150 results match your criteria Animal Production Science[Journal]

Serum amyloid A delivers retinol to intestinal myeloid cells to promote adaptive immunity.

Science 2021 Sep 17;373(6561):eabf9232. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Vitamin A and its derivative retinol are essential for the development of intestinal adaptive immunity. Retinoic acid (RA)–producing myeloid cells are central to this process, but how myeloid cells acquire retinol for conversion to RA is unknown. Here, we show that serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins—retinol-binding proteins induced in intestinal epithelial cells by the microbiota—deliver retinol to myeloid cells. Read More

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September 2021

Babbling in a vocal learning bat resembles human infant babbling.

Science 2021 08;373(6557):923-926

Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany.

Babbling is a production milestone in infant speech development. Evidence for babbling in nonhuman mammals is scarce, which has prevented cross-species comparisons. In this study, we investigated the conspicuous babbling behavior of , a bat capable of vocal production learning. Read More

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Lipid presentation by the protein C receptor links coagulation with autoimmunity.

Science 2021 03;371(6534)

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) cause severe autoimmune disease characterized by vascular pathologies and pregnancy complications. Here, we identify endosomal lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) presented by the CD1d-like endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) as a pathogenic cell surface antigen recognized by aPLs for induction of thrombosis and endosomal inflammatory signaling. The engagement of aPLs with EPCR-LBPA expressed on innate immune cells sustains interferon- and toll-like receptor 7-dependent B1a cell expansion and autoantibody production. Read More

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Clock genes and environmental cues coordinate pheromone synthesis, swarming, and mating.

Science 2021 01;371(6527):411-415

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Malaria Research Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA.

mating is initiated by the swarming of males at dusk followed by females flying into the swarm. Here, we show that mosquito swarming and mating are coordinately guided by clock genes, light, and temperature. Transcriptome analysis shows up-regulation of the clock genes () and () in the head of field-caught swarming males. Read More

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January 2021

Ban unsustainable mink production.

Science 2020 Oct;370(6516):539

Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.

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October 2020

Diet posttranslationally modifies the mouse gut microbial proteome to modulate renal function.

Science 2020 09;369(6510):1518-1524

Departments of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and Molecular Metabolism, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the gut microbiota have been postulated, yet questions remain about the underlying mechanisms. In humans, dietary protein increases gut bacterial production of hydrogen sulfide (HS), indole, and indoxyl sulfate. The latter are uremic toxins, and HS has diverse physiological functions, some of which are mediated by posttranslational modification. Read More

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September 2020

Neutrophil extracellular traps target senescent vasculature for tissue remodeling in retinopathy.

Science 2020 08;369(6506)

Departments of Ophthalmology and

In developed countries, the leading causes of blindness such as diabetic retinopathy are characterized by disorganized vasculature that can become fibrotic. Although many such pathological vessels often naturally regress and spare sight-threatening complications, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used orthogonal approaches in human patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and a mouse model of ischemic retinopathies to identify an unconventional role for neutrophils in vascular remodeling during late-stage sterile inflammation. Read More

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Influenza vaccine-induced human bone marrow plasma cells decline within a year after vaccination.

Science 2020 10 13;370(6513):237-241. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

A universal vaccine against influenza would ideally generate protective immune responses that are not only broadly reactive against multiple influenza strains but also long-lasting. Because long-term serum antibody levels are maintained by bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs), we investigated the production and maintenance of these cells after influenza vaccination. We found increased numbers of influenza-specific BMPCs 4 weeks after immunization with the seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine, but numbers returned to near their prevaccination levels after 1 year. Read More

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October 2020

Development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.

Science 2020 07 6;369(6499):77-81. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Respiratory Virus Vaccines, National Institute for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. Because of the novelty of the virus, there are currently no SARS-CoV-2-specific treatments or vaccines available. Therefore, rapid development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Read More

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Global distribution of earthworm diversity.

Science 2019 10;366(6464):480-485

Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore.

Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. Read More

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October 2019

Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries.

Science 2019 09;365(6459)

Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Antimicrobial consumption in animals is threefold that of humans and has enabled large-scale animal protein production. The consequences for the development of antimicrobial resistance in animals have received comparatively less attention than in humans. Read More

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September 2019

Microbial metabolites control the thymic development of mucosal-associated invariant T cells.

Science 2019 10 29;366(6464):494-499. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

INSERM U932, PSL University, Institut Curie, Paris 75005, France.

How the microbiota modulate immune functions remains poorly understood. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are implicated in mucosal homeostasis and absent in germ-free mice. Here, we show that commensal bacteria govern murine MAIT intrathymic development, as MAIT cells did not recirculate to the thymus. Read More

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October 2019

A microbial factory for defensive kahalalides in a tripartite marine symbiosis.

Science 2019 06;364(6445)

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont (" Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens") uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga sp. Read More

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Motor cortical control of vocal interaction in neotropical singing mice.

Science 2019 03;363(6430):983-988

NYU Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Health, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Like many adaptive behaviors, acoustic communication often requires rapid modification of motor output in response to sensory cues. However, little is known about the sensorimotor transformations that underlie such complex natural behaviors. In this study, we examine vocal exchanges in Alston's singing mouse (). Read More

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An autoimmune disease variant of IgG1 modulates B cell activation and differentiation.

Science 2018 11 4;362(6415):700-705. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Center for Life Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Immunology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

The maintenance of autoreactive B cells in a quiescent state is crucial for preventing autoimmunity. Here we identify a variant of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with a Gly→Arg substitution (hIgG1-G396R), which positively correlates with systemic lupus erythematosus. In induced lupus models, murine homolog Gly→Arg (G390R) knockin mice generate excessive numbers of plasma cells, leading to a burst of broad-spectrum autoantibodies. Read More

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November 2018

Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers.

J Poore T Nemecek

Science 2018 Jun;360(6392):987-992

Agroscope, Agroecology and Environment Research Division, LCA Research Group, CH-8046 Zürich, Switzerland.

Food's environmental impacts are created by millions of diverse producers. To identify solutions that are effective under this heterogeneity, we consolidated data covering five environmental indicators; 38,700 farms; and 1600 processors, packaging types, and retailers. Impact can vary 50-fold among producers of the same product, creating substantial mitigation opportunities. Read More

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Gut bacteria selectively promoted by dietary fibers alleviate type 2 diabetes.

Science 2018 03;359(6380):1151-1156

Department of Laboratory Animal Science, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

The gut microbiota benefits humans via short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from carbohydrate fermentation, and deficiency in SCFA production is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a randomized clinical study of specifically designed isoenergetic diets, together with fecal shotgun metagenomics, to show that a select group of SCFA-producing strains was promoted by dietary fibers and that most other potential producers were either diminished or unchanged in patients with T2DM. When the fiber-promoted SCFA producers were present in greater diversity and abundance, participants had better improvement in hemoglobin A1c levels, partly via increased glucagon-like peptide-1 production. Read More

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Inactivation of porcine endogenous retrovirus in pigs using CRISPR-Cas9.

Science 2017 09 10;357(6357):1303-1307. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

eGenesis, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Xenotransplantation is a promising strategy to alleviate the shortage of organs for human transplantation. In addition to the concerns about pig-to-human immunological compatibility, the risk of cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has impeded the clinical application of this approach. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of inactivating PERV activity in an immortalized pig cell line. Read More

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September 2017

The biology of color.

Science 2017 08;357(6350)

Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology and Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Coloration mediates the relationship between an organism and its environment in important ways, including social signaling, antipredator defenses, parasitic exploitation, thermoregulation, and protection from ultraviolet light, microbes, and abrasion. Methodological breakthroughs are accelerating knowledge of the processes underlying both the production of animal coloration and its perception, experiments are advancing understanding of mechanism and function, and measurements of color collected noninvasively and at a global scale are opening windows to evolutionary dynamics more generally. Here we provide a roadmap of these advances and identify hitherto unrecognized challenges for this multi- and interdisciplinary field. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory effect of IL-10 mediated by metabolic reprogramming of macrophages.

Science 2017 05;356(6337):513-519

Department of Immunobiology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in the control of immune responses. However, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we show that IL-10 opposes the switch to the metabolic program induced by inflammatory stimuli in macrophages. Read More

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Inflammation boosts bacteriophage transfer between spp.

Science 2017 03 16;355(6330):1211-1215. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. There is limited understanding of the factors that determine lysogenic conversion dynamics within infected hosts. A murine Typhimurium (Tm) diarrhea model was used to study the transfer of SopEΦ, a prophage from Tm SL1344, to Tm ATCC14028S. Read More

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Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8.


Science 2016 10;354(6309):213-217

Avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. A subtype H5N8 (clade 2.3. Read More

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October 2016

Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

Science 2016 10;354(6309)

Wageningen University and Research (Alterra), Team Vegetation, Forest and Landscape Ecology-6700 AA, Netherlands.

The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. Read More

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October 2016

Spt4 selectively regulates the expression of C9orf72 sense and antisense mutant transcripts.

Science 2016 Aug;353(6300):708-12

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

An expanded hexanucleotide repeat in C9orf72 causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (c9FTD/ALS). Therapeutics are being developed to target RNAs containing the expanded repeat sequence (GGGGCC); however, this approach is complicated by the presence of antisense strand transcription of expanded GGCCCC repeats. We found that targeting the transcription elongation factor Spt4 selectively decreased production of both sense and antisense expanded transcripts, as well as their translated dipeptide repeat (DPR) products, and also mitigated degeneration in animal models. Read More

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Reciprocal signaling in honeyguide-human mutualism.

Science 2016 07;353(6297):387-9

The Ratel Trust, Niassa Carnivore Project, Private Bag X18, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.

Greater honeyguides (Indicator indicator) lead human honey-hunters to wild bees' nests, in a rare example of a mutualistic foraging partnership between humans and free-living wild animals. We show experimentally that a specialized vocal sound made by Mozambican honey-hunters seeking bees' nests elicits elevated cooperative behavior from honeyguides. The production of this sound increased the probability of being guided by a honeyguide from about 33 to 66% and the overall probability of thus finding a bees' nest from 17 to 54%, as compared with other animal or human sounds of similar amplitude. Read More

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T helper 1 immunity requires complement-driven NLRP3 inflammasome activity in CD4⁺ T cells.

Science 2016 Jun;352(6292):aad1210

MRC Centre for Transplantation, Division of Transplant Immunology and Mucosal Biology, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, UK.

The NLRP3 inflammasome controls interleukin-1β maturation in antigen-presenting cells, but a direct role for NLRP3 in human adaptive immune cells has not been described. We found that the NLRP3 inflammasome assembles in human CD4(+) T cells and initiates caspase-1-dependent interleukin-1β secretion, thereby promoting interferon-γ production and T helper 1 (T(H)1) differentiation in an autocrine fashion. NLRP3 assembly requires intracellular C5 activation and stimulation of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1), which is negatively regulated by surface-expressed C5aR2. Read More

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Early-branching gut fungi possess a large, comprehensive array of biomass-degrading enzymes.

Science 2016 Mar 18;351(6278):1192-5. Epub 2016 Feb 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.

The fungal kingdom is the source of almost all industrial enzymes in use for lignocellulose bioprocessing. We developed a systems-level approach that integrates transcriptomic sequencing, proteomics, phenotype, and biochemical studies of relatively unexplored basal fungi. Anaerobic gut fungi isolated from herbivores produce a large array of biomass-degrading enzymes that synergistically degrade crude, untreated plant biomass and are competitive with optimized commercial preparations from Aspergillus and Trichoderma. Read More

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Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms.

Science 2016 Jan;351(6271):388-91

Department of Plant Pest Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya. Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia.

Ecological intensification, or the improvement of crop yield through enhancement of biodiversity, may be a sustainable pathway toward greater food supplies. Such sustainable increases may be especially important for the 2 billion people reliant on small farms, many of which are undernourished, yet we know little about the efficacy of this approach. Using a coordinated protocol across regions and crops, we quantify to what degree enhancing pollinator density and richness can improve yields on 344 fields from 33 pollinator-dependent crop systems in small and large farms from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Read More

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January 2016

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. The developmental dynamics of marmoset monkey vocal production.

Science 2015 Aug;349(6249):734-8

Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

Human vocal development occurs through two parallel interactive processes that transform infant cries into more mature vocalizations, such as cooing sounds and babbling. First, natural categories of sounds change as the vocal apparatus matures. Second, parental vocal feedback sensitizes infants to certain features of those sounds, and the sounds are modified accordingly. Read More

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