236 results match your criteria Ankle Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Injuries

[Reconstruction of Soft Tissue Defects of the Achilles Tendon Region: a Literature Review].

Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Städtisches Klinikum Sankt Georg Leipzig, Klinik für Plastische und Handchirurgie mit Schwerbrandverletztenzentrum.

Background: Soft tissue defects in the achilles tendon region occur after trauma, but also as a complication after open recon- struction of the tendon with subsequent infection.

Objectives: Recommendations for the treatment of soft tissue injuries involving the Achilles tendon are presented.

Materials And Methods: A search of the German, French and English literature on reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the Achilles tendon region was performed, which were differentiated into singular and combined tendocutaneous defects. Read More

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[Progress and thinking of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture].

Y J Hao A G Wang

Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jun;60(6):524-527

Department of Hand and Foot Microsurgery, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou Clinical School of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221009, China.

In recent years,the application of minimally invasive techniques in the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture has become more and more mature,and it also faces many controversies and challenges.The concept of minimally invasive technique is to minimize the dissection of soft tissue around the Achilles tendon and reduce the occurrence of postoperative wound complications.Minimally invasive small incision surgery does not expose the Achilles tendon stump,and either tendon transposition or tendon transplantation can be achieved using this technique,but there is a risk of accidental injury to the peripheral nerve. Read More

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Peritendinous effusion of the flexor hallucis longus tendon as a sign of ankle joint capsule injury.

Med Ultrason 2022 May;24(2):253

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei, Taiwan.

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Flexor hallucis longus transfer and composite anterolateral thigh fascio-cutaneous flap for reconstruction of massive chronic and infected Achilles tendon lesion. A case report and review of the literature.

Acta Biomed 2022 03 10;92(S3):e2021578. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Orthopaedics and Traumatology Unit, Cattinara Hospital- Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano-Isontina (ASUGI), University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447, 34149 Trieste (Italy).

Achilles tendon reconstruction with substance loss and infection in the overlying soft tissues is a challenge. There is no standardized treatment in literature for these cases. We describe a one-stage tendon reconstruction, using flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer and an anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata in a patient with re-rupture of the Achilles tendon, soft tissue infection and a tendon defect of 10 cm in length. Read More

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Endoscopic Flexor Hallucis Longus Transfer for the Management of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures in Professional Soccer Players.

Foot Ankle Int 2022 02 24;43(2):164-175. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Head Ankle and Knee Section, Orthopaedics Department, Centro Artroscópico Jorge Batista SA, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (CABA), CP, Argentina.

Background: Acute Achilles tendon ruptures (AATRs) that occur in athletes can be a career-ending injury. The aim of this study was to describe return to play and clinical outcomes of isolated endoscopic flexor hallucis longus (FHL) transfer in active soccer players with AATR.

Methods: Twenty-seven active male soccer players who underwent endoscopically assisted FHL tendon transfer for acute Achilles tendon ruptures were included in this study. Read More

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February 2022

Talar Dome Access Through Posteromedial Surgical Intervals for Fracture Care.

Foot Ankle Int 2022 02 12;43(2):223-232. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Posterior talar body fractures are rare injuries without a consensus surgical approach. This study evaluates the accessible area of the talar dome through 2 posteromedial approach intervals (posteromedial [PM] and modified posteromedial [mPM]) both with and without distraction.

Methods: Ten male cadaveric legs (5 matched pairs) were included. Read More

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February 2022

Flexor Hallucis Longus Tenolysis and Tenosynovectomy in Dancers.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2022 Jan-Feb;61(1):84-87. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

The purpose of this study was to report on a series of dancers who had undergone flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tenolysis/tenosynovectomy after having failed conservative management. Institutional human subjects committee approval was obtained prior to initiating this study. This study is a retrospective case series of 58 dancers and 63 ankles who underwent FHL tenolysis/tenosynovectomy via an open posteromedial approach by a single surgeon between 1993 and 2017. Read More

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January 2022

Secondary reconstruction of chronic Achilles tendon rupture: flexor hallucis longus transfer versus plantaris longus augmentation.

Int Orthop 2021 09 16;45(9):2323-2330. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Frankfurt am Main, Friedberger Landstr. 430, 60389, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Introduction: Chronic Achilles tendon rupture is primarily caused by degenerative processes of multifactorial origin. In addition to secondary repair (SR) with augmentation of the plantaris longus tendon, the transfer of the flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHL) to the calcaneus is a recognised reconstruction procedure. This paper aims to provide a direct comparison based on clinical scores and objectifiable strength measurements. Read More

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September 2021

What Is the Efficacy of a Nonoperative Program Including a Specific Stretching Protocol for Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendonitis?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 12;479(12):2667-2676

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA.

Background: Diagnosis and treatment of tendonitis/entrapment of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) has been sporadically described in the evidence, primarily in the context of dancers and other athletes. Although various nonspecific nonoperative treatments have been described, it is not clear how often they achieve a satisfactory amount of symptom improvement.

Questions/purposes: The present study was designed to address the following questions regarding the nonoperative treatment of FHL tendonitis: (1) In a population of patients where the default management option for FHL tendonitis is a comprehensive nonsurgical approach, what proportion of patients thus treated opted not to have surgery? (2) What factors were associated with a patient's decision to undergo surgery after a period of nonsurgical management?

Methods: The 656 patients included were all those diagnosed with FHL tendonitis who were initially treated nonoperatively in the foot and ankle division between January 2009 and December 2018. Read More

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December 2021

Surgical Management of Chronic Tendoachilles Tear in Elderly Patients - A Case Series.

J Orthop Case Rep 2021 Feb;11(2):57-62

Department of Orthopaedics, Grant Government Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Chronic tendoachilles (TA) tears are commonly missed injuries in elderly population with associated comorbidities and they usually occur as low-energy injuries. Appropriate surgical management helps in getting a better functional outcome in elderly patients.

Case Series: We present a series of three cases of chronic TA tear in elderly patients managed surgically. Read More

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February 2021

Association between joint effusions and concomitant structural injuries (tendinitis and structural injury) on MRI in ankle trauma without fracture.

Acta Radiol 2022 Jul 29;63(7):942-947. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Nuclear medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The evaluation of correlations among joint effusion, ligament injuries, tenosynovitis and osteochondral lesion of talus (OLT) in the ankle joint is important for developing a treatment plan and predicting prognosis.

Purpose: To evaluate correlations among tibiotalar (anterior) and talocalcaneal (posterior) joint effusion, tenosynovitis of major flexor tendons, ligaments, and OLT in a group of patients with ankle trauma.

Material And Methods: This retrospective study included 101 patients with ankle trauma who underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Foot Reanimation Using Double Nerve Transfer to Deep Peroneal Nerve: A Novel Technique for Treatment of Neurologic Foot Drop.

Foot Ankle Int 2021 Aug 31;42(8):1011-1021. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Trauma, Suez Canal University Hospitals, Ismailia, Egypt.

Background: Our primary objective was to assess the efficacy of a new technique for foot reanimation in patients with neurologic foot drop using double nerve transfer from the tibial to the deep peroneal nerve. Our secondary objective was to document the technical nuances of our technique.

Methods: Thirty-one patients with common peroneal nerve injury between October 2015 and March 2019 were prospectively enrolled in the study. Read More

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Endoscopically Assisted, Minimally Invasive Reconstruction for Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture With a Double-Bundle Flexor Hallucis Longus.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Mar 4;9(3):2325967120979990. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Foshan, People's Republic of China.

Background: High morbidity has been reported regarding Achilles tendon (AT) injuries, and the upward trend has accelerated since the mid-1990s. A chronic Achilles tendon rupture usually results from a neglected or misdiagnosed acute rupture, and about one-fifth of acute AT ruptures are missed and lead to chronic AT rupture. Although many techniques have been described, there is no gold standard in the treatment of chronic AT ruptures. Read More

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Lower Limb Takeoff Mechanics During a Leap in Dancers With and Without Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendinopathy.

Med Probl Perform Art 2021 Mar;36(1):18-26

Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, 1540 Alcazar St, CHP 155, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9006, USA. Tel 626-295-9926.

Objective: Altered ground reaction force (GRF) and joint torsional stiffness are associated with various lower extremity injuries, but these have yet to be examined in dancers with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendinopathy. Additionally, a simple, field-friendly kinematic correlate to ground contact kinetics would be useful for clinical application. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity biomechanics during takeoff of a dance leap (saut de chat) in dancers with and without FHL tendinopathy, and to examine lower limb posture at initial contact as a clinical correlate of injury-related kinetic factors. Read More

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Effects of a "toes-off" modified heel raise on muscle coordination in non-dancers, dancers, and dancers with flexor hallucis longus tendinopathy.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 03 3;83:105287. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Tendinopathy of the flexor hallucis longus, commonly called "dancer's tendinitis", is a prevalent injury among female ballet dancers. Limited success of non-surgical interventions leads to many dancers undergoing tenolysis surgeries with risks and recovery times that can be detrimental to a dance career. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower limb kinematics and muscle coordination during a modified traditional heel raise exercise where the toes hang off the edge of the support surface. Read More

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Flexor hallucis longus hypertrophy secondary to Achilles tendon tendinopathy: an MRI-based case-control study.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Oct 8;31(7):1387-1393. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Orthopaedics, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Forchstrasse 340, 8008, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to outline an indirect sign of advanced Achilles tendinopathy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), based on the hypothesis that these patients would present with secondary hypertrophy of the flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL).

Methods: MRI scans of Achilles tendon were analyzed retrospectively in two cohorts. The study group consisted of consecutive patients presenting with clinical signs of Achilles tendinopathy and no previous surgeries, while the control group were patients that had an MRI due to other reasons and no signs of tendinopathy. Read More

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October 2021

Combined Achilles Tendon-bone Block Allograft and Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer for Long Segment Defects Involving the Insertional Region.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Mar-Apr;60(2):408-416. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Director of Residency Training, Division of Foot and Ankle Surgery, West Penn Hospital, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

Long-segment disease involving the insertional region of the Achilles tendon can be a challenging problem. These patients often have significant disability and functional problems. Surgical management requires some type of tissue replacement, regional tissue rearrangement or tendon transfer. Read More

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Functional outcome of gastrocnemius advancement flap augmented with short flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer in chronic Achilles tear.

Foot (Edinb) 2020 Dec 22;45:101704. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Orthopedics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubanewar, Odisha 751019, India.

Background: There are various techniques of Achilles tendon (TA) repair and reconstruction in chronic Achilles tear. However, there is no clear consensus on the relevance of one method over the other. The short flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHL) transfer has recently gained popularity because of its same phasic action, ease of harvesting and tensile strength. Read More

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December 2020

Chronic bilateral asynchronous achilles tendon rupture treated using modified whole flexor hallucis longus transfer reconstruction: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(35):e21742

Department of Orthopedic Surgery.

Introduction: Achilles tendon rupture is common, but bilateral ruptures are very rare. Treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture is very challenging due tendon retraction and atrophied. We report a case of bilateral asynchronous Achilles tendon rupture patient who was treated with modified minimally invasive whole flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer to repair the defects. Read More

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Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Impingement Syndrome: All-inside Arthroscopic Treatment and Long-term Follow-up.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Nov - Dec;59(6):1197-1200. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Orthopaedic Surgeon, Orthopaedic Department, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou Clinical College of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the surgical technique and long-term clinical outcomes of all-inside arthroscopic treatment for flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon impingement syndrome. We retrospectively evaluated 34 FHL tendon impingement syndrome patients with complete follow-up data who were admitted from June 2015 to August 2018 and underwent the all-inside arthroscopy technique. The subjects consisted of 20 (58. Read More

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Redistribution of inhibitory force feedback between a long toe flexor and the major ankle extensor muscles following spinal cord injury.

J Neurosci Res 2020 08 14;98(8):1646-1661. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Inhibitory pathways from Golgi tendon organs project widely between muscles crossing different joints and axes of rotation. Evidence suggests that the strength and distribution of this intermuscular inhibition is dependent on motor task and corresponding signals from the brainstem. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this sensory network is altered after spinal cord hemisection as a potential explanation for motor deficits observed after spinal cord injury (SCI). Read More

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Modified Tension-Slide Technique for Endoscopy-Assisted Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer.

Foot Ankle Spec 2020 Oct 12;13(5):431-434. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Translational Medicine, Parc Tauli University Hospital, Sabadell, Spain.

The rupture of the Achilles tendon (AT) usually occurs in high-caliber athletes, but low-demand patients are also are risk, mainly if they are under corticoids or quinolones. The diagnosis of the AT rupture is usually neglected, and this could result in a worse prognosis for the patient if not treated in an appropriate time. For these patients or for those with high surgical risk, an option of minimally invasive surgery remains attractive. Read More

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October 2020

Anatomical Study of Minimally Invasive Lateral Release Techniques for Hallux Valgus Treatment.

Foot Ankle Int 2020 08 26;41(8):984-992. Epub 2020 May 26.

Human Anatomy Unit, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Lateral release (LR) for the treatment of hallux valgus is a routinely performed technique, either by means of open or minimally invasive (MI) surgery. Despite this, there is no available evidence of the efficacy and safety of MI lateral release. Our aim was to study 2 popular techniques for MI LR in cadavers by subsequently dissecting the released anatomical structures. Read More

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Meta-analysis of Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy.

Foot Ankle Int 2020 06 30;41(6):744-754. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Achilles tendinopathy is a common clinical problem that can be either insertional or noninsertional. A variety of treatment methods have been described, although little consensus exists on an optimal method or methods. We sought to investigate the current evidence on different treatment methods for noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy, with a focus on functional outcomes. Read More

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Gout in the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Mimicking Cellulitis: A Case Report.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2020 Jan;110(1):Article8

A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with fever and inflammation of the right ankle. We initiated antibiotics on suspicion of cellulitis. After no clinical improvement, we performed magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a fluid collection in the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon sheath. Read More

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January 2020

Endoscopic Flexor Hallucis Longus Transfer for Achilles Noninsertional Tendinopathy: Description of Surgical Technique and Functional Outcomes.

Foot Ankle Spec 2021 Feb 9;14(1):46-54. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Centro Médico Imbanaco de Cali S.A., Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia (JBGG, JC, JCM, JGS, EJC, CR).

. The transfer of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is an established treatment for replacing a dysfunctional Achilles tendon. . Read More

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February 2021

Structures at Risk During Percutaneous Extra-Articular Chevron Osteotomy of the Distal First Metatarsal.

Foot Ankle Spec 2021 Feb 31;14(1):19-24. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Romano Orthopaedic Center, Oak Park, Illinois (MM).

Minimally invasive surgery of the forefoot has regained popularity as an alternative to traditional open procedures. Minimally invasive hallux valgus surgery has been shown to be effective and reproducible for the treatment of mild to moderate hallux valgus. The aim of this study is to identify vital structures that are at risk for iatrogenic damage while performing a minimally invasive distal chevron osteotomy due to limited direct visualization. Read More

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February 2021

Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Single-Incision Transfer Stabilized With Autologous Bone Fixation.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Jan - Feb;59(1):213-215

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, Stepping Hill Hospital, Stockport NHS Foundation Trust, Stockport, United Kingdom.

Flexor hallucis longus transfer is routinely used as a technique to salvage a chronic or neglected Achilles tendon rupture. The single-incision (or short harvest) technique provides adequate graft suitable for fixation with interference screws. We have used a bore corer instead of a drill to establish the tendon tunnel and at the same time use the harvested autograft for interference fit and avoid the use of screws, providing what we consider to be a more biologic form of fixation. Read More

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Gouty Achilles Tendinopathy: A Case Report.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2019 Jul;109(4):327-333

Tendinopathy in the presence of gouty arthropathy is relatively common, yet the clinical suspicion for gout involvement in acute tendon pain remains low. A 49-year-old man presented with an acute, tender, erythematous mass to the right posterior heel. A computed tomographic scan was obtained, which revealed a septated fluid collection superficial to the Achilles tendon. Read More

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Neglected Iatrogenic Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Rupture After Haglund's Endoscopic Surgery: A Case Report.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Jan - Feb;59(1):169-172. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Professor, Chairman, Orthopaedic Department, Swiss Ortho Center, Schmerzklinik Basel, Swiss Medical Network, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Rupture of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is a rare condition that can occur with direct or indirect trauma; most of the injuries are complete ruptures resulting from laceration. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty is used for treatment of symptomatic Haglund's deformity, and complications of this procedure are rare. Iatrogenic FHL tendon rupture occurring after endoscopic calcaneoplasty has not been reported previously. Read More

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