218 results match your criteria Ankle Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Injuries


Association between joint effusions and concomitant structural injuries (tendinitis and structural injury) on MRI in ankle trauma without fracture.

Acta Radiol 2021 May 29:2841851211021038. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Nuclear medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The evaluation of correlations among joint effusion, ligament injuries, tenosynovitis and osteochondral lesion of talus (OLT) in the ankle joint is important for developing a treatment plan and predicting prognosis.

Purpose: To evaluate correlations among tibiotalar (anterior) and talocalcaneal (posterior) joint effusion, tenosynovitis of major flexor tendons, ligaments, and OLT in a group of patients with ankle trauma.

Material And Methods: This retrospective study included 101 patients with ankle trauma who underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Endoscopically Assisted, Minimally Invasive Reconstruction for Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture With a Double-Bundle Flexor Hallucis Longus.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Mar 4;9(3):2325967120979990. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Foshan, People's Republic of China.

Background: High morbidity has been reported regarding Achilles tendon (AT) injuries, and the upward trend has accelerated since the mid-1990s. A chronic Achilles tendon rupture usually results from a neglected or misdiagnosed acute rupture, and about one-fifth of acute AT ruptures are missed and lead to chronic AT rupture. Although many techniques have been described, there is no gold standard in the treatment of chronic AT ruptures. Read More

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Lower Limb Takeoff Mechanics During a Leap in Dancers With and Without Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendinopathy.

Med Probl Perform Art 2021 Mar;36(1):18-26

Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, 1540 Alcazar St, CHP 155, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9006, USA. Tel 626-295-9926.

Objective: Altered ground reaction force (GRF) and joint torsional stiffness are associated with various lower extremity injuries, but these have yet to be examined in dancers with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendinopathy. Additionally, a simple, field-friendly kinematic correlate to ground contact kinetics would be useful for clinical application. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity biomechanics during takeoff of a dance leap (saut de chat) in dancers with and without FHL tendinopathy, and to examine lower limb posture at initial contact as a clinical correlate of injury-related kinetic factors. Read More

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Functional outcome of gastrocnemius advancement flap augmented with short flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer in chronic Achilles tear.

Foot (Edinb) 2020 Dec 22;45:101704. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Orthopedics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubanewar, Odisha 751019, India.

Background: There are various techniques of Achilles tendon (TA) repair and reconstruction in chronic Achilles tear. However, there is no clear consensus on the relevance of one method over the other. The short flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHL) transfer has recently gained popularity because of its same phasic action, ease of harvesting and tensile strength. Read More

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December 2020

Chronic bilateral asynchronous achilles tendon rupture treated using modified whole flexor hallucis longus transfer reconstruction: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(35):e21742

Department of Orthopedic Surgery.

Introduction: Achilles tendon rupture is common, but bilateral ruptures are very rare. Treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture is very challenging due tendon retraction and atrophied. We report a case of bilateral asynchronous Achilles tendon rupture patient who was treated with modified minimally invasive whole flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer to repair the defects. Read More

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Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Impingement Syndrome: All-inside Arthroscopic Treatment and Long-term Follow-up.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Nov - Dec;59(6):1197-1200. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Orthopaedic Surgeon, Orthopaedic Department, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou Clinical College of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the surgical technique and long-term clinical outcomes of all-inside arthroscopic treatment for flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon impingement syndrome. We retrospectively evaluated 34 FHL tendon impingement syndrome patients with complete follow-up data who were admitted from June 2015 to August 2018 and underwent the all-inside arthroscopy technique. The subjects consisted of 20 (58. Read More

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Modified Tension-Slide Technique for Endoscopy-Assisted Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer.

Foot Ankle Spec 2020 Oct 12;13(5):431-434. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Translational Medicine, Parc Tauli University Hospital, Sabadell, Spain.

The rupture of the Achilles tendon (AT) usually occurs in high-caliber athletes, but low-demand patients are also are risk, mainly if they are under corticoids or quinolones. The diagnosis of the AT rupture is usually neglected, and this could result in a worse prognosis for the patient if not treated in an appropriate time. For these patients or for those with high surgical risk, an option of minimally invasive surgery remains attractive. Read More

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October 2020

Anatomical Study of Minimally Invasive Lateral Release Techniques for Hallux Valgus Treatment.

Foot Ankle Int 2020 08 26;41(8):984-992. Epub 2020 May 26.

Human Anatomy Unit, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Lateral release (LR) for the treatment of hallux valgus is a routinely performed technique, either by means of open or minimally invasive (MI) surgery. Despite this, there is no available evidence of the efficacy and safety of MI lateral release. Our aim was to study 2 popular techniques for MI LR in cadavers by subsequently dissecting the released anatomical structures. Read More

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Gout in the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Mimicking Cellulitis: A Case Report.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2020 Jan;110(1):Article8

A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with fever and inflammation of the right ankle. We initiated antibiotics on suspicion of cellulitis. After no clinical improvement, we performed magnetic resonance imaging, which showed a fluid collection in the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon sheath. Read More

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January 2020

Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Single-Incision Transfer Stabilized With Autologous Bone Fixation.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Jan - Feb;59(1):213-215

Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, Stepping Hill Hospital, Stockport NHS Foundation Trust, Stockport, United Kingdom.

Flexor hallucis longus transfer is routinely used as a technique to salvage a chronic or neglected Achilles tendon rupture. The single-incision (or short harvest) technique provides adequate graft suitable for fixation with interference screws. We have used a bore corer instead of a drill to establish the tendon tunnel and at the same time use the harvested autograft for interference fit and avoid the use of screws, providing what we consider to be a more biologic form of fixation. Read More

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Gouty Achilles Tendinopathy: A Case Report.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2019 Jul;109(4):327-333

Tendinopathy in the presence of gouty arthropathy is relatively common, yet the clinical suspicion for gout involvement in acute tendon pain remains low. A 49-year-old man presented with an acute, tender, erythematous mass to the right posterior heel. A computed tomographic scan was obtained, which revealed a septated fluid collection superficial to the Achilles tendon. Read More

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Neglected Iatrogenic Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Rupture After Haglund's Endoscopic Surgery: A Case Report.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Jan - Feb;59(1):169-172. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Professor, Chairman, Orthopaedic Department, Swiss Ortho Center, Schmerzklinik Basel, Swiss Medical Network, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Rupture of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is a rare condition that can occur with direct or indirect trauma; most of the injuries are complete ruptures resulting from laceration. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty is used for treatment of symptomatic Haglund's deformity, and complications of this procedure are rare. Iatrogenic FHL tendon rupture occurring after endoscopic calcaneoplasty has not been reported previously. Read More

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Endoscopic Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer for Reconstruction of the Achilles Tendon Rupture in High-Risk Patients: A Case Series.

Authors:
Jake I Lee

J Foot Ankle Surg 2019 Nov;58(6):1257-1261

Senior Physician, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaiser Foundation Hospital, Redwood City, CA. Electronic address:

The neglected Achilles tendon rupture requires surgical reconstruction for the best functional outcome. According to the current literature, there are many reconstructive options available that demonstrate acceptable functional results in most cases. These procedures require large incisions, leading to potential wound-healing complications. Read More

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November 2019

Clinical outcomes of chronic Achilles tendon rupture treated with flexor hallucis longus grafting and flexor hallucis longus grafting plus additional augmentation: A meta-analysis.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Oct 28;26(7):717-722. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Sport and Orthopedic Center, Samitivej Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Background: The treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture is still controversial. Many surgical procedures have been proposed and claim to have good post-operative clinical outcomes. These techniques include direct repair, V-Y flap, turndown flap, peroneus brevis tendon graft, flexor digitorum longus graft, FHL graft, semitendinosus graft, gracilis tendon graft or synthetic material. Read More

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October 2020

Minimally Invasive and Endoscopic Treatment of Haglund Syndrome.

Foot Ankle Clin 2019 Sep 18;24(3):515-531. Epub 2019 May 18.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, North District Hospital, 9 Po Kin Road, Sheung Shui, NT, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China.

Haglund syndrome is a triad of posterosuperior calcaneal prominence (Haglund deformity), retrocalcaneal bursitis, and insertional Achilles tendinopathy. The sources of pain include the posterior calcaneal wall cartilage, retrocalcaneal and subcutaneous adventitial bursa, and the Achilles tendon. Resection of the posterosuperior calcaneal tubercle, bursectomy, excision of the Achilles tendon pathology, reattachment of the Achilles tendon, gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession, and flexor hallucis longus transfer have been proposed as surgical treatment options. Read More

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September 2019

Endoscopic Management of Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture.

Foot Ankle Clin 2019 Sep 13;24(3):459-470. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

University Hospital Llandough (UHL), Penlan Road, Llandough, CF64 2XX, UK.

Chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon are often missed injuries, which is challenging for the surgeon. The complications from reconstruction are a considerable concern. Primary repair may be attempted, but the missed injury often presents later than 4 weeks with gaps greater than 4 cm, necessitating more complex reconstructions using local tissues such as turn-down flaps and VY plasty, requiring large incisions in an unfavorable area of the body. Read More

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September 2019

The accuracy of an injection technique for Flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath: A cadaveric study.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Apr 16;26(3):334-337. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Academic Center for Evidence based Sports medicine (ACES), Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Amsterdam Collaboration for Health and Safety in Sports (ACHSS), Amsterdam, The Netherlands; FIFA Medical Centre of excellence Ripoll-dePrado-vanDijk SportClinic Madrid, Spain; FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence Clinica do Dragao Porto, Portugal.

Background: Corticosteroid injections are used in the conservative treatment of Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendinopathy. Studies for imaging guided injection are done, however, the accuracy of blind injection has not yet been studied.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a blind injection technique into the FHL tendon sheath. Read More

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Reconstruction of chronic achilles tendon ruptures in elderly patients, with vascularized flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer using single incision technique.

Acta Orthop Belg 2019 Mar;85(1):137-143

The purpose is to report the outcome following reconstruction of neglected Achilles tendon ruptures in elderly patients with Flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHL) biotenodesis. Seventeen cases (mean age 65.7 years), of Achilles tendon reconstruction with FHL biotenodesis for chronic ruptures were reviewed. Read More

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Achilles Tendon Reconstruction With Bone Block Allograft:Long-Term Follow-Up of Two Cases.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2019 Jul 20;58(4):779-784. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Faculty, Grant Medical Center, Columbus, OH.

The treatment of neglected or chronically ruptured Achilles tendon is challenging. Various treatments for large defects associated with chronic Achilles ruptures have been described. Many surgeons recommend the use of a tendon transfer, turndown rotational flap, advancement flap, or reconstruction with Achilles tendon allograft with calcaneal bone block. Read More

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[Reconstruction of neglected Achilles tendon rupture: flexor hallucis longus transfer versus gastrocnemius turn-down flaps].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;99(7):542-546

Institute of Sports Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

To compare the outcome of either flexor hallucis longus transfer or turn-down of proximal Achilles tendon tissue repair in treating chronic Achilles tendon rupture. The clinical data of 21 patients who underwent repair of Myerson type Ⅲ chronic Achilles tendon rupture at Peking University Sports Medicine Research Institute from May 2012 to March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 11 cases were treated with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) transfer, and 10 cases were treated with gastrocnemius turn-down flaps repair. Read More

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February 2019

Anatomic lectures on structures at risk prior to cadaveric courses reduce injury to the superficial peroneal nerve, the commonest complication in ankle arthroscopy.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2020 Jan 7;28(1):79-85. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Human Anatomy and Embryology Unit, Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of cadaveric ankle arthroscopy courses in reducing iatrogenic injuries.

Methods: A total of 60 novice surgeons enrolled in a basic cadaveric ankle arthroscopy course were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 32) was lectured on portal placement and use of the arthroscope, whereas group B (n = 28) was in addition lectured on specific portal-related complications. Read More

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January 2020

Calcific Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy-Achilles Repair With Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer: Case Series and Surgical Technique.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2019 Mar 3;58(2):236-242. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Director of Residency Training, Division of Foot and Ankle Surgery, West Penn Hospital, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

Calcific insertional Achilles tendinopathy (CIAT) is a relatively common musculoskeletal entity that results in significant pain and disability, as well as posterior muscle group weakness. There is a lack of evidence criteria to support the timing of operative intervention, choice of procedures, or whether equinus requires treatment. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review 45 patients (48 feet) who have undergone surgical management of CIAT with concomitant posterior muscle group weakness with the single heel rise testing. Read More

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Flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer for chronic Achilles tendon rupture. A retrospective study.

Foot Ankle Surg 2019 Oct 18;25(5):630-635. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The transfer of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon (FHL) is an established method for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. An extensive examination of power, strength, endurance and complications related to this procedure is presented.

Methods: 21 patients treated with open FHL transfer for chronic Achilles tendon rupture were studied retrospectively. Read More

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October 2019

Dual Purpose Use of Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon for Management of Chronic Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

Foot Ankle Spec 2019 Aug 11;12(4):345-349. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Rebecca Sealy Hospital, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (MAK, MI, VKP).

Chronic Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon and increase long-term morbidity when untreated. There is no standard treatment for this condition. Chronic Achilles tendon rupture was repaired in 10 patients by harvesting the flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHL) using a minimally invasive technique. Read More

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Endoscopic Flexor Hallucis Longus Transfer for Chronic Noninsertional Achilles Tendon Rupture.

Foot Ankle Int 2018 Dec 19;39(12):1464-1472. Epub 2018 Aug 19.

1 Human Anatomy and Embriology Unit, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background:: Operative management of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures is challenging, and numerous techniques have been described. Risk of infection and wound breakdown have been described after open techniques, and minimally invasive methods have been proposed to avoid them. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and radiological results obtained after endoscopic flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer in patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture. Read More

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December 2018

The Epidemiology of Ankle Injuries Identified at the National Football League Combine, 2009-2015.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Jul 18;6(7):2325967118786227. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

The Steadman Clinic, Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: American football is a leading cause of sports-related injuries, with the knee, ankle, and shoulder most commonly involved.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology, characteristics, and imaging findings of ankle injuries in football players at the National Football League (NFL) Combine and determine the relationship to player position. We hypothesized that there would be a high relative incidence of ankle injuries in these players compared with other sports and that there would be a direct correlation between the incidence of ankle injuries and player position. Read More

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Reconstruction of Neglected Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Rupture: A Case Report.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2018 Nov - Dec;57(6):1256-1258. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Professor, Department of Anatomy and Surgical Anatomy, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Isolated rupture of the flexor hallucis longus tendon is an unusual injury. We present the case of a neglected flexor hallucis longus tendon closed traumatic rupture at the plantar aspect of the first phalangeal head of the great toe in a middle-age male. The injury occurred while he was dancing. Read More

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February 2019