4,465 results match your criteria Annals Of Botany[Journal]

Fruit softening: evidence for pectate lyase action in vivo in date (Phoenix dactylifera) and rosaceous fruit cell walls.

Ann Bot 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The Edinburgh Cell Wall Group, Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Daniel Rutherford Building, The King's Buildings, Max Born Crescent, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, UK.

Background And Aims: The programmed softening occurring during fruit development requires scission of cell-wall polysaccharides, especially pectin. Proposed mechanisms include the action of wall enzymes or hydroxyl radicals. Enzyme activities found in fruit extracts include pectate lyase (PL) and endo-polygalacturonase (EPG), which, in vitro, cleave de-esterified homogalacturonan in mid-chain by β-elimination and hydrolysis respectively. Read More

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Recent ecophysiological, biochemical and evolutional insights into plant carnivory.

Ann Bot 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biophysics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, CZ-783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Background: Carnivorous plants are an ecological group of ca. 810 vascular species which capture and digest animal prey, absorb prey-derived nutrients and utilize them to enhance their growth and development. Extant carnivorous plants have evolved in at least ten independent lineages and their adaptive traits represent an example of structural and functional convergence. Read More

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Sampling forests with Terrestrial Laser Scanning.

Ann Bot 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School for the Environment, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA, USA.

Background And Aims: Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have successfully captured various properties of individual trees and have potential to further increase the quality and efficiency of forest surveys. However, TLS are limited to line-of-sight observations, and forests are complex structural environments that can occlude TLS beams and thereby cause incomplete TLS samples. We evaluate the prevalence and sources of occlusion that limit line-of-sight to forest stems for TLS scans, assess the impacts of TLS sample incompleteness, and evaluate sampling strategies and data analysis techniques aimed at improving sample quality and representativeness. Read More

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Species cohesion of an extremophyte (Carex angustisquama, Cyperaceae) in solfatara fields maintained under interspecific natural hybridization.

Ann Bot 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-nihonmatsu-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 6068501, JAPAN.

Background And Aims: Hybridization is the main driver of plant diversification, and gene flow via hybridization has multifaceted effects on plant evolution. Carex angustisquama is an extremophyte that grows on soils heavily acidified by volcanism. Despite its distinct habitat from other species, this species is known to form interspecific hybrids, implying interspecific gene flow. Read More

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Mechanical stimulation in wheat triggers age- and dose-dependent alterations in growth, development and grain characteristics.

Ann Bot 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS), Aberystwyth University, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, UK.

Background And Aims: Wheat crops are exposed to a range of mechanical stimulations in their natural environment, yet we know very little about their response to such conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of mechanical stimulation on wheat growth and development, stem mechanical properties and grain measures. We focussed on the following questions: i) does plant age affect the response to mechanical stimulation, ii) is there a minimum threshold for the perception of mechanical stimuli, and iii) is the effect of manual brushing different to natural wind stimulation?

Methods: For age- and dose- response experiments, wheat plants were grown under controlled greenhouse conditions with brushing treatments applied using a purpose-built rig. Read More

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Metabolomic analysis reveals reliance on secondary plant metabolites to facilitate carnivory in the Cape sundew, Drosera capensis.

Ann Bot 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Agri-Tech Centre, Pershore College, Part of WCG, WR10 3JP, UK.

Background And Aims: Secondary metabolites are integral to multiple key plant processes: growth regulation, pollinator attraction, interactions with conspecifics, competitors and symbionts, yet their role in plant adaptation remains an underexplored area of research. Carnivorous plants use secondary metabolites to acquire nutrients from prey, but the extent of the role of secondary metabolites in plant carnivory is not known. We aimed to determine the extent of the role of secondary metabolites in facilitating carnivory of the Cape sundew, Drosera capensis. Read More

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Continental scale distribution and diversity of Ceratobasidium orchid mycorrhizal fungi in Australia.

Ann Bot 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

Background And Aims: Mycorrhizal fungi are a critical component of the ecological niche of most plants and can potentially constrain their geographic range. Unlike other types of mycorrhizal fungi, the distributions of orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) at large spatial scales are not well understood. Here, we investigate the distribution and diversity of Ceratobasidium OMF in orchids and soils across the Australian continent. Read More

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Temperature effects on forest understory plants in hedgerows: a combined warming and transplant experiment.

Ann Bot 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg, Gontrode-Melle, Belgium.

Background And Aims: Hedgerows have been shown to improve forest connectivity, leading to an increased probability of species to track the shifting bioclimatic envelopes. However, it is still unknown how species in hedgerows respond to temperature changes, and whether effects differ compared to those in nearby forests. We aimed to elucidate how ongoing changes in the climate system will affect the efficiency of hedgerows to support forest plant persistence and migration in agricultural landscapes. Read More

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Aiming off the target: recycling target capture sequencing reads for investigating repetitive DNA.

Ann Bot 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Laboratory of Plant Cytogenetics and Evolution, Department of Botany, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife-PE, Brazil.

Background And Aims: With the advance of high-throughput sequencing (HTS), reduced-representation methods such as target capture sequencing (TCS) emerged as cost-efficient ways of gathering genomic information, particularly from coding regions. As the off-target reads from such sequencing are expected to be similar to genome skimming (GS), we assessed the quality of repeat characterization in plant genomes using this data.

Methods: Repeat composition obtained from TCS datasets of five Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae) species were compared with GS data from the same taxa. Read More

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Root Biology in the 21 st century: challenges and opportunities.

Jonathan P Lynch

Ann Bot 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Plant Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802,  USA.

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Redox-related gene expression and sugar accumulation patterns are altered in the edible inflorescence produced by the cultivated form of pacaya palm (Chamaedorea tepejilote).

Ann Bot 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), UMR DIADE, Université de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background And Aims: The pacaya palm is a dioecious neotropical palm species that is exploited in Latin America for its male inflorescence which is edible when immature. It is cultivated, in a non-intensive manner, in Guatemala, where a morphotype occurs that produces much larger, more highly branched inflorescences compared to wild palms. We sought to identify molecular factors underlying this phenotypic divergence, which is likely to be a product of domestication. Read More

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Deciphering the evolution of the ovule genetic network through expression analyses in Gnetum gnemon.

Ann Bot 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.

Backgound And Aims: The ovule is a synapomorphy of all seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms), however there are some striking differences in ovules among the major seed plant lineages such as the number of integuments or the orientation of the ovule. The genetics involved in ovule development has been well studied in the model species, Arabidopsis thaliana, which has two integuments and anatropous orientation. This study is approached from what is known in Arabidopsis, focusing on the expression patterns of homologs of four genes known to be key for the proper development of the integuments in Arabidopsis: AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), BELL1, (BEL1), KANADIs (KANs) and UNICORN (UCN). Read More

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In situ radiation explains the frequency of dioecious palms on islands.

Ann Bot 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratório de Genética & Biodiversidade, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Background And Aims: Dioecy has evolved up to 5,000 times in angiosperms, despite the potentially high intrinsic costs to unisexuality. Dioecy prevents inbreeding, which is especially relevant on isolated islands when gene pools are small. Dioecy is also associated with certain dispersal traits, such as fruit size and type. Read More

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Inter-annual and spatial climatic variability have led to a balance between local fluctuating selection and wide-range directional selection in a perennial grass species.

Ann Bot 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

INRAE, Centre Nouvelle-Aquitaine-Poitiers, UR4 (UR P3F), F-86600 Lusignan, France.

Background And Aims: The persistence of a plant population under a specific local climatic regime requires phenotypic adaptation with underlying peculiar combinations of alleles at adaptive loci. The level of allele diversity at adaptive loci within a natural plant population conditions its potential to evolve, notably towards adaptation to a change in climate. Investigating the environmental factors that contribute to maintain adaptive diversity in populations is thus worthwhile. Read More

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Coordination between leaf biomechanical resistance and hydraulic safety across 30 subtropical woody species.

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Conservation, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Background And Aims: Leaf biomechanical resistance protects leaves from biotic and abiotic damage. Previous studies have revealed that enhancing leaf biomechanical resistance is costly for plant species and leads to an increase in leaf drought tolerance. We thus predicted that there is a functional correlation between leaf hydraulic safety and biomechanical characteristics. Read More

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Crown defoliation decreases reproduction and wood growth in a marginal European beech population.

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Réserve Naturelle Nationale de la forêt de la Massane, France.

Background And Aims: Abiotic and biotic stresses related to climate change have been associated with increased crown defoliation, decreased growth and a higher risk of mortality in many forest tree species, but the impact of stresses on tree reproduction and forest regeneration remains understudied. At dry warm margin of species distributions, flowering, pollination and seed maturation are expected to be affected by drought, late frost and other stresses, eventually resulting in reproduction failure. Moreover, inter-individual variation in reproductive performance versus other performance (growth, survival) could have important consequences for population dynamics. Read More

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Stomatal Development in the Context of Epidermal Tissues.

Keiko U Torii

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX, USA.

Background: Stomata are adjustable pores on the surface of plant shoots for efficient gas exchange and water control. The presence of stomata is essential for plant growth and survival, and the evolution of stomata is considered as a key developmental innovation of the land plants, allowing colonization on land from aquatic environments some 450 million years ago. In the past two decades, molecular genetic studies using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana identified key genes and signalling modules that regulate stomatal development: master-regulatory transcription factors that orchestrate cell-state transitions and peptide-receptor signal transduction pathways, which, together, enforce proper patterning of stomata within the epidermis. Read More

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Evaluation of automated pipelines for tree and plot metric estimation from TLS data in tropical forest areas.

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

AMAP, Univ. Montpellier, IRD, CNRS, CIRAD, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

Background And Aims: Terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) data are of great interest in forest ecology and management because they provide detailed 3D information on tree structure. Automated pipelines are increasingly used to process TLS data and extract various tree- and plot-level metrics. With these developments comes the risk of unknown reliability due to an absence of systematic output control. Read More

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Highly diverse and highly successful: invasive Australian acacias have not experienced genetic bottlenecks globally.

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.

Background And Aims: Invasive species may undergo rapid evolution despite very limited standing genetic diversity. This so-called genetic paradox of biological invasions assumes that an invasive species has experienced (and survived) a genetic bottleneck and then underwent local adaptation in the new range. In this study, we test how often Australian acacias (genus Acacia), one of the world's worst invasive tree groups, have experienced genetic bottlenecks and inbreeding. Read More

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Feeding friend and foe: ample pollen mitigates the effects of pollen theft for a gynodioecious plant, Polemonium foliosissimum (Polemoniaceae).

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, Crested Butte, CO USA.

Background And Aims: Most angiosperms rely on pollinators to transport pollen and effect fertilization. While some floral visitors are effective pollinators, others act as thieves-consuming pollen but effecting little pollination in return. The importance of pollen theft to male and female reproductive success has received little attention. Read More

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Comparing fruiting phenology across two historical datasets: Thoreau's observations and herbarium specimens.

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Boston University, Biology Department, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Background And Aims: Fruiting remains under-represented in long-term phenology records, relative to leaf and flower phenology. Herbarium specimens and historical field notes can fill this gap, but selecting and synthesizing these records for modern-day comparison requires an understanding of whether different historical data sources contain similar information, and whether similar, but not equivalent, fruiting metrics are comparable with one another.

Methods: For 67 fleshy-fruited plant species, we compared observations of fruiting phenology made by Henry David Thoreau in Concord, Massachusetts (1850s), with phenology data gathered from herbarium specimens collected across New England (mid-1800s to 2000s). Read More

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Crop-photoperiodism model 2.0 for the flowering time of sorghum and rice that includes daily changes in sunrise and sunset times and temperature acclimation.

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

CIRAD, UMR AGAP Institut, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background And Aims: Daylength determines flowering dates. However, questions remain regarding flowering dates in the natural environment, such as the synchronous flowering of plants sown simultaneously at highly contrasting latitudes. The daily change in sunrise and sunset times is the cue for the flowering of trees and for the synchronisation of moulting in birds at the equator. Read More

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Variation in climatic tolerance, but not stomatal traits, partially explains Pooideae grass species distributions.

Ann Bot 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

The University of Vermont, Department of Plant Biology, Burlington, VT, USA.

Background And Aims: Grasses in subfamily Pooideae live in some of the world's harshest terrestrial environments, from frigid boreal zones to the arid wind-swept steppe. It is hypothesized that the climate distribution of species within this group is driven by differences in climatic tolerance, and that tolerance can be partially explained by variation in stomatal traits.

Methods: We determined aridity index (AI) and minimum temperature of the coldest month (MTCM) for 22 diverse Pooideae accessions and one outgroup, and used comparative methods to assess predicted relationships for climate traits versus fitness traits, stomatal diffusive conductance to water (gw), and speed of stomatal closure following drought and/or cold. Read More

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Divergence in floral scent and morphology but not thermogenic traits associated with pollinator shift in two brood-site mimicking Typhonium (Araceae) species.

Ann Bot 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Yarra Blvd, Richmond, Australia.

Background: Flowers which imitate insect oviposition sites likely represent the most widespread form of floral mimicry, exhibit the most diverse floral signals and are visited by two of the most speciose and advanced taxa of insect - beetles and flies. Detailed comparative studies on brood-site mimics pollinated exclusively by each of these insect orders are lacking, limiting our understanding of floral trait adaptation to different pollinator groups in these deceptive systems.

Methods: Two closely related and apparent brood-site mimics Typhonium angustilobum and T. Read More

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Linking key dimensions of plant phenotypic diversity. A commentary on: 'Mating systems and life history'.

John R Pannell

Ann Bot 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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Characterisation and practical use of self-compatibility in outcrossing grass species.

Ann Bot 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, UK.

Background: Self-incompatibility (SI) systems prevent self-fertilisation in several species of Poaceae, many of which are economically important forage, bioenergy and turf grasses. SI ensures cross-pollination and genetic diversity but restricts the ability to fix useful genetic variation. In most inbred crops, it is possible to develop high performing homozygous parental lines by self-pollination which then enables the creation of F1 hybrid varieties with higher performance, a phenomenon known as heterosis. Read More

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Broken, silent, and in hiding: Tamed endogenous pararetroviruses escape elimination from the genome of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

Ann Bot 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institute of Botany, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background And Aims: Endogenous pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are widespread components of plant genomes that originated from episomal DNA viruses of the Caulimoviridae family. Due to fragmentation and rearrangements, most EPRVs have lost their ability to replicate through reverse transcription and to initiate viral infection. Similar to the closely related retrotransposons, extant EPRVs were retained and often amplified in plant genomes for several million years. Read More

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