4,562 results match your criteria Animal Reproduction Science[Journal]

Side of ovulation at each end of two- and three-wave interovulatory intervals and before and after pregnancy in cattle.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 29;229:106758. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 26506, USA.

The side of ovulation (left ovary, LO; right ovary, RO) and side of the next ovulation were compared between (1) beginning and end of an interovulatory interval (IOI) and beginning and end of consecutive sets of two and three IOI (n = 900 IOI), (2) beginning and end of the IOI for two and three follicular waves per IOI (n = 1300), and (3) beginning of pregnancy and first postpartum ovulation (n = 793). Pairs of sides of ovulation were designated LL (LO and LO), RR, LR, and RL. The frequency of ovulation pairs for two ends of an IOI was not different from two ends of two or three consecutive IOI indicating that differences between LO and RO were more likely inherent than from factors that developed in each IOI. Read More

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Postpartum nutrition affects the insulin-like growth factor system in dominant follicles and plasma of anestrous beef cows.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 1;229:106760. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA. Electronic address:

Effects of nutrition on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), and insulin in plasma and dominant follicles were evaluated at day 72 and 56 (Exp. 1, n = 12 and Exp. 2, n = 28, respectively) postpartum in anovulatory primiparous beef cows. Read More

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Effects of TG interaction factor 1 on synthesis of estradiol and progesterone in granulosa cells of goats through SMAD2/3-SP1 signaling pathway.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 21;229:106750. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

The TG interaction factor 1 (TGIF1) is of the TALE homologue domain protein family and is considered as a transcriptional repressor of SMAD protein that interacts with DNA through a specific consensus-binding site for TG and recruits mSin3A and histone deacetylases to the SMAD complex. In this study, there is the first detailed description of TGIF1 on steroidogenesis in goat granulosa cells. When there is a relatively greater expression of the TGIF1 gene, there is a lesser abundance of CYP11A1, CYP19A1, and StAR mRNA transcript and protein and 3β-HSD mRNA transcript in granulosa cells of goats. Read More

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Effects of eCG and FSH in timed artificial insemination treatment regimens on estrous expression and pregnancy rates in primiparous and multiparous Bos indicus cows.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 14;228:106751. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, MG, 37200-900, Brazil; Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG, 36010-041, Brazil. Electronic address:

Effects were evaluated in Bos indicus cows of eCG and FSH on follicular growth, estrous expression, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) as a result of fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI). In Experiment 1, extent of timing-of-ovulation synchronization among cows was evaluated after imposing an estrogen/progesterone-based treatment regimen. At progesterone device removal (D8), cows were administered: eCG, or FSH or served as untreated Controls. Read More

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Effects of using the biofloc system and eyestalk ablation on reproductive performance and egg quality of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) (Decapoda: Dendrobranchiata: Penaeidae).

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 1;228:106749. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Unidad Multidisciplinaria de Docencia e Investigación de Sisal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Yucatán, Mexico. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to evaluate egg production and quality of females of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in which there was or was not unilateral eyestalk ablation after there was pre-maturation culturing in biofloc or clear-water systems. Acylglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and total soluble protein were determined for the hepatopancreas, ovaries, hemolymph and eggs. Females cultured using the biofloc system had a larger number of eggs released per spawning and per gram of spawning specimen body weight. Read More

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A study on steroidogenic elaborations of stroma and their regulation in response to ovarian hormones in goats.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 27;228:106748. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Animal Physiology Division, NDRI, Karnal, India.

Stromal tissue is an essential componenlt of the ovary not only for providing structural support but also for contributing to the early follicular growth with their bi-directional paracrine signaling. Estradiol is a major female hormone mainly secreted by the follicular cells in the ovary. To examine the relationship between 17β-estradiol and the factors involved in androgen production in stromal cells, ovarian stromal cells were cultured in the graded concentrations (50 and 100 ng/mL) of 17β-estradiol for varying time periods (24 and 48 h). Read More

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Lymphocyte soluble factors from pregnant cows modulate mRNA transcript abundances encoding for proteins associated with trophoblast growth and development.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 27;228:106747. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA; School of Veterinary Medicine, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to determine whether T cell populations are responsible for modulating placental development during gestation in cattle. It was hypothesized that CD4+CD25+ and γ/δ+ T cells modulate gene expression, based on mRNA transcript abundances, and promote proliferation and survival of trophoblast cells. Peripheral blood was collected from cows at 160 to 180 days of gestation and non-pregnant cows, T cell populations CD8+, CD4+, CD4+CD25+, CD24+CD25-, and γ/δ+ T cells were isolated, cultured for 48 h, and supernatant was collected. Read More

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Effects of busulfan on somatic cells after inhibiting germ cells in the gonads of the young olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 26;228:106746. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

CAS and Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, PR China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, PR China. Electronic address:

Busulfan is widely used in some species to inhibit germ cell proliferation. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of busulfan on germ and somatic cells in gonads of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, one of the most economically important mariculture fish species. After intraperitoneal injection with 80 (80B) or 120 (120B) mg/kg busulfan, both gonads were atrophied, and ovaries were discolored with adhesion to the visceral mass. Read More

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Poloxamer 188 and hydroxyethyl starch have a cryoprotective synergic effect improving post-thawing quality and fertility of rooster spermatozoa.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 18;228:106738. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute of Animal Health and Cattle Development (INDEGSAL) and Department of Molecular Biology (Cell Biology), University of León, León 24071, Spain.

Poloxamer and hydroxyethyl starch have cytoprotective effects. In the present study, effectiveness was evaluated of these compounds as a cryoprotectant for rooster semen. In Experiment 1 (E1), poloxamer 188 (1%, P188), poloxamer 407 (1%, P407), and control groups were compared after sperm cryopreservation. Read More

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Pharmacological approaches to induce follicular growth and ovulation for fixed-time artificial insemination treatment regimens in ewes.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 9;228:106734. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

ReproPel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS, Brazil; Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

In Experiment I, during the non-breeding season, after intravaginal devices containing progesterone (P) were withdrawn (n = 28), estrous rates were greater with treatment with 400 IU eCG (P <  0.05) than with FSH (10 and 15 mg) and no treatment. During the breeding season (n = 147), estrous and pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial inseminations (FTAI) were similar among groups: 300 IU eCG; 10 mg FSH; and control (P >  0. Read More

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Ageing changes testes and epididymis blood flow without altering biometry and echodensity in dogs.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 22;228:106745. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Rua Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo, 05508-270, Brazil. Electronic address:

Senescence leads to deleterious effects in testicular function, sperm quality and fertility in dogs. There, however, are no consistent results of vascular changes in the testes and epididymis during natural ageing in dogs. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare testes and epididymis blood flow, biometry and echodensity between young and senile dogs. Read More

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Adipokines change the balance of proliferation/apoptosis in the ovarian cells of human and domestic animals: A comparative review.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 17;228:106737. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Laboratory of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Adipose tissue secretes multiple hormones termed adipokines, which are important regulators of many processes. There are four types of evidence supporting an association between adipokines and female fertility which are effects that occur: centrally at the pituitary; peripherally and locally at the ovary and reproductive tract; directly on the oocyte/embryo and during pregnancy. In this review, there was a focus on the description of adipokines (leptin, apelin, resistin, chemerin, adiponectin, vaspin and visfatin) on ovarian cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in comparison to effects on human and domestic animal ovaries including pigs, cattle and chickens. Read More

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Production of IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL8 by endometrium of crossbred heifers stimulated with various pathogen-associated molecular patterns.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 17;228:106736. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Uterine bacterial infections are common during the post-partum period of dairy herds and, apparently, incidences in crossbred cattle are less than in Holsteins. The aims of this study were (I) to evaluate production of interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine CXCL8 using endometrial explants from Bos indicus crossbred heifers at diestrous, stimulated by various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), and (II) assess production of these cytokines by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated endometrial explants from heifers when samples were collected at different stages of estrous cycle. In the first experiment, endometrial explants from heifers at diestrous were stimulated by ten-fold serial dilutions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), triacylated lipopeptide (PAM3) or peptidoglycan (PGN). Read More

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Differential abundances of AQP3 and AQP5 in reproductive tissues from dogs with and without cryptorchidism.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 May 11;228:106735. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Delpino 1, 80137, Naples, Italy.

Aquaporins (AQPs) are integral transmembrane proteins facilitating transport of water and small solutes, such as glycerol and urea, between cells. In male reproductive tracts, AQPs maintain a milieu conducive for sperm formation, maturation, and storage. The aim of this study was to clarify effects of testicular and epidydimal function on male fertility by investigating localisation and abundances of AQP3 and AQP5 in testes and epididymal segments from dogs with and without unilateral cryptorchidism. Read More

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Dose-related morphological changes in the epididymal region of sexually active adult male Japanese quail treated with di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) commencing during the pre-pubertal stage.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 9;227:106733. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 0110, South Africa.

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is widely used as a plasticizer in personal care and medical products and is known to induce toxicity in the male reproductive organs in both mammals and birds. In this study, there was investigation of the effects of DBP on the epithelium of the rete testis, proximal, and distal efferent ductules and epididymal duct of adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) following treatment with varying doses during the pre-pubertal and peri-pubertal periods. Pre-pubertal quail (n = 25) 4 weeks post-hatching were dosed orally with 10, 50, 200 and 400 mg DBP/kg/d, for 30 days and control birds were administered corn-oil only (n = 5 per group). Read More

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Reproductive biology of owl (Aotus spp.) and capuchin (Sapajus spp.) monkeys.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 28;227:106732. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Postgraduate Program in Animal Health and Production in Amazonia, Animal Health and Production Institute, Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Av. Tancredo Neves, nº 251, Terra Firme, CEP: 66077-830, Belém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:

Studies related to morpho-physiology improve the understanding of biological mechanisms in non-human primates (NHP), contributing to research in several areas, especially those of assisted reproduction and biomedicine. The genera Aotus and Sapajus are important considerations in conducting studies related to reproductive biology and biomedical research, where animals of these genera can serve as models for species with vulnerable conservation status. The reproductive functions of animals of these genera can be used in conducting studies with other NHP species, for which biological material is difficult to access. Read More

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Effect of sperm surface oligosaccharides in sperm passage into sperm storage tubules in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 20;227:106731. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Applied Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan. Electronic address:

In birds, the ejaculated spermatozoa do not directly pass to the site of fertilization but rather are stored initially in specialized structures, referred to as sperm storage tubules (SSTs), located in the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) of the oviduct. The fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa in the SSTs is maintained for an extended period (i.e. Read More

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Regulation and function of leptin during ovarian follicular development in cows.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 7;227:106689. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

ReproPel, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, 96010-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Although it is well documented that leptin signals the body nutritional status to the brain, mechanisms of leptin regulation at the ovary are not well understood. This study was conducted to determine whether there was leptin and the receptor for leptin (LEPR) in cattle ovarian follicles and to investigate potential actions of leptin on follicular growth in vivo and on regulation of granulosa cell functions in vitro. There was leptin and LEPR in granulosa and theca cells of dominant and subordinate follicles, with greater immunostaining for leptin in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles. Read More

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Antral follicle counts and association with ovarian superstimulatory response to gonadotropins in prepubertal calves.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 21;227:106730. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, S7N 5B4, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. Electronic address:

Antral follicle count (AFC) repeatability at the time of follicular wave emergence and duration of gonadotropin treatment in calves with small and large AFC affects the superstimulatory response of follicles. In Study I, the individual AFC was determined, calves were ranked as having a small, medium or large AFC, and a second count was performed prior to FSH treatments. There was a positive association between the number of follicles ≥1 mm after the first and second counts (r = 0. Read More

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Effect of maternal overnutrition on predisposition to insulin resistance in the foal: Maternal parameters and foal pancreas histoarchitecture.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 12;227:106720. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, United States. Electronic address:

Results from previous studies indicate that maternal overnutrition during late gestation predisposes foals to metabolic disease, however, specific mechanisms resulting in disease remain unknown. Quarter Horse mares (n = 16), were randomly assigned to dietary treatments, beginning on gestational day 235, and consisted of a control group (CON- diet meeting nutrient requirement; n = 8) or an overfed diet (HIGH; n = 8) where mares received an additional 40 % above CON. On gestational days 285 and 315, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) was conducted. Read More

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Superovulatory response and embryo quality in Boer does following dietary supplementation with different sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids during the breeding season.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 6;227:106718. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Posgrado Conjunto Agronomía-Veterinaria, Avenida Francisco Villa S/N, Colonia Ex-hacienda El Canadá, Escobedo, Nuevo León, CP 66050, Mexico. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to determine effects of various sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on ovarian response and embryo quality in Boer does when there was a superovulation treatment regimen imposed. Pluriparous does were randomly assigned to be treated with 300 g of one of four experimental supplements containing linseed oil (LO), soybean oil (SO), palm oil (PO), or a control supplement without fatty acids (CO), for 15 days. Does were fitted with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device containing 0. Read More

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Effect of estradiol preceding and progesterone subsequent to ovulation on proportion of postpartum beef cows pregnant.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 17;227:106723. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

USDA-ARS, Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Lab, Miles City, MT, USA. Electronic address:

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E) preceding and progesterone (P) subsequent to ovulation on proportions of beef cows pregnant following embryo transfer. Timing of ovulation (d 0) among postpartum cows was synchronized and cows that expressed estrus were removed from each study. In Experiment 1, plasma E concentration on d 0 was used to classify cows (n = 353) into Low, Medium, and High E groups. Read More

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Reproduction of male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 17;227:106722. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, P.O Box 5025, N-1432 Ås, Norway. Electronic address:

The present review provides a comprehensive assessment on the basic aspects of the reproduction of the Rangifer male with a special focus on pubertal development, and the seasonal dynamics of gametogenesis, androgenesis, antler cycle and other physiological and behavioural characteristics of the rutting male. A greater understanding of the reproductive physiology of the males is needed to improve existing management strategies of semi-domestic stocks in the changing climate and to develop species-specific assisted reproductive technologies for improving the in situ and ex situ conservation programs to preserve endangered subspecies as well as to facilitate the transfer of genetic resources between fragmented wild or semi-domestic populations. Read More

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Seasonality of the stress response in goat bucks when there is use of electroejaculation for semen collection.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 10;226:106719. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Departamento de Biociencias Veterinarias, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Electroejaculation (EE) is frequently used to collect semen, but this procedure is both stressful and painful. In seasonal-breeding species the sensitivity to stressors might vary with season of the year when semen collection occurs, therefore, the present study was conducted to compare the responses when imposing the EE procedure, stress response to EE and fresh semen characteristics in goat bucks throughout the year. Semen was collected using EE from goat bucks once in autumn (mid-breeding season), winter (transition to the non-breeding season), spring (non-breeding season), and summer (beginning of the breeding season). Read More

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KIFC1 functions in nuclear reshaping and midpiece formation during the spermatogenesis of small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 23;226:106702. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biotechnology by the Ministry of Education, School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, China. Electronic address:

The C-terminal kinesin motor protein (KIFC1) has essential functions in spermatogenesis. To evaluate molecular mechanisms of KIFC1 during teleost fish spermatogenesis, there was cloning and sequencing the kifc1 cDNA in the testis of Larimichthys polyactis. Quantitative PCR results indicated there were Lp-kifc1 mRNA transcripts in the testes. Read More

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Effect of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) on in vitro development of collared peccary preantral follicles in ovarian tissues.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 5;226:106717. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Animal Germplasm Conservation, Federal Rural University of Semi-Arid, Mossoró, RN, Brazil. Electronic address:

The aims were to identify the effects of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) on the in vitro development of ovarian preantral follicles (PAFs) of collared peccaries. Ovarian fragments were in vitro cultured for 1 or 7 days without or with inclusion of GDF-9 in the medium (0, 50, 100, or 200 ng/mL). The non-cultured (control) and cultured fragments were evaluated for PAF viability, activation, and cell proliferation. Read More

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Supplementing pregnant Merino ewes with caffeine to improve neonatal lamb thermoregulation and viability.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 2;226:106715. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

The University of Adelaide, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Davies Livestock Research Centre, Roseworthy Campus, Mudla Wirra Rd, Roseworthy, South Australia, 5371, Australia; South Australian Research and Development Institute, Primary Industries and Regions of South Australia, Reproductive Biology, Livestock Sciences, Turretfield Research Centre, 129 Holland Rd, Rosedale, South Australia, 5350, Australia. Electronic address:

Percentages of lamb mortalities prior to weaning are a significant and persistent problem for the Australian sheep industry. Maternal caffeine supplementation reduced stillbirths and improved viability in piglets; however, the efficacy of caffeine in enhancing viability and lamb survival is equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration and duration of maternal caffeine supplementation to improve lamb viability; time to stand and suck with consumption of colostrum occurring, as well as survival to weaning. Read More

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Differences in mean grey levels of uterine ultrasonographic images between non-pregnant and pregnant ewes may serve as a tool for early pregnancy diagnosis.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 2;226:106716. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to determine how physiological and hormonal changes in the uterus during the estrous cycle and early gestational period affect the average grey values of pixels when conducting computer-assisted analysis of uterine ultrasonic images in ewes. For this purpose, 60 ewes on which there had been an estrous synchrony regimen imposed were included in the study. Animals were assigned to two groups with ewes not being mated and assessments occurred during the subsequent estrous cycle (Group 1; n = 25) and ewes being mated and assessments occurring during the subsequent early gestational period (Group 2; n = 35). Read More

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Occurrence, morphology, and morphometry of follicles containing multiple oocytes in FecG mutant Santa Inês ewes.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 7;226:106690. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Reproductive Biotechniques Laboratory, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Street Dom Manuel de Medeiros, s/n - Dois Irmãos, 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil.

This study was conducted to characterize the morphology and morphometry of follicles containing multiple oocytes (MOFs) and determine the association with the FecG mutation in Santa Inês ewes. Based on the genotypes, 65 ewes were characterized as being homozygous wild-type (n = 25; FecG), heterozygous mutant (n = 27, FecG), and homozygous mutant (n = 13, FecG). The variables evaluated were follicle developmental stage, number of oocytes per follicle, morphology, and morphometry of MOFs. Read More

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Morphological and ultrastructural changes in seminal coagulum of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri collinsi Osgood, 1916) before and after liquefaction.

Anim Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 31;226:106710. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Laboratory of Biotechnology and Animal Medicine of Amazônia - BIOMEDAM, Federal University of Pará, 68.746-360, Castanhal, Pará, Brazil.

Studies with squirrel monkey semen are of special interest due to the large amount of coagulation that is a component of the semen, which is a problem that has to be overcome when the objective is harvesting of gametes. In the present study, there was characterization of the seminal coagulum of captive S. collinsi. Read More

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