2,986 results match your criteria Animals[Journal]


Sodium Butyrate Alleviates Mouse Colitis by Regulating Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develops as a result of complicated interactions between genetic susceptibility, excessive innate immunity, and environmental factors, which are mainly related to the gut microbiota. The present study aimed to elucidate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of a short-chain fatty acid salt, sodium butyrate, on colonic inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Pretreatment with sodium butyrate attenuated colitis, as demonstrated by the decreased disease activity index (DAI), colon length shortening, spleen tumidness, and histopathology scores, while maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, as observed by H&E staining and electron microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071154DOI Listing

Behavior and Performance of Suckling Piglets Provided Three Supplemental Heat Sources.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

West Central Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, Morris, MN 56267, USA.

This study compared water-heated mats (WM) and electric-heated mats (EM) with heat lamps (HL) as supplemental heat sources for suckling piglets. Forty-two litters were studied in 3 trials. In all trials, behavior of piglets was video-recorded on day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 postpartum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071155DOI Listing

Simulation Study on the Integration of Health Traits in Horse Breeding Programs.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Animal Sciences, Center for Integrated Breeding Research, University of Goettingen, Albrecht-Thaer-Weg 3, 37075 Goettingen, Germany.

Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a degenerative disease of the cartilage leading to osseous fragments in the joints. It is important in horse breeding both from an animal welfare and an economic perspective. To study adequate breeding strategies to reduce OCD prevalence, a lifelike simulation of the breeding program of German Warmblood horses was performed with the R package MoBPS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071153DOI Listing

Effects of Paper Mulberry Silage on the Milk Production, Apparent Digestibility, Antioxidant Capacity, and Fecal Bacteria Composition in Holstein Dairy Cows.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Beijing Engineering Technology Research Center of Raw Milk Quality and Safety Control, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agriculture University, Beijing 100193, China.

Paper mulberry (; PM) is an excellent and extensive type of roughage in Asia. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of PM silage on the milk production, apparent digestibility, antioxidant capacity, and fecal bacteria composition in Holstein dairy cows. Forty-five lactating Holstein dairy cows with a similar milk yield and parity were selected and randomly assigned to three groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071152DOI Listing

Larvae Meal Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Growing Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutrition Physiology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

The hypothesis tested was that dietary inclusion of insect meal (IM) causes an alteration in the cecal microbiota composition and its fermentation activity of growing pigs. Five-week-old male crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 pigs each, and fed isonitrogenous diets either without (CON) or with 5% IM (IM5) or 10% IM (IM10) from larvae for four weeks. The relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes was lower in group IM10 than in group CON ( < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071151DOI Listing

The Study of the Response of Fat Metabolism to Long-Term Energy Stress Based on Serum, Fatty Acid and Transcriptome Profiles in Yaks.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Animal Science Department, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730050, China.

Long-term energy stress (ES) during the cold season is a serious problem for the breeding of yaks. In this paper, the response of fat metabolism in yaks to long-term ES during the cold season was studied. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis showed that the percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in the subcutaneous fat of the yaks in the ES group was 42. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071150DOI Listing

Intraspecific Hybrids Versus Purebred: A Study of Hatchery-Reared Populations of Sterlet .

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Zátiší 728/II, 389 25 Vodňany, Czech Republic.

Hatchery-reared sterlet originating from the Danube and Volga river basins that showed population-discriminatory alleles on at least one microsatellite locus were used to produce purebred (within-population) and hybrid crosses to evaluate intraspecific hybridization with respect to the genetic polymorphism and physiological fitness of fish for commercial aquaculture and, conservation programs. Reciprocal crossing assessed the effect of parent position. The fish were reared in indoor and outdoor tanks and monitored over 504 days for growth traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071149DOI Listing

Preliminary Findings on a Novel Behavioural Approach for the Assessment of Pain and Analgesia in Lambs Subject to Routine Husbandry Procedures.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Agricultural Sciences, College of Science, Health, Engineering & Education, Murdoch University, Murdoch WA 6150, Australia.

The identification and assessment of pain in sheep under field conditions are important, but, due to their stoic nature, are fraught with many challenges. In Australia, various husbandry procedures that are documented to cause pain are routinely performed at lamb marking, including ear tagging, castration, mulesing, and tail docking. This study evaluated the validity of a novel methodology to assess pain in lambs: qualitative behavioural assessment (QBA) was used to compare the behavioural expression of control lambs (CONTROL) with that of lambs subject to these procedures that received either a saline placebo 15 min before procedures (PLACEBO), or were administered meloxicam 15 min before procedures in addition to the standard analgesic Tri-Solfen at the time of procedures, as per the manufacturer's recommendations (ANALGESIC TREATMENT; AT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071148DOI Listing

Effectiveness of Stocking Density Reduction on Mitigating Lameness in a Charolais Finishing Beef Cattle Farm.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Dipartimento di Medicina Animale, Produzioni e Salute, Università degli Studi di Padova, 35020 Legnaro, Italy.

This study aimed at assessing whether a reduction in stocking density (SKD) would mitigate lameness and positively affect the performance and health of Charolais bulls in an Italian commercial farm. Bulls were distributed in groups of 10 or 8 animals/pen for high (HD) or low density (LD) corresponding to an individual space of 3.5 or 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071147DOI Listing

Immunohistochemical Assessment of Immune Response in the Dermis of -Infested Wild Carnivores (Wolf and Fox) and Ruminants (Chamois and Red Deer).

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, 24006 León, Spain.

Sarcoptic mange is caused by the mite and has been described in several species of domestic and wild mammals. Macroscopic lesions are predominantly hyperkeratotic (type I hypersensitivity) in fox, chamois and deer, but alopecic (type IV hypersensitivity) in wolf and some fox populations. To begin to understand the immune processes underlying these species differences in lesions, we examined skin biopsies from wolves (), foxes (), chamois () and red deer () naturally infested with . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071146DOI Listing

Elo Method and Race Traits: A New Integrated System for Sport Horse Genetic Evaluation.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Veterinary Medicine-Sportive Horse Research Center, University of Perugia, via S.Costanzo 4, 06123 Perugia, Italy.

This first survey on Sardinian Anglo-Arab horse (SAA) race traits highlights important aspects for the breeding purpose of this population. The heritability of the race traits were estimated through a trivariate model; the estimates were 0.39, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071145DOI Listing

Isolation of a Highly Efficient Antigenic-Protein-Degrading and Assessment of Its Safety.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

The Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.

The aims of this study were to screen and isolate a highly efficient strain from the rumen of a cow that can degrade the antigenic soy proteins in soybean meal (SBM) and improve the nutritional value of SBM by fermenting it with this strain. The safety of this strain was investigated with an acute oral toxicity test. A strain was successfully screened with plate tests and fermentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071144DOI Listing

Animal-Assisted Therapy as a Non-Pharmacological Approach in Alzheimer's Disease: A Retrospective Study.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, 80134 Naples, Italy.

Recently, many efforts have been made to assess the effectiveness of non-pharmacological therapies as an alternative or supportive option to conventional approaches. Specifically, animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has recently raised a great interest and large research efforts. This work represents a retrospective study carried out over seven years (from 2012 to 2019) in 127 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071142DOI Listing

Productive Performance, Milk Composition and Milk Fatty Acids of Goats Supplemented with Sunflower and Linseed Whole Seeds in Grass Silage-Based Diets.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Instituto Literario 100 Ote., Toluca 50000, Estado de Mexico, México.

The objective of this study was to determine productive performance, milk composition and milk fatty acids (FA) of goats supplemented with sunflower and linseed whole seeds in grass silage-based diets. Nine Alpine goats were grouped in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (n = 3), that included three 21-d periods. Treatments were based on grass silage offered and a concentrate mixture supplemented with either 40 g/d of Megalac-R (control), 80 g/d of sunflower seed (SF), or 80 g/d of linseed (LS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071143DOI Listing

Review: Practical Use of n-3 Fatty Acids to Improve Reproduction Parameters in the Context of Modern Sow Nutrition.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Nutrition, Szent István University, 2103 Gödöllő, Hungary.

The effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs) have been frequently investigated in sows because the profitability of pig production depends mainly on reproduction performance. In feeding trials, different sources and doses of n-3 PUFAs-rich feeds were used with various breeds and stages of production; however, a discrepancy in the response of n-3 PUFAs on sow reproduction has been observed. According to the results of the previous studies, n-3 fatty acids can postpone the time of parturition, decreasing the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are necessary for uterus contraction during labour. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071141DOI Listing

Validation of Real-time PCR Reference Genes of Muscle Metabolism in Harvested Spiny-Cheek Crayfish () Exposed to Seasonal Variation.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

University of Szczecin, Institute of Marine and Environmental Sciences, 18 Adama Mickiewicza Street, 70-383 Szczecin, Poland.

Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive and broadly used technique of assessing gene activity. To obtain a reliable result, stably expressed reference genes are essential for normalization of transcripts in various samples. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of reference genes for normalization of RT-qPCR data in spiny-cheek crayfish (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071140DOI Listing

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of in Ruminant Meats from Wet Markets in Klang Valley and Abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia.

(1) Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of in meats of cattle, goat and sheep from wet markets in Klang Valley, and abattoirs in Selangor, Malaysia; (2) Methods: A total of 192 meat samples were purchased from 51 wet markets in six districts in Klang Valley (Gombak, Klang, Kuala Lumpur, Hulu Langat, Petaling and Putrajaya). Meanwhile, a total of 200 diaphragm samples were collected from two government abattoirs located in Shah Alam and Banting, Selangor. All meat juices from samples were subjected to an indirect-ELISA kit for the presence of IgG antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071139DOI Listing

Impact of Housing Environment on the Immune System in Chickens: A Review.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 5;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Behavioral Physiology of Livestock, Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr, 17, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany.

During their lifespan, chickens are confronted with a wide range of acute and chronic stressors in their housing environment that may threaten their welfare and health by modulating the immune system. Especially chronic stressful conditions can exceed the individual's allostatic load, with negative consequences for immunity. A fully functional immune system is mandatory for health and welfare and, consequently, also for high productivity and safe animal products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071138DOI Listing

Use of a Tri-Axial Accelerometer Can Reliably Detect Play Behaviour in Newborn Calves.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 5;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Garscube Estate, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK.

Traditionally, the welfare assessment of farm animals has focused on health and production outcomes. Positive welfare is, however, not merely the absence of negative welfare and is an important part of a life worth living. Play behaviour is widely considered to be an indicator of positive emotions because it is a "luxury" behaviour. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071137DOI Listing

Estimating Abundance of Siberian Roe Deer Using Fecal-DNA Capture-Mark-Recapture in Northeast China.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

CAS Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016, China.

It is necessary to estimate the population abundance of deer for managing their populations. However, most estimates are from high-density populations inhabiting the forests of North America or Europe; there is currently a lack of necessary knowledge regarding low-density deer populations in different forest habitats. In this article, we used fecal DNA based on the capture-mark-recapture method to estimate the population abundance of Siberian roe deer () in Liangshui National Nature Reserve in the Lesser Xing'an Mountains, northeast China, where the deer population was found to be of a low density by limited studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071135DOI Listing

Behavioral Methods for Severity Assessment.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), German Center for the Protection of Laboratory Animals (Bf3R), 12277 Berlin, Germany.

It has become mandatory for the application for allowance of animal experimentation to rate the severity of the experimental procedures. In order to minimize suffering related to animal experimentation it is therefore crucial to develop appropriate methods for the assessment of animal suffering. Physiological parameters such as hormones or body weight are used to assess stress in laboratory animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071136DOI Listing

Welfare Assessment for Captive Anseriformes: A Guide for Practitioners and Animal Keepers.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge Wetland Centre, Slimbridge, Gloucestershire GL2 7BT, UK.

Welfare assessment is a tool to both identify welfare challenges and to evidence where current husbandry practices support positive welfare outcomes. Such tools are becoming more available and can be amended based on the nature of the facility and needs of taxonomic groups. Currently, welfare assessment has a strong mammalian theme, and some behavioural measures of welfare commonly applied to mammals do not translate well for other taxa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071132DOI Listing

Dietary Preference of Newly Weaned Pigs and Nutrient Interactions According to Copper Levels and Sources with Different Solubility Characteristics.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Animal Nutrition and Welfare Service (SNIBA), Department of Animal and Food Science, Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Two feeding preference experiments and an in vitro assay were performed to assess the weaned pig preference for Cu doses and sources based on their sensorial perception and on the likely post-ingestive effects of Cu. At day 7 post-weaning, a total of 828 pigs were distributed into two different experiments. In Exp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071133DOI Listing

Pathological, Bacteriological and Virological Findings in Sudden and Unexpected Deaths in Young Dogs.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Portici, 81100 Naples, Italy.

In human medicine, "sudden death" has been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a non-violent, unexpected death occurring less than 24 h from the onset of symptoms. The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate the proportional mortality ratio for "sudden and unexpected death" (SUD) in young dogs; (2) to investigate the pathological and microbiological findings in SUD cases in young dogs. For these purposes, a retrospective study of a total of 145 cases of young dead dogs was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071134DOI Listing

Immunohistochemical Analysis of Intestinal and Central Nervous System Morphology in an Obese Animal Model () Treated with 3,5-T2: A Possible Farm Management Practice?

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Science and Technology (DST), University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy.

The 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) is an endogenous metabolite of thyroid hormones, whose administration to rodents fed high-fat diet (HFD) prevents body weight increase and reverts the expression pattern of pro-inflammatory factors associated to HFD. The diet-induced obese (D.I. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071131DOI Listing

Meta-Transcriptomic Analysis of RNAseq Data Reveals Pacu and Loach Fish with Unusually High Levels of Myoglobin Expression in Skeletal Muscles.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan.

Oxygen-binding proteins, such as myoglobin, hemoglobin, neuroglobin, and cytoglobin, play a role in oxygen binding and delivery to tissues. In icefish, the loss of myoglobin and hemoglobin genes has been reported to be an adaptive evolution event. This interesting finding prompted us to exam oxygen-binding protein expression in diverse fish species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071130DOI Listing

Prevalence of Blood Types and Alloantibodies of the AB Blood Group System in Non-Pedigree Cats from Northern (Lombardy) and Southern (Sicily) Italy.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Veterinary Transfusion Research Laboratory (REVLab), Department of Veterinary Medicine (DIMEVET), University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy.

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of A, B and AB blood types and alloantibodies in non-pedigree cats from two regions, one in Northern and one in Southern Italy (Lombardy and Sicily, respectively). A total of 448 samples (52.0% from Northern and 48. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071129DOI Listing

Genomic Analysis of Strains Originating from Hungarian Rabbit Farms Reinforce the Clonal Origin of Various Virulence Types.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Budapest, István u. 2., H-1078 Budapest, Hungary.

Staphylococcosis is one of the most important infectious diseases in rabbit medicine, especially in commercial farming. Previous studies revealed the existence of virulent variants adapted to rabbits. Typical and atypical, highly virulent as well as low virulent variants have been isolated and reported from industrial units in all major rabbit-meat-producing countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071128DOI Listing

MicroRNA Milk Exosomes: From Cellular Regulator to Genomic Marker.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Environmental and Animal Science, University of Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy.

Recent advances in ruminants' milk-derived exosomes (EXO) have indicated a role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cell-to-cell communication in dairy ruminants. The miRNAs EXO retain peculiar mechanisms of uptake from recipient cells, which enables the selective delivery of cargos, with a specific regulation of target genes. Although many studies have been published on the miRNAs contained in milk, less information is available on the role of miRNAs EXO, which are considered stable over time and resistant to digestion and milk processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071126DOI Listing

Differential Dynamics of the Ruminal Microbiome of Jersey Cows in a Heat Stress Environment.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan 31000, Korea.

The microbial community within the rumen can be changed and shaped by heat stress. Accumulating data have suggested that different breeds of dairy cows have differential heat stress resistance; however, the underlying mechanism by which nonanimal factors contribute to heat stress are yet to be understood. This study is designed to determine changes in the rumen microbiome of Holstein and Jersey cows to normal and heat stress conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071127DOI Listing

Effect of Social Rank upon Estrus Induction and Some Reproductive Outcomes in Anestrus Goats Treated With Progesterone + eCG.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Unidad Laguna, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Periférico Raúl López Sánchez y Carretera a Santa Fe, 27054 Torreón, Coahuila, Mexico.

We evaluated the possible role of the social rank [R] (i.e., low-LSR, middle-MSR, or high-HSR) in anestrus goats exposed to a P4 + eCG [D] (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071125DOI Listing

Consequences of Transition Treatments on Fertility and Associated Metabolic Status for Dairy Cows in Early Lactation.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Animal Sciences, Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.

This study aimed to (1) investigate effects of reducing postpartum dietary energy level for cows after a 0-d dry period (DP) on resumption of ovarian cyclicity and reproductive performance, (2) relate days open with other reproductive measures, and (3) relate onset of luteal activity (OLA) and days open with metabolic status in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 transition treatments: no DP and low postpartum dietary energy level from 22 days in milk( DIM )onwards (0-d DP (LOW)) ( = 42), no DP and standard postpartum dietary energy level (0-d DP (STD)) ( = 43), and a short DP and standard postpartum dietary energy level (30-d DP (STD)) ( = 43). Milk progesterone concentration was determined three times per week until 100 DIM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061100DOI Listing

Genetic Parameters of Linear Type Traits Scored at 30 Months in Italian Heavy Draught Horse.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment-DAFNAE, University of Padova, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.

The Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH) breed is selected based on linear type traits (LTT) evaluated at young age on six-month-old foals. However, animals retained for reproduction are scored also at adults age (about 30 months), and the evaluation is mandatory for the final official admission to the stud book of candidate mares and stallions. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters of LTT scored at 30 months to consider if they are feasible for selection instead of using foal data and to reduce costs of selection plan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061099DOI Listing

Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal Supplementation on the Growth Performance and Cecal Microbiota Community of Broiler Chickens.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

The Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture and rural Affairs, National Engineering Research Center of Biological Feed development, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.

This study investigated the growth performance, serum immunity, and cecal bacterial microbiota of broilers fed a diet in which soybean meal (SBM) was partially replaced with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) for 36 days. A total of 180 one-day-old male Cobb 500 broilers were randomly divided into three dietary groups (six replicates per group): corn-SBM diet (CC); 25% SBM replaced by FSBM (SC); 50% SBM replaced by FSBM (TC). The average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion rates (FCR) were higher in SC than CC and TC groups ( < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061098DOI Listing

UVB Irradiation Induced Cell Damage and Early Onset of Expression in Zebrafish.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan.

Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has drawn more attention over these past few decades since it causes severe DNA damage and induces inflammatory response. Serial gene profiling and high throughput data in UVB-associated phenomenon in human cultured cells or full rack of human skin have been investigated. However, results using different tissue models lead to ambiguity in UVB-induced pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061096DOI Listing

Map-A-Mole: Greenspace Area Influences the Presence and Abundance of the European Mole in Urban Habitats.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

People and Wildlife Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, Harborne Building, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AS, UK.

The European mole is common across much of Britain. It has a unique fossorial lifestyle, and evidence of its presence is readily identified through the presence of characteristic molehills. Although molehills are often a common sight in urban greenspaces, moles are remarkably understudied, with very few studies to date exploring the urban ecology of moles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061097DOI Listing

Comparison of Fatty Acid Proportions Determined by Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography in Bulk and Individual Milk Samples.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Genetics and Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Studentská 1668, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Rapid analytical methods can contribute to the expansion of milk fatty acid determination for various important practical purposes. The reliability of data resulting from these routine methods plays a crucial role. Bulk and individual milk samples (60 and 345, respectively) were obtained from Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein dairy cows in the Czech Republic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10061095DOI Listing

Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonists to Improve the Productivity and Health of Early-Weaned Pigs: What is the Best Method of Delivery?

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.

The purpose of the current study was to determine the best method of delivery for glucocorticoid receptor agonist (GRA) treatment. A total of 167 Pig Improvement Company (PIC) piglets (body weight (BW) 7.35 ± 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071124DOI Listing

Age-Related Changes in Serum Lipid Levels, Hepatic Morphology, Antioxidant Status, Lipid Metabolism Related Gene Expression and Enzyme Activities of Domestic Pigeon Squabs ().

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Key Laboratory for Molecular Animal Nutrition of Ministry of Education, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University (Zijingang Campus), Hangzhou 310058, China.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the age-related changes in antioxidant status and the lipid metabolism of pigeon squabs (), by determining the BW, antioxidant indices, serum lipid levels, lipid metabolism-related enzyme activities, lipid metabolism-related gene expression, and liver morphology in squabs. Ten squabs were randomly selected and sampled on the day of hatching (DOH), days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) post-hatch, respectively. The results showed that BW of squabs increased linearly from DOH to D21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071121DOI Listing

Training Petting Zoo Sheep to Act Like Petting Zoo Sheep: An Empirical Evaluation of Response-Independent Schedules and Shaping with Negative Reinforcement.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Behavior Analysis, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901, USA.

Shaping through differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a target response has been a cornerstone procedure for the training of novel behavior. However, much of how it has traditionally been implemented occurs through informal observation, rather than any direct, systematic measurement. In the present study, we examine the use of response-independent food schedules and shaping for increasing approach and contact behaviors in petting zoo sheep. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071122DOI Listing

Behavior in Free-Living American Black Bear Dens: Parturition, Maternal Care, and Cub Behavior.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jul 1;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Denning behavior has long remained the least observed aspect of bear behavior. During 2010-2013, we used webcams, microphones, the internet, and 14,602 h of archived video to document the denning behaviors of two adult wild black bears () as they gave birth and cared for four litters through six winters in northeastern Minnesota. Observations included types of dens, labor, pre-parturient genital swelling, birthing positions, post-partum vocalizations, mothers removing amniotic tissues and warming newborn cubs in sub-freezing temperatures, frequency of nursing, cubs establishing nipple order, yearlings suckling, the ingestion of snow and icicles, the ingestion of foot pads, urination and defecation in latrine areas, toilet-licking, eye opening, reciprocal tongue-licking, play, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and possible dreaming, and reactions to wildlife intruders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071123DOI Listing

Assessment of the Stress Response in North American Deermice: Laboratory and Field Validation of Two Enzyme Immunoassays for Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Centre for the Neurobiology of Stress, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4, Canada.

Stress physiology is commonly employed in studies of wildlife ecology and conservation. Accordingly, we need robust and suitable methods to measure stress physiology in the field. Fecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites (FCMs) are now increasingly being used to non-invasively evaluate adrenocortical activity; a measure of stress physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071120DOI Listing

Immune Responses and Performance Are Influenced by Respiratory Vaccine Antigen Type and Stress in Beef Calves.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 30;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, TX 79016, USA.

The study objective was to determine if a combined weaning and transportation stress model affected performance, antibody, endocrine, or hematological responses to modified-live virus (MLV) or killed virus (KV) respiratory vaccination in beef steers. In total, 48 calves (Day 0 BW = 226 ± 6.2 kg) from a single origin were used in a 2 × 2 factorial to evaluate main effects of stress model, vaccine type, and their interaction, resulting in four treatments ( = 12/treatment) including non-stress control (C) with KV (CKV), C with MLV (CMLV), stress model implementation (S) with KV (SKV), and S with MLV (SMLV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071119DOI Listing

Bias and Misrepresentation of Science Undermines Productive Discourse on Animal Welfare Policy: A Case Study.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK.

Reliable scientific knowledge is crucial for informing legislative, regulatory, and policy decisions in a variety of areas. To that end, scientific reviews of topical issues can be invaluable tools for informing productive discourse and decision-making, assuming these reviews represent the target body of scientific knowledge as completely, accurately, and objectively as possible. Unfortunately, not all reviews live up to this standard. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071118DOI Listing

Effect of Feeding Lactating Ewes with Leaf Extract on Milk Yield, Milk Composition and Preweaning Performance of Ewe/Lamb Pair.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

División Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, km 25. Carretera Villahermosa-Teapa, R/A La Huasteca., Colonia Centro Tabasco 86280, Mexico.

The objective this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of leaf extract (MOE) on milk production and milk composition in ewes and on preweaning performance of their lambs. Twenty-four lactating ewes were housed individually with their lambs and assigned to four groups in a completely randomized design. The treatments included a basal diet without MOE (MOE0) or a basal diet supplemented with either 20 mL MOE per ewe per day (MOE20), 40 mL MOE per ewe per day (MOE40) or 60 mL MOE per ewe per day (MOE60). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071117DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of Canine Herpesvirus-1 in Breeding Dogs with or Without Vaccination in Northwest Italy.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Experimental Institute for Zooprophylaxis in Piedmont, Ligura and Aosta Valley, 10154 Turin, Italy.

Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) can cause abortion and foetal and neonatal deaths in the bitch. The reactivation of latent infections with asymptomatic virus shedding represents a mechanism, whereby the virus can persist in a dog population. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of CHV-1 in a population of breeding dogs in Piedmont, Northern Italy, and to investigate the distribution of herpesvirus vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071116DOI Listing

Identification of Ovarian Circular RNAs and Differential Expression Analysis between MeiShan and Large White Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

MeiShan and Large White pigs differ in their female fecundity. However, the mechanisms behind the gene expression and regulation that cause these differences remain unclear. In this study, we profiled circRNAs and identified 5,879 circRNAs from the ovaries of MeiShan and Large White pigs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071114DOI Listing

Dairy Calf Welfare and Factors Associated with Diarrhea and Respiratory Disease Among Chilean Dairy Farms.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5090000, Chile.

This study aimed to describe management practices that may compromise the welfare of unweaned dairy calves on 29 dairy farms in Chile, and identify factors associated with diarrhea and respiratory disease (n = 700 calves). Evaluations were divided into protocol-, facility-, and animal-based measurements. Calf diarrhea and respiratory disease data were analyzed using logistic regression models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071115DOI Listing

Effect of Oral Supplementation of Healthy Pregnant Sows with Sucrosomial Ferric Pyrophosphate on Maternal Iron Status and Hepatic Iron Stores in Newborn Piglets.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Genetics and Animal Biotechnology, PAS, 05-552 Jastrzębiec, Poland.

Background: The similarities between swine and humans in physiological and genomic patterns, as well as significant correlation in size and anatomy, make pigs an useful animal model in nutritional studies during pregnancy. In humans and pigs iron needs exponentially increase during the last trimester of pregnancy, mainly due to increased red blood cell mass. Insufficient iron supply during gestation may be responsible for the occurrence of maternal iron deficiency anemia and decreased iron status in neonates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071113DOI Listing

The Australian Roadkill Reporting Project-Applying Integrated Professional Research and Citizen Science to Monitor and Mitigate Roadkill in Australia.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Australia has no national roadkill monitoring scheme. To address this gap in knowledge, a roadkill reporting application (app) was developed to allow members of the public to join professional researchers in gathering Australian data. The app is used to photograph roadkill and simultaneously records the GPS location, time and date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071112DOI Listing