1,757 results match your criteria Animal Cognition[Journal]

Development of the dog executive function scale (DEFS) for adult dogs.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Anthrozoology Research Group, School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Bendigo, Australia.

Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that are used to effortfully self-regulate behaviour and might be important for dogs' success in working and pet roles. Currently, studies are assessing dogs' EF skills through often laborious cognitive measures, leading to small sample sizes and lacking measures of reliability. A complementary method is needed. Read More

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Context specificity of latent inhibition in the snail Cornu aspersum.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Plaza de Feijoo s/n, 33003, Oviedo, Spain.

The present study was conducted to assess the context specificity of latent inhibition (LI) in the snail Cornu aspersum, using the appetitive Pavlovian Conditioning procedure of tentacle lowering. Snails experienced an odorous conditioned stimulus (CS) without any consequence before being conditioned with food. The conditioned stimulus preexposure occurred in the same context than the conditioning and the test context or in the different context. Read More

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Come with me: experimental evidence for intentional recruitment in Tonkean macaques.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, CNRS, INRAE, Université de Tours, Nouzilly, France.

Recruitment is a process by which animals can initiate collective movements: the action of an individual prompts conspecifics to follow. Although it has been hypothesized that animals may be able to intentionally recruit others, there is no experimental evidence of this to date. We tested this hypothesis in two pairs of Tonkean macaques in a situation requiring the subjects to find a food site in a 2800 m area, and approach the site together to release rewards. Read More

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Why wait to mark? Possible reasons behind latency from olfactory exploration to overmarking in four African equid species.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Warner College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Campus Delivery 1499, Fort Collins, USA.

Whereas most studies on overmarking in mammals analysed the rate of overmarking, that those investigate time between exploration of an olfactory stimulus and the response to it remain less common, with inconsistent results. We examined the latency in time between elimination by the sender and sniffing by the receiver, and from sniffing and overmarking, in four captive African equid species to explore differences among species, and among age and sex classes. We investigated these latency time periods in light of three potential hypotheses explaining overmarking behaviour in equids: social bonds, group cohesion, and intrasexual competition. Read More

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Assessing the performance of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) on the Mechner counting procedure.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 7. Epub 2022 May 7.

University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

This study assessed brushtail possums' performance on the Mechner counting procedure. Six brushtail possums were required to produce different Fixed-Ratio (FR) response targets by lever pressing. Their responses provided access to food reinforcement delivered either upon completing the target FR response requirement on a single lever or, in different conditions, on completing the target FR before producing an additional response on a second lever. Read More

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Learning to anticipate mate presence shapes individual sex roles in the hermaphroditic pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Departamento de Psicología, University of Oviedo, 33003, Oviedo, Spain.

Despite being simultaneously male and female, hermaphrodites may still need to assume the male or female sexual role in a mating encounter, with the option to swap roles afterwards. For the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, deciding which sexual role to perform has important consequences, since sperm transfer and male reproductive success can be decreased. We hypothesised that detecting cues that indicate a possible mating encounter could help them to adapt their mating behaviour. Read More

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Individual recognition and long-term memory of inanimate interactive agents and humans in dogs.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

MTA-ELTE Comparative Ethology Research Group, Budapest, Hungary.

Investigation of individual recognition (IR) is difficult due to the lack of proper control of cues and previous experiences of subjects. Utilization of artificial agents (Unidentified Moving Objects: UMOs) may offer a better approach than using conspecifics or humans as partners. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether dogs are able to develop IR of UMOs (that is stable for at least 24 h) or that they only retain a more generalised memory about them. Read More

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Individual differences in co-representation in three monkey species (Callithrix jacchus, Sapajus apella and Macaca tonkeana) in the joint Simon task: the role of social factors and inhibitory control.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Anthropology, University of Zurich, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.

Behavioral coordination is involved in many forms of primate interactions. Co-representation is the simultaneous mental representation of one's own and the partner's task and actions. It often underlies behavioral coordination and cooperation success. Read More

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Domestication effects on social information transfer in chickens.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

IFM Biology, Linköping University, 581 83, Linköping, Sweden.

Red junglefowl (RJF), ancestor of all domesticated chickens, is a highly social, omnivorous bird species, presumably with a capacity for social information sharing. During domestication, birds have been selected to live in large, dynamic groups, and this may have affected their social cognition. Here, we studied social information transfer in female RJF and domesticated White Leghorn (WL) chickens. Read More

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Mutual mother-pup vocal recognition in the highly colonial Cape fur seal: evidence of discrimination of calls with a high acoustic similarity.

Anim Cogn 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Equipe Communications Acoustiques, Neuro-PSI, CNRS UMR 9197, Institut des Neurosciences Paris-Saclay, Université Paris-Saclay, 91400, Saclay, France.

The Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) is one of the most colonial mammal species in the world. Females exclusively nurse their pups for 9 to 11 months, during which they alternate frequent foraging trips at sea with suckling periods ashore. The survival of the pup thus depends on the ability of the mother-pup pair to relocate each other among thousands of individuals. Read More

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Impact of environmental complexity and stocking density on affective states of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Anim Cogn 2022 Apr 16. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Environmental condition, such as environmental complexity or stocking density, can directly or indirectly influence animal emotion and ultimately, affective state. Affective states of animals can be assessed through judgement bias tests, evaluating responses to ambiguous situations. In this study, we aimed to determine whether environmental complexity and stocking density impacted rainbow trout affective state. Read More

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Mirror image stimulation could reverse social-isolation-induced aggressiveness in the high-level subsocial lactating spider.

Anim Cogn 2022 Apr 9. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, 666303, Yunnan, China.

Conspecific aggressiveness often increases after social isolation for species that are not entirely solitary, and this increased aggression could also be reversed after resocialization. However, literature on this aggression plasticity refers to either permanently social or low-level subsocial species in invertebrates. Examinations of conspecific aggressiveness reversibility in high-level subsocial invertebrates, in which offspring cohabitate with parents for a certain period of time after sexual maturation, would enhance the understanding of the role of conspecific-aggression plasticity in social evolution. Read More

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Through the eyes of a hunter: assessing perception and exclusion performance in ground-hornbills.

Anim Cogn 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Mabula Ground Hornbill Project, Bela-Bela, 0480, Limpopo, South Africa.

Logical inference, once strictly associated with spoken language, is now reported in some non-human animals. One aspect of logical inference, reasoning by exclusion, has been traditionally explored through the use of the cups task (cup A and cup B, if not cup A, then exclude cup A and select cup B). However, to fully understand the factors that drove the evolution of logical processes in animals, this latter paradigm needs to cover a taxonomically broader spectrum of species. Read More

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Context-dependent and seasonal fluctuation in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) vocalizations.

Anim Cogn 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute (BDRI), Av. Beiramar 192, 36980, O Grove, Spain.

A fundamental question in animal behaviour is the role of vocal communication in the regulation of social interactions in species that organise themselves into social groups. Context dependence and seasonality in vocalizations are present in the communication of many species, although very little research has addressed this dependence in marine mammals. The study presented here examined variations in the rate at which free-ranging dyads of bottlenose dolphins emit social-signals in an effort to better understand the relationship between vocal communication and social context. Read More

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Intentional gestural communication amongst red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus).

Anim Cogn 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Université de Rennes, Normandie Université, CNRS, EthoS (Éthologie Animale et Humaine), UMR 6552, 35000, Rennes, France.

Apes, human's closest living relatives, are renowned for their intentional and highly flexible use of gestural communication. In stark contrast, evidence for flexible and intentional gestural communication in monkeys is scarce. Here, we investigated the intentionality and flexibility of spontaneous gesture use in red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus). Read More

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Host parent responses to heterospecific parasite nestling alarm calls are independent of past and current experience with experimental brood parasitism.

Anim Cogn 2022 Mar 28. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, 61801, USA.

Communication between parents and dependent offspring is critical not only during provisioning, but also in antipredator contexts. In altricial birds, a top cause of reproductive failure is nest predation, and alarm calls both by parents and chicks can serve to alert others and increase the likelihood of offspring escaping predation. Understanding the factors that determine the strength of parental antipredator responses to different nestling alarm calls can provide insight into parent-offspring recognition. Read More

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Assessing cognitive performance in dairy calves using a modified hole-board test.

Anim Cogn 2022 Mar 26. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Animal Welfare Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z6, Canada.

The hole-board test has been used to assess working and reference memory in a variety of species, but not in cattle. We developed and applied a modified hole-board test for dairy calves. Fifteen bottles were evenly spaced along three walls of a test arena; 11 of these were empty and 4 were 'baited' with milk. Read More

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Eggshell texture but not odor treatment affects model egg rejection in American robins (Turdus migratorius).

Anim Cogn 2022 Mar 24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior, School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.

To curb fitness costs associated with obligate avian brood parasitism, some hosts have evolved to reject foreign eggs in the nest. American robins (Turdus migratorius) are among the few hosts of the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) that mostly remove parasitic eggs from their nests. With the parasite's eggs looking nothing like their own, American robins likely rely most on visual cues when making rejection decisions. Read More

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Defensive adaptations to cuckoo parasitism in the black-browed reed warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps): recognition and mechanism.

Anim Cogn 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China.

Hosts of avian brood parasites suffer a high cost of reproductive loss due to parasitism, driving them to evolve a variety of anti-parasitic defenses. These defenses comprise a series of components, including the recognition of brood parasites and the eggs laid by the parasites, cues used for recognition, and the mechanisms on which these behaviors are based. In this study, we conducted egg recognition and nest intruder experiments to examine these components of anti-parasitic behavior in the black-browed reed warbler (Acrocephalus bistrigiceps), a rare host of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Read More

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Decision making under risk: framing effects in pigeon risk preferences.

Anim Cogn 2022 Mar 16. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

When humans face probabilistic outcomes, their choices often depend on whether the choice is framed in terms of losses or gains. In the present research, we gave pigeons a choice between risky (variable) outcomes and safe (constant) outcomes that resulted in the same net reward. In Experiment 1, in which the outcomes represented a loss, the pigeons preferred the risky alternative. Read More

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Star finches Neochmia ruficauda have a visual preference for white dot patterns: a possible case of trypophilia.

Anim Cogn 2022 Mar 16. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0810, Japan.

Many animals have polka dot patterns on their body surface, some of which are known to have signalling functions; however, their evolutionary origins remain unclear. Dot patterns can trigger a fear response (trypophobia) in humans and are known to function as aposematic signals in non-human animals, suggesting that dots may deserve attention for biological reasons. Interestingly in many birds, plumage dot patterns serve for social/sexual signalling. Read More

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Wild skuas can use acoustic cues to locate hidden food.

Anim Cogn 2022 Mar 15. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK.

Among animals, the visual acuity of several predatory bird species is probably the most outstanding. This, and the ease with which visually based tasks are administered, has led researchers to predominantly use the visual modality when studying avian cognition. Some wild skua populations routinely use acoustic cues emitted by their prey during foraging. Read More

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Incrementing non-matching- but not matching-to-sample is rapidly learned in an automated version of the odor span task.

Anim Cogn 2022 Feb 25. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USA.

The odor span task (OST) is frequently used to assess memory capacity in rodents. Odor stimuli are presented in a large arena and choices of session-novel odors produce food reward. The procedure can be described as an incrementing non-matching-to-sample contingency because on each trial one new stimulus is presented along with one or more previously presented (non-reinforced) comparison odors. Read More

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February 2022

Hermit crabs, shells, and sentience.

Robert W Elwood

Anim Cogn 2022 Feb 23. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University, Belfast, BT9 5DL, UK.

Hermit crabs have an intimate relationship with gastropod shells and show numerous activities by which they locate, select, and change shells in different contexts. They gather information about new shells and update information about their existing shells. This involves integration of different sensory modalities, memory-formation, and comparison of the overall value of each shell. Read More

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February 2022

Sexual differences in responses of meadow voles to environmental cues in the presence of mink odor.

Anim Cogn 2022 Feb 21. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Department of Biological Science, University of Memphis, Ellington Hall, Memphis, TN, 38152, USA.

In rodents, defensive behaviors increase the chances of survival during a predator encounter. Observable rodent defensive behaviors have been shown to be influenced by the presence of predator odors and nearby environmental cues such as cover, odors from conspecifics and food availability. Our experiment tested whether a predator scent cue influenced refuge preference in meadow voles within a laboratory setting. Read More

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February 2022

Zebrafish excel in number discrimination under an operant conditioning paradigm.

Anim Cogn 2022 Feb 18. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Department of Biology, University of Padova, Viale Giuseppe Colombo 3-Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, 35131, Padua, Italy.

Numerical discrimination is widespread in vertebrates, but this capacity varies enormously between the different species examined. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), the only teleost examined following procedures that allow a comparison with the other vertebrates, outperforms amphibians, reptiles and many warm-blooded vertebrates, but it is unclear whether this is a feature shared with the other teleosts or represents a peculiarity of this species. We trained zebrafish (Danio rerio) to discriminate between numbers differing by one unit, varying task difficulty from 2 versus 3 to 5 versus 6 items. Read More

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February 2022

Testing use of the first multi-partner cognitive enrichment devices by a group of male bottlenose dolphins.

Anim Cogn 2022 Feb 11. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Department of Ethology, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/c, Budapest, 1117, Hungary.

Alliance formation plays a crucial part in male dolphins' lives. These partnerships may last for decades or even for a lifetime; thus, partner choice and the maintenance of these relationships are both considered key components of alliance formation. In our previous investigations, pairs of adult male dolphins showed a high success rate in cooperative manipulation of a cognitive enrichment device. Read More

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February 2022

The acoustic bases of human voice identity processing in dogs.

Anim Cogn 2022 Feb 10. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

MTA-ELTE "Lendület" Neuroethology of Communication Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences - Eötvös Loránd University, 1/C Pázmány Péter sétány, Budapest, 1117, Hungary.

Speech carries identity-diagnostic acoustic cues that help individuals recognize each other during vocal-social interactions. In humans, fundamental frequency, formant dispersion and harmonics-to-noise ratio serve as characteristics along which speakers can be reliably separated. The ability to infer a speaker's identity is also adaptive for members of other species (like companion animals) for whom humans (as owners) are relevant. Read More

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February 2022

Detecting surface changes in a familiar tune: exploring pitch, tempo and timbre.

Anim Cogn 2022 Feb 9. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Universitat Pompeu Fabra, C. Ramon Trias Fargas, 25-27, 08005, Barcelona, Spain.

Humans recognize a melody independently of whether it is played on a piano or a violin, faster or slower, or at higher or lower frequencies. Much of the way in which we engage with music relies in our ability to normalize across these surface changes. Despite the uniqueness of our music faculty, there is the possibility that key aspects in music processing emerge from general sensitivities already present in other species. Read More

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February 2022

A new protocol for investigating visual two-choice discrimination learning in lizards.

Anim Cogn 2022 Feb 6. Epub 2022 Feb 6.

School of Natural Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

One of the most widely studied abilities in lizards is discrimination learning. The protocols used to test lizards are often novel or adapted from other taxa without proper validation. We need to ensure that tests of discrimination learning are appropriate and properly applied in lizards so that robust inferences can be made about cognitive ability. Read More

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February 2022