, with a particular focus on the temperate East Asian genus Atractylodes DC., to understand the role of tectonic and climatic events in driving the diversification and disjunctions of the genus. Read More

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Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation across the continental disjunct range of a sexually polymorphic aquatic plant.

Ann Bot 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Aims: Reproductive systems enabling opportunities for self-fertilization influence population genetic structure and play a key role in colonization and genetic differentiation during range expansion. Aquatic plants because of their well-developed powers of dispersal often have widespread disjunct geographic distributions providing opportunities to investigate the role of reproductive systems in structuring genetic variation between parts of the range that differ in migration history and ecology.

Methods: We compared reproductive systems and spatial genetic structure of the freshwater aquatic macrophyte Sagittaria latifolia between disjunct western and eastern ranges of North America (NA). Read More

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Root and xylem anatomy varies with root length, root order, soil depth, and environment in intermediate wheatgrass (Kernza®) and alfalfa.

Ann Bot 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Plant and Environmental Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Background And Aims: Deep roots (i.e., > 1 m depth) are important for crops to access water when the topsoil is dry. Read More

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Fingerprints of climatic changes through the late Cenozoic in southern Asian flora: Magnolia section Michelia (Magnoliaceae).

Ann Bot 2022 Apr 23. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China.

Background And Aims: Ongoing global warming is a challenge for humankind. A series of drastic climatic changes have been proven to have occurred throughout the Cenozoic based on a variety of geological evidence, which helps to better understand our planet's future climate. Notably, extant biomes have recorded drastic environmental shifts. Read More

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The why and how of sunken stomata: Does the behavior of encrypted stomata and the leaf cuticle matter?

Ann Bot 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Background: Stomatal pores in many species are separated from the free atmosphere by different anatomical obstacles produced by leaf epidermal cells, especially by sunken stomatal crypts, stomatal antechambers and/or hairs (trichomes). The evolutionary driving forces leading to sunken or "hidden" stomata whose antechambers are filled with hairs or waxy plugs are not fully understood. The available hypothetical explanations are based mainly on mathematical modelling of water and CO2 diffusion through superficial versus sunken stomata, and studies of comparative autecology. Read More

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