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Protozoan and Helminth Infections of Aviary-Reared Alectoris rufa (Galliformes: Phasianidae) before Releasing for Hunting in the Czech Republic: Infection Dynamics and Potential Risks.

Authors:
O Máca I Pavlásek

J Parasitol 2020 Aug;106(4):439-443

Department of Pathology and Parasitology, State Veterinary Institute Prague, Sídlištní 136/24, 165 03, Prague 6, Czech Republic.

Age-related dynamics of protozoan and helminth infections in the red-legged partridge, Alectoris rufa, were studied in an intensive breeding aviary in the Czech Republic before releasing birds for hunting purposes. Pooled fecal samples (n = 900) were examined over 3 rearing seasons (2012-2014). A total of 4 protozoan species, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Eimeria kofoidi, and Eimeria legionensis, and 4 helminths, Capillaria phasianina, Eucoleus perforans, Heterakis gallinarum, and Syngamus trachea, was found. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/17-129DOI Listing

Understanding the influence of trenbolone acetate and polyamines on proliferation of bovine satellite cells.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2020 Mar 31;74:106479. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Science, Utah State University, 4815 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322, USA. Electronic address:

Approximately 90% of beef cattle on feed in the United States receive at least one anabolic implant, which results in increased growth, efficiency, and economic return to producers. However, the complete molecular mechanism through which anabolic implants function to improve skeletal muscle growth remains unknown. This study had 2 objectives: (1) determine the effect of polyamines and their precursors on proliferation rate in bovine satellite cells (BSC); and (2) understand whether trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, has an impact on the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2020.106479DOI Listing

Association of plasma concentrations of oxytocin, vasopressin, and serotonin with docility and friendliness of horses.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2020 Apr 4;74:106482. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Animal and Biotechnology Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Republic of Korea; Department of Horse, Companion and Wild Animal Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been associated with social interaction and affiliative behavior in animals. Additionally, AVP is known to affect socially aggressive behavior. In addition, serotonin has an association with aggressive behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2020.106482DOI Listing

Somatotropin increases plasma ceramide in relation to enhanced milk yield in cows.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2020 Apr 22;74:106480. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address:

Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) changes metabolism to spare glucose for milk synthesis in cows. Ceramides inhibit insulin responsiveness in bovine adipocytes and are associated with insulin resistance and milk production in cows. The mechanisms by which rBST supports lactation may involve ceramide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2020.106480DOI Listing

Perinatal cortisol and blood glucose concentrations in bitches and neonatal puppies: effects of mode of whelping.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2020 Apr 18;74:106483. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Rua Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87 - Cidade Universitária, São Paulo 05508-270, Brazil. Electronic address:

The decision on how and when to assist whelping is crucial for the survival rate of puppies and health status of the dam. However, medical or surgical therapy in dystocia can impact both maternal and neonatal stress and glucose response differently. This study aims to compare perinatal cortisol and glucose among different modes of delivery in bitches and neonates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2020.106483DOI Listing

Effects of the juçara fruit supplementation on metabolic parameters in individuals with obesity: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

J Nutr Biochem 2020 May 24;83:108430. Epub 2020 May 24.

Laboratório de Nutrição e Fisiologia Endócrina (LaNFE), Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil; Departamento de Biociências, Instituto de Saúde e Sociedade, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Adipose tissue inflammation has been proposed as a central mechanism connecting obesity with its metabolic and vascular complications due to the imbalance in the expression of several hormones and adipokines. Berries rich in polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids have been able to prevent both obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, improving metabolic functions in human subjects and animal models of obesity. Juçara has been considered a super fruit owing to its nutritional composition and relevant biological activities with an interesting response in animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108430DOI Listing

Use of masking strategies to avoid the boar taint perception in chorizo: consumers' acceptability.

Meat Sci 2020 Jun 15;169:108223. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Murcia, Espinardo 30071, Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

The production of entire male pigs is an alternative to surgical castration. However, boar taint may be present in the meat of entire male animals. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the acceptability and sensory properties of chorizo, elaborated under three different levels of androstenone [castrated 0-0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108223DOI Listing

Reflections on IDEAL: What we have learnt from a unique calf cohort study.

Prev Vet Med 2020 Jun 20;181:105062. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Centre for Tropical Livestock Genetics and Health (CTLGH), Easter Bush Campus, EH25 9RG, UK; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

The year 2020 marks a decade since the final visit was made in the 'Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock' (IDEAL) project. However, data generation from samples obtained during this ambitious longitudinal study still continues. As the project launches its extensive open-access database and biobank to the scientific community, we reflect on the challenges overcome, the knowledge gained, and the advantages of such a project. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105062DOI Listing

Untreated swine wastes changed antibiotic resistance and microbial community in the soils and impacted abundances of antibiotic resistance genes in the vegetables.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 23;741:140482. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

SCNU Environmental Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China; School of Environment, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Animal waste fertilization is a traditional agricultural practice, which may have adverse effects to soil ecosystem. However, the side-effects of animal waste fertilization on vegetables are less studied. Here we selected a swine farming village for investigation with a nearby village without swine farming as comparison. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140482DOI Listing

Species assignment in forensics and the challenge of hybrids.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2020 Jun 17;48:102333. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Forensic Science Unit, Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Basque Country Police-Ertzaintza Larrauri Mendotxe 18, 48950 Erandio Bizkaia, Spain.

Forensic identification of species is in growing demand, particularly from law enforcement authorities in the areas of wildlife, fisheries and hunting as well as food authentication. Within the non-human forensic genetics expanding applications' field, the major current difficulties result from the lack of standards and genetic databases as well as the poor or absent taxonomic definition of several groups. Here we focus on a forensically important and overlooked problem in species identification: the exclusive use of uniparental markers, a common practice in current genetic barcoding methodologies, may lead to incorrect or impossible assignment whenever hybrids can occur (frequently, not only in domesticates, but also in the wild). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2020.102333DOI Listing

Health assessment of harbour porpoises (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) from Baltic area of Denmark, Germany, Poland and Latvia.

Environ Int 2020 Jun 29;143:105904. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), the only resident cetacean species of the Baltic Sea is formed of two subpopulations populations, occurring in the western Baltic, Belt Seas and Kattegat and the Baltic Proper, respectively. Harbour porpoises throughout these areas are exposed to a large number of human activities causing direct and indirect effects on individuals, that might also harm this species on a population level. From Latvia, Poland, Germany and Denmark 385 out of 1769 collected dead harbour porpoises were suitable for extensive necropsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105904DOI Listing

Dominant denitrifying bacteria are important hosts of antibiotic resistance genes in pig farm anoxic-oxic wastewater treatment processes.

Environ Int 2020 Jun 29;143:105897. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, South China Agriculture University, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

The anoxic-oxic (A/O) wastewater treatment process that is widely used in pig farms in China is an important repository for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, the distribution of ARGs and their hosts in the A/O process has not been well characterized. In this study, the wastewaters in the anoxic and oxic tanks for A/O processes were collected from 38 pig farms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105897DOI Listing

M-like protein SrM is not crucial to the virulence of a novel isolate of Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum from Macaca mulatta.

Res Vet Sci 2020 May 7;132:221-228. Epub 2020 May 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; Key Lab of Animal Bacteriology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing 210095, China; OIE Reference Lab for Swine Streptococcosis, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a Streptococcus strainnamed FJ1804, was isolated from a blood sample collected from a dead Macaca mulatta in China and, was subsequently classified as Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum (S.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2020.05.006DOI Listing

Gene signatures of SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2-infected ferret lungs in short- and long-term models.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 Jun 29:104438. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Coronaviruses (CoVs) consist of six strains, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), newly found coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread leading to a global outbreak. The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) serves as a useful animal model for studying SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 infection and developing therapeutic strategies. A holistic approach for distinguishing differences in gene signatures during disease progression is lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104438DOI Listing

Biased signaling in fish melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs): Divergent pharmacology of four ligands on spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) MC4Rs.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 Jun 29:110929. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, United States. Electronic address:

The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in both mammals and fish. Several fish MC4Rs recently characterized have high constitutive activities, potentially associated with food intake and growth rate. In the present study, we systematically investigated the effects of four human MC4R (hMC4R) antagonists, including agouti-related peptide (AgRP), Ipsen 5i, ML00253764, and MCL0020, on the cAMP and ERK1/2 signaling of two fish MC4Rs: spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) MC4R (saMC4R) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) MC4R (ciMC4R), with hMC4R as a control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2020.110929DOI Listing

Supplemental dietary selenium enhances immune responses conferred by a vaccine against low pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2020 Jun 25;227:110089. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Selenium is a trace mineral that has antioxidant activities and can influence the immune system. However, antiviral effects of selenium have not been well studies in chickens. Chickens were therefore fed diets supplemented with two levels of two different sources of selenium (organic: selenium enriched yeast; SEY or inorganic: sodium selenite; SS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2020.110089DOI Listing

Ochratoxin A induces glomerular injury through activating the ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Jun 29:111516. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu Province, China; Institute of Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders in Domestic Animals and Fowls, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu Province, China; MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Ochratoxin A (OTA) was reported to induce proximal tubules nephrotoxicity in humans and animals. However, the toxicity of OTA on glomeruli has rarely been studied. We investigated OTA-induced glomerular injury and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111516DOI Listing

Production of a codonopsis polysaccharide iron complex and evaluation of its properties.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

College of Veterinary medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

A water extraction and alcohol precipitation method was applied to extract polysaccharides from Codonopsis pilosula (CPP), response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions and synthesis of C. pilosula polysaccharide iron (CPPI), and the properties of CPPI were evaluated. The optimum extraction conditions for CPP were as follows: liquid-solid ratio of 29. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.210DOI Listing

Sustainable production, biochemical and molecular characterization of thermo-and-solvent stable alkaline serine keratinase from novel Bacillus pumilus ar57 for promising poultry solid waste management.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Biotechnology, University College of Engineering, Anna University - BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu 620 024, India. Electronic address:

The increasing amount of recalcitrant keratinous wastes generated from the poultry industry poses a serious threat to the environment. Keratinase have gained much attention to convert these wastes into valuable products. Ever since primitive feathers first appeared on dinosaurs, microorganisms have evolved to degrade this most recalcitrant keratin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.219DOI Listing

Extraction, purification and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from cold pressed oil cake of 'Tengjiao' seed.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014, China. Electronic address:

Tengjiao (Zanthoxylum armatum DC.) seed cold pressed oil cake (CPC), the main by-product of the cold-pressed oil process, is mainly used for animal feed or crop fertilizer, resulting in a great waste of resources. To improve the added value, the CPC polysaccharide (CPCP) was extracted and purified, and its antioxidant activity was studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.207DOI Listing

Antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities in vitro of polysaccharides from bee collected pollen of Chinese wolfberry.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Institute of Wolfberry Engineering Technology, Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan 750002, Ningxia, China; National Wolfberry Engineering Research Center, Yinchuan 750002, Ningxia, China. Electronic address:

China is a larger apiculture producer in the world and more than 120 million kg of bee collected pollens of Chinese wolfberry (WBP) are produced per year. However, the lack of knowledge of the nutritional benefits of WBP limits the use of this natural product in food industry. In the present study, three polysaccharides (WBPPS-1, WBPPS-2 and WBPPS-3) were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography, and their preliminary structures, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.244DOI Listing

Non-invasive assessment of the cardiac effects of Chironex fleckeri and Carukia barnesi venoms in mice, using pulse wave doppler.

Toxicon 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Dept of Emergency Medicine, Cairns Hospital, Australia.

Both Chironex fleckeri venom (CFV) and Carukia barnesi venoms (CBV) are known to cause significant cardiac morbidity and mortality. Many animal studies have demonstrated cardiac dysfunction with these venoms. This study specifically examines the systolic and diastolic cardiac functions using non-invasive pulse wave doppler. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.06.018DOI Listing

Modulatory role of hippocampal dopamine receptors in antinociceptive responses induced by chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in an animal model of persistent inflammatory pain.

Brain Res Bull 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays a complicated role in the modulation of inflammatory pain. There are a number of connections between the LH and the hippocampus. This study evaluated the pain modulatory role of intra-CA1 dopamine receptors in LH chemical stimulation-induced antinociception in the formalin test (persistent inflammatory pain model). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2020.06.017DOI Listing

Striatal and cortical metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor expression and behavioral effects of the positive allosteric modulator CDPPB in a model of DYT1 dystonia.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2020 Jun 29:172977. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Institute of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

The metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu) receptor is critically involved in corticostriatal plasticity which is disturbed in various animal models of dystonia. Recently, the positive allosteric modulator 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) exerted prodyskinetic effects in a phenotypic model of episodic dystonia. In the DYT1 knock-in (KI) mouse, a model for a persistent type of dystonia, previous ex vivo electrophysiological experiments indicated that mGlu receptors are involved in abnormal striatal plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2020.172977DOI Listing

Still naïve or primed: Anticoccidial vaccines call for memory.

Authors:
Si Wang Xun Suo

Exp Parasitol 2020 Jun 29:107945. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

National Animal Protozoa Laboratory & College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Despite decades of investigation to clarify protective mechanisms of anticoccidial responses, one crucial field is neglected, that is, protective memory responses in primed birds. Protective memory immunity is critical for host resistance to reinfection and is the basis of modern vaccinology, especially in developing successful subunit vaccines. There are important differences between the immune responses induced by infections and antigens delivered either as killed, recombinant proteins or as live, replicating vector vaccines or as DNA vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107945DOI Listing

Determination of Reference Genes for Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma Infected Lung Tissues Using RNA-seq Transcriptome Profiling.

J Virol Methods 2020 Jun 29:113923. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Veterinary Medicine College of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Zhao Wu Da Road 306#, Hohhot 010018, People's Republic of China; Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Basic Veterinary Science, Hohhot 010018, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Technology in Animal Disease, Ministry of Agriculture, Hohhot 010018, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a globally occurring tumor of lung epithelium which seriously affects the development of sheep farming. In our research, lung tissues of 3 naturally infected OPA individuals and 3 healthy individuals (2-4 years old) were collected. RNA was extracted for transcriptome analysis and reference gene selection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2020.113923DOI Listing

The Spatial Heterogeneity of the Gut Limits Predation and Fosters Coexistence of Bacteria and Bacteriophages.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Bacteriophage, Bacterium, Host Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, Paris 75015, France; Sorbonne Université, Centre de Recherche St Antoine, INSERM UMRS_938, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The ecological dynamics underlying the coexistence between antagonistic populations of bacteria and their viruses, bacteriophages (phages), in the mammalian gut microbiota remain poorly understood. We challenged a murine synthetic bacterial community with phages to study the factors allowing phages-bacteria coexistence. Coexistence was not dependent on the development of phage-resistant clones nor on the ability of phages to extend their host range. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.002DOI Listing

Whole-genome sequencing association analysis reveals the genetic architecture of meat quality traits in Chinese Qingyu pigs.

Genome 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Sichuan Agricultural University - Chengdu Campus, 506176, Chengdu, Sichuan, China ;

The Chinese Qingyu pig breed is an invaluable indigenous genetic resource. However, few studies have investigated the genetic architecture of meat quality traits in Qingyu pigs. Here, 30 purebred Qingyu pigs were subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2019-0227DOI Listing

Polymorphism of PLIN1 gene and their association with body measures and ultrasound carcass traits in Qinchuan beef cattle.

Genome 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Northwest A&F University, 12469, College of Animal Science, Yangling, China ;

The PLIN1 gene produces a phosphorylated protein wrapped in lipid droplets in adipocytes. The phosphorylation assists mobilization of fat in adipose tissue. The purpose of the experiment is to study the polymorphism of the PLIN1 gene and its relationship with the growth, development and carcass characteristics of Qinchuan cattle, to find molecular genetic markers that can be used in the breeding of Qinchuan cattle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/gen-2019-0184DOI Listing

Latent pseudorabies virus infection in medulla oblongata from quarantined pigs.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a major pathogen in pig husbandry, and is also a risk to human well-being. Pigs with latent PRV infection carry the virus lifelong, and it can be activated under conducive conditions. This poses a very important challenge to the control of the virus, and may even prevent its elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13712DOI Listing

Carbon quantum dots embedded electrospun antimicrobial and fluorescent scaffold for reepithelialization in albino wistar rats.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

DRDO-BU Center for Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

A prosthetic scaffold development using fluorescent nanofiber is reported for an enhanced reepithelialization in wistar albino rats. In this study, a novel approach was followed to construct the biocompatible fluorescent nanofiber that will be helpful to monitor the tissue regeneration process. Here, a multifunctional carbon quantum dots (CQDs) embedded electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber was fabricated and characterized using standard laboratory techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.37048DOI Listing

Center of rotation of angulation-based leveling osteotomy combined with a coplanar cranial closing wedge ostectomy to manage cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in dogs with excessive tibial plateau angle.

Vet Surg 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Objective: To describe outcomes of dogs with excessive tibial plateau angle (eTPA) and cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) disease treated with center of rotation of angulation-based leveling osteotomy (CBLO) and cranial closing wedge ostectomy (CCWO).

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Animals: Twenty-one dogs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13480DOI Listing

Female sperm storage mediates postcopulatory costs and benefits of ejaculate anticipatory plasticity in the guppy.

J Evol Biol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padua, Italy.

Males of many species evolved the capability of adjusting their ejaculate phenotype in response to social cues to match the expected mating conditions. When females store sperm for a prolonged time, the expected fitness return of plastic adjustments of ejaculate phenotype may depend on the interval between mating and fertilization. While prolonged female sperm storage (FSS) increases the opportunity for sperm competition, as a consequence of the longer temporal overlap of ejaculates from several males, it may also create variable selective forces on ejaculate phenotype, for example by exposing trade-offs between sperm velocity and sperm survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeb.13673DOI Listing

Reply to Letter to the Editor: COVID-19-Related Liver Injury and Clinical Outcomes: Does It Really Exist?

Hepatology 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

We appreciate Philips and colleagues' interest in our report on the associations between liver injury markers and coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mortality. They raised the question regarding the application of liver injury markers. However, several of their interpretations of our results are misleading or incorrect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31449DOI Listing

Cortical Bone Porosity in Rabbit Models of Osteoporosis.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Cortical bone porosity is intimately linked with remodeling, is of growing clinical interest, and is increasingly accessible by imaging. Thus, the potential of animal models of osteoporosis (OP) to provide a platform for studying how porosity develops and responds to interventions is tremendous. To date, rabbit models of OP have largely focused on trabecular microarchitecture or bone density; some such as ovariectomy (OVX) have uncertain efficacy and cortical porosity has not been extensively reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4124DOI Listing

A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of ARQ531 in rat plasma: validation and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

Biomed Chromatogr 2020 Jul 2:e4937. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Animal Center, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, China.

A simple and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ARQ531, a BTK inhibitor in rat plasma. After protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the samples were separated on a UPLC BEH C column with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4937DOI Listing

Inflammation-driven activation of JAK/STAT signaling reversibly accelerates acute myeloid leukemia in vitro.

Blood Adv 2020 Jul;4(13):3000-3010

Department of Hematology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by a high relapse rate and dismal long-term overall survival which is related to persistence of leukemia-initiating cells in their niche. Different animal models of myeloid malignancies reveal how neoplastic cells alter the structural and functional characteristics of the hematopoietic stem cell niche to reinforce malignancy. Understanding and disruption of the microenvironmental interactions with AML cells are a vital need. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001292DOI Listing

Developmental and hormonal regulation of Ubiquitin-like with plant homeodomain and really interesting new gene finger domains 1 (UHRF1) gene expression in ovarian granulosa and theca cells of cattle.

J Anim Sci 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK.

Ubiquitin-like with plant homeodomain and really interesting new gene finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a multi-domain nuclear protein that plays an important role in epigenetics and tumorigenesis, but its role in normal ovarian follicle development remains unknown. Thus, the present study evaluated if UHRF1 mRNA abundance in bovine follicular cells is developmentally and hormonally regulated, and if changes in UHRF1 are associated with changes in DNA methylation in follicular cells. Abundance of UHRF1 mRNA was greater in granulosa cells (GC) and theca cells (TC) from small (<6 mm) than large (≥8 mm) follicles, and was greater in small-follicle GC than TC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa205DOI Listing

Microbiota and hypertension: role of the sympathetic nervous system and the immune system.

Am J Hypertens 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

There are numerous studies indicating a direct association between hypertension and gut microbiota in both animal models and humans. In this review we focused on the imbalance in the gut microbiota composition relative to healthy state or homeostasis, termed dysbiosis, associated with hypertension and discuss the current knowledge regarding how microbiota regulates blood pressure, involving the sympathetic nervous system and the immune system. The profile of ecological parameters and bacterial genera composition of gut dysbiosis in hypertension varies according to the experimental model of hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa103DOI Listing

Development of canine PD-1/PD-L1 specific monoclonal antibodies and amplification of canine T cell function.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235518. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Center for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, United States of America.

Interruption of the programmed death 1 (PD-1) / programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is an established and effective therapeutic strategy in human oncology and holds promise for veterinary oncology. We report the generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for canine PD-1 and PD-L1. Antibodies were initially assessed for their capacity to block the binding of recombinant canine PD-1 to recombinant canine PD-L1 and then ranked based on efficiency of binding as judged by flow cytometry. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235518PLOS

The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to sample the blow microbiome of small cetaceans.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235537. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Recent studies describe the use of UAVs in collecting blow samples from large whales to analyze the microbial and viral community in exhaled air. Unfortunately, attempts to collect blow from small cetaceans have not been successful due to their swimming and diving behavior. In order to overcome these limitations, in this study we investigated the application of a specific sampling tool attached to a UAV to analyze the blow from small cetaceans and their respiratory microbiome. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235537PLOS

Dual versus single vessel normothermic ex vivo perfusion of rat liver grafts using metamizole for vasodilatation.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235635. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Surgery, Campus Charité Mitte | Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt- Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) is a promising strategy to increase the donor pool in liver transplantation. Small animal models are essential to further investigate questions regarding organ preservation and reconditioning by NEVLP. A dual vessel small animal NEVLP (dNEVLP) model was developed using metamizole as a vasodilator and compared to conventional portovenous single vessel NEVLP (sNEVLP). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235635PLOS

Preconditioning beef cattle for long-duration transportation stress with rumen-protected methionine supplementation: A nutrigenetics study.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235481. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States of America.

In general, beef cattle long-distance transportation from cow-calf operations to feedlots or from feedlots to abattoirs is a common situation in the beef industry. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) supplementation on a proposed gene network for muscle fatigue, creatine synthesis (CKM), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism after a transportation simulation in a test track. Angus × Simmental heifers (n = 18) were stratified by body weight (408 ± 64 kg; BW) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments: 1) control diet (CTRL) or 2) control diet + 8 gr/hd/day of top-dressed rumen-protected methionine (RPM). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235481PLOS

Combined impact of pesticides and other environmental stressors on animal diversity in irrigation ponds.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0229052. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Rice paddy irrigation ponds can sustain surprisingly high taxonomic richness and make significant contributions to regional biodiversity. We evaluated the impacts of pesticides and other environmental stressors (including eutrophication, decreased macrophyte coverage, physical habitat destruction, and invasive alien species) on the taxonomic richness of freshwater animals in 21 irrigation ponds in Japan. We sampled a wide range of freshwater animals (reptiles, amphibians, fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, insects, annelids, bryozoans, and sponges) and surveyed environmental variables related to pesticide contamination and other stressors listed above. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229052PLOS

Facile, one-pot biosynthesis and characterization of iron, copper and silver nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini leaf extract: As an effective antimicrobial and aflatoxin B1 adsorption agents.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0234964. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

In this study, a facile, ecological and economical green method is described for the fabrication of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) from the extract of Syzygium cumini leaves. The obtained metal NPs were categorized using UV/Vis, SEM, TEM, FTIR and EDX-ray spectroscopy techniques. The Fe-, Cu- and Ag-NPs were crystalline, spherical and size ranged from 40-52, 28-35 and 11-19 nm, respectively. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234964PLOS

Raman Spectroscopy characterization extracellular vesicles from bovine placenta and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235214. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biological Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America.

Placenta-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in communication between the placenta and maternal immune cells possibly leading to a modulation of maternal T-cell signaling components. The ability to identify EVs in maternal blood may lead to the development of diagnostic and treatment tools for pregnancy complications. The objective of this work was to differentiate EVs from bovine placenta (trophoblast) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by a label-free, non-invasive Raman spectroscopy technique. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235214PLOS

Addition of terlipressin to initial volume resuscitation in a pediatric model of hemorrhagic shock improves hemodynamics and cerebral perfusion.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0235084. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain.

Hemorrhagic shock is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in pediatric trauma. Current treatment based on volume resuscitation is associated to adverse effects, and it has been proposed that vasopressors may be used in the pharmacological management of trauma. Terlipressin has demonstrated its usefulness in other pediatric critical care scenarios and its long half-life allows its use as a bolus in an outpatient critical settings. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235084PLOS

Investigating the gene expression profiles of rehabilitated Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) following red tide exposure.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0234150. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental & Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

To investigate a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) mortality event following a red tide bloom in Southwest Florida, an RNA sequencing experiment was conducted. Gene expression changes in white blood cells were assessed in manatees rescued from a red tide affected area (n = 4) and a control group (n = 7) using RNA sequencing. The genes with the largest fold changes were compared between the two groups to identify molecular pathways related to cellular and disease processes. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234150PLOS

Identifying thresholds to classify moderate-to-heavy soil-transmitted helminth intensity infections for FECPAKG2, McMaster, Mini-FLOTAC and qPCR.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jul 2;14(7):e0008296. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

World Health Organization (WHO) has defined moderate-to-heavy intensity (M&HI) infections with soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) based on specific values of eggs per gram of stool, as measured by the Kato-Katz method. There are a variety of novel microscopy and DNA-based methods but it remains unclear whether applying current WHO thresholds on to these methods allows for a reliable classification of M&HI infections. We evaluated both WHO and method-specific thresholds for classifying the M&HI infections for novel microscopic (FECPAKG2, McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC) and DNA-based (qPCR) diagnostic methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008296DOI Listing
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