3,171 results match your criteria Animal[Journal]


Timed artificial insemination plus heat I: effect of estrus expression scores on pregnancy of cows subjected to progesterone-estradiol-based protocols.

Animal 2019 Apr 15:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

3Melhore Animal Consultoria LTDA,Rua Glycia Pedroso Fenerich,147 box 06, Jaboticabal- SP, 14871-835,Brasil.

Expression of estrus near timed artificial insemination (TAI) is associated with greater fertility, and estrus detection could improve TAI fertility or direct TAI management, although accurate estrus detection can be difficult and time-consuming using traditional methods. The aim of this study is to evaluate influence of estrus on pregnancy (artificial insemination pregnancy rates (P/AI)) and to validate an alternative method to classify estrus/heat expression using tail chalking (HEATSC) in postpartum Bos indicus cows subjected to TAI in progesterone-estrogen-based protocols. In experiment 1 (Exp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000442DOI Listing

Estrous expression during a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol enhances development and interferon-tau messenger RNA expression in conceptuses from Bos indicus beef cows.

Animal 2019 Apr 10:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

3Faculty of Land and Food Systems,University of British Columbia,Vancouver,BC,CanadaV6T 1Z4.

Expression of estrus (EST) near the time of fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) increases pregnancy success in beef females. This outcome has been associated with improved pregnancy establishment and maintenance, although research is still warranted to validate this theory. Hence, this experiment compared ovarian, uterine and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in Bos indicus beef cows according to estrous expression during a FTAI protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000636DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of functional oils on the immune response of broilers challenged with Eimeria spp.

Animal 2019 Apr 8:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

2Department of Animal,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul,Porto Alegre,Rio Grande do Sul 91540-000,Brazil.

Infection with Eimeria sp. results in the activation of multiple facets of the host immune system; the use of phytogenics can modulate the inflammatory response and improve the performance of the challenged animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial blend of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and castor oil on the immune response of broilers challenged with coccidiosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000600DOI Listing

The footprint of recent and strong demographic decline in the genomes of Mangalitza pigs.

Animal 2019 Apr 5:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

6NAIK-Research Institute for Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Food Science,Gesztenyes u. 1., 2053 Herceghalom,Hungary.

The Mangalitza pig breed has suffered strong population reductions due to competition with more productive cosmopolitan breeds. In the current work, we aimed to investigate the effects of this sustained demographic recession on the genomic diversity of Mangalitza pigs. By using the Porcine Single Nucleotid Polymorphism BeadChip, we have characterized the genome-wide diversity of 350 individuals including 45 Red Mangalitza (number of samples; n=20 from Hungary and n=25 from Romania), 37 Blond Mangalitza, 26 Swallow-belly Mangalitza, 48 Blond Mangalitza × Duroc crossbreds, 5 Bazna swine, 143 pigs from the Hampshire, Duroc, Landrace, Large White and Pietrain breeds and 46 wild boars from Romania (n=18) and Hungary (n=28). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000582DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effects of force-feeding on immunology, digestive function and oxidative stress in the duodenal and jejunal mucosa of Pekin ducks.

Animal 2019 Apr 4:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

1College of Veterinary Medicine,China Agricultural University,No. 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road,Haidian District,Beijing100193,China.

Force-feeding was considered as a traditional high-efficiency approach to improve growth performance and accelerate fat deposition of Pekin ducks. However, force-feeding is a serious violation of international advocacy on animal welfare, because it can induce serious injuries to animals, such as damages to the digestive tract, effects on immunity and even severe oxidative stress. Therefore, it is urgent to stop force-feeding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000612DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sodium and chloride requirements of yellow-feathered chickens between 22 and 42 days of age.

Animal 2019 Apr 3:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

1Institute of Animal Science,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences,State Key Laboratory of Livestock and Poultry Breeding,The Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South China of Ministry of Agriculture,Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Nutrition, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Nutrition,Guangzhou 510640,P.R. China.

Sodium and chloride are the key factors maintaining normal osmotic pressure (OSM) and volume of the extracellular fluid, and influencing the acid-base balance of body fluids. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Na+ and Cl- level on growth performance, excreta moisture, blood biochemical parameters, intestinal Na+-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) messenger RNA (mRNA), and Na+-H+ exchanger 2 (NHE2) mRNA, and to estimate the optimal dietary sodium and chlorine level for yellow-feathered chickens from 22 to 42days. A total of 900 22-day-old Lingnan yellow-feathered male chickens were randomly allotted to five treatments, each of which included six replicates of 30 chickens per floor pen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000594DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Behavioural measures reflect pain-mitigating effects of meloxicam in combination with Tri-Solfen® in mulesed Merino lambs.

Animal 2019 Apr 2:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

School of Veterinary and Life Sciences,Murdoch University,Murdoch,WA 6150,Australia.

Flystrike costs the Australian industry $173 to 280 M per annum and 70% to 80% of Merino lambs are currently mulesed to reduce the risk of flystrike. To alleviate welfare concerns there has been widespread adoption of analgesics to mitigate the pain associated with mulesing. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of Tri-Solfen® and meloxicam (Metacam® 20) at reducing pain-related behavioural responses to mulesing in Merino lambs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000491DOI Listing

Consequences of rearing feeding programme on the performance of rabbit females from 1st to 2nd parturition.

Animal 2019 Mar 28:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

1Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Animal,Universitat Politècnica de València,Camino de Vera s/n,46022 Valencia,Spain.

To evaluate how rearing programmes could affect resources allocation and reproductive performance of primiparous rabbit females, a total of 118 rabbit females were used to evaluate the effects of five rearing feeding programmes on their performance from 1st to 2nd parturition: CAL, fed ad libitum C diet (11.0 MJ digestible energy (DE), 114 g digestible protein (DP) and 358 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM) until 1st parturition; CR, fed ad libitum with C diet until 12 weeks of age and then C diet restricted (140 g/day) until 1st parturition; F, fed ad libitum with F diet (8.7 MJ DE, 88 g DP and 476 NDF/kg DM) until 1st parturition; FC, fed with F diet ad libitum until 16 weeks of age, and C diet ad libitum until 1st parturition; FCF, fed with F diet ad libitum until 16 weeks of age, then C diet ad libitum until 20 weeks and then F diet ad libitum until 1st parturition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S175173111900051XDOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Assessment of welfare indicators in dairy farms offering pasture at differing levels.

Animal 2019 Mar 28:1-12. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

2Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano,39100 Bozen,Italy.

In terms of animal welfare, farming systems of dairy cows are perceived positively by consumers when compared to pigs or poultry. A main reason is that the majority of consumers associate dairy farming with pasture, which in turn they relate with benefits for animal health and welfare. However, holistic scientific assessments of the effects of pasturing on animal welfare are rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000570DOI Listing

Timed artificial insemination plus heat II: gonadorelin injection in cows with low estrus expression scores increased pregnancy in progesterone/estradiol-based protocol.

Animal 2019 Mar 27:1-6. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

1Embrapa Pantanal,Rua 21 de Setembro,1880,Corumbá,MS 79320-900,Brasil.

The use of tail chalk and estrus/heat expression scores (HEATSC) evaluation is instrumental in identifying cows with greater estrus expression and greater artificial insemination pregnancy rates (P/AI) in cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and cows with low or no estrus expression present lower P/AI. It was intended in this study to improve the pregnancy rates in TAI for Bos indicus beef cows, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection was hypothesized to increase pregnancy rates in a TAI program for cows submitted to progesterone-estradiol-based protocols with low or no estrus expression, evaluated by HEATSC. Cows (n= 2284) received a progesterone device and 2 mg estradiol benzoate, after 8 days the device was removed and 1 mg estradiol cypionate, 150 μg of d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin was administered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000454DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Nutritional impacts of dietary oregano and Enviva essential oils on the performance, gut microbiota and blood biochemicals of growing ducks.

Animal 2019 Mar 27:1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

1Guangdong Haid Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary,Guangzhou,Guangdong 511400,China.

Nowadays, there is much legislation in the world devoted to restrict the use of synthetic antibiotics in the poultry industry, which could reduce performance rate and production profits. Various phyto-biotic growth promoters have been proposed to serve as antibiotic alternatives with emphasis on plant extracts and essential oils. This study was conducted to assess the impacts of using the oregano essential oil (OEO) (comprised of 5% thymol and 65% carvacrol) and Enviva essential oil (EEO) (4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000508DOI Listing

Lameness and its relationship with health and production measures in broiler chickens.

Animal 2019 Mar 21:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Norwegian University of Life Sciences,Ullevålsveien 72,0454 Oslo,Norway.

The aim of this study was to explore lameness and the associations between lameness and health/production measures of animal welfare in commercial broiler production, using the Welfare Quality® protocol for broilers. A total of 50 flocks were included in the sample and farm visits were conducted for lameness scoring at a mean age of 28.9 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000466DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Economic evaluation of the environmental impact of a dairy cattle intensive production cluster under arid lands conditions.

Animal 2019 Mar 18:1-9. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

5Graduate Program on Agricultural and Livestock Sciences,Antonio Narro Agricultural Autonomous University,Torreon,27054 Coahuila,Mexico.

At a global level, dairy cow production systems (DCPS) are important sources of nourishment and profits, but they generate environmental impacts such as overexploitation of different resources including water, lands and fossil energy. Quantification of water and carbon footprint to define mitigation strategies and a more rational use of natural resources, is a reiterated claim. The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of the environmental impact of the DCPS from the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico (24°N, 102°W, 220 mm, hot-semiarid climate) We contrasted the economic value (EV) generated by the DCPS with respect to the economic costs (EC) due to the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and the water footprint (WFP) of this DCPS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S175173111900048XDOI Listing

Invited review: Piglet survival: benefits of the immunocompetence.

Animal 2019 Mar 15:1-11. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Institute of Animal Science,University of Bonn,Endenicher Allee 15,53115Bonn,Germany.

Piglet mortality has a negative impact on animal welfare and public acceptance. Moreover, the number of weaned piglets per sow mainly determines the profitability of piglet production. Increased litter sizes are associated with lower birth weights and piglet survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000430DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Group lactation from 7 or 14 days of age reduces piglet aggression at weaning compared to farrowing crate housing.

Animal 2019 Mar 14:1-9. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

1Animal Welfare Science Centre,Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences,University of Melbourne,Melbourne,VIC 3010,Australia.

Early life experiences can affect social behaviour in later life, but opportunities for socio-behavioural development are often overlooked in current husbandry practices. This experiment investigated the effects of rearing piglets in two-stage group lactation (GL) system from 7 or 14 days of age on piglet aggression at weaning. Three lactation housing treatments were applied to a total of 198 piglets from 30 litters of multiparous sows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000478DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Variance heterogeneity and genotype by environment interactions in native Black and White dual-purpose cattle for different herd allocation schemes.

Animal 2019 Mar 11:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics,University of Gießen,35390 Gießen,Germany.

Black and White dual-purpose cattle (DSN) are kept in diverse production systems, but the same set of genetic parameters is used for official national genetic evaluations, neglecting the herd or production system characteristics. The aim of the present study was to infer genetic (co)variance components within and across defined herd descriptor groups or clusters, considering only herds keeping the local and endangered DSN breed. The study considered 3659 DSN and 2324 Holstein Friesian (HF) cows from parities one to three. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000144DOI Listing

Invited review: β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in blood and milk and its associations with cow performance.

Animal 2019 Mar 11:1-14. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

1Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment,University of Padova,Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD),Italy.

Hyperketonemia (HYK) is one of the most frequent and costly metabolic disorders in high-producing dairy cows and its diagnosis is based on β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood. In the last 10 years, the number of papers that have dealt with the impact of elevated BHB levels in dairy cattle has increased. Therefore, this paper reviewed the recent literature on BHB concentration in blood and milk, and its relationships with dairy cow health and performance, and farm profitability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S175173111900034XDOI Listing

Meat quality traits and the expression of tenderness-related genes in the loins of young goats at different ages.

Animal 2019 Mar 11:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,University of Udine,Via Sondrio, 2/A,33100 Udine,Italy.

Goat meat is considered healthy because of its low fat content, but it is often rather tough. Tenderness is the most important attribute of quality during meat consumption and there is scarce information about the expression of genes involved in the meat tenderization process in goats. The aim of this trial was to assess certain meat quality traits and the expression, at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels, of specific genes involved in the tenderization process of the longissimus lumborum (LL) in young male goats (Capra hircus) at different ages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000405DOI Listing

The effect of Piétrain sire on the performance of the progeny of two commercial dam breeds: a pig intervention study.

Animal 2019 Mar 8:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

1ILVO (Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food),Scheldeweg 68,9090 Melle,Belgium.

Genetic evaluation of Piétrain sires in Flanders occurs under standardized conditions, on test stations with fixed dam breeds, standardized diets and uniform management practices. As environmental conditions vary on commercial farms and differ from the test stations, this study aimed at understanding to what extent the sire, the dam breed and the interaction between both affects the translation of breeding values to practice. Dams of two commercial breeds were inseminated with semen from one of five different sires selected for contrasting breeding values (daily gain, feed conversion ratio and carcass quality). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000429DOI Listing

Meta-analysis of spineless cactus feeding to meat lambs: performance and development of mathematical models to predict dry matter intake and average daily gain.

Animal 2019 Mar 6:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

1Departamento de Zootecnia,Universidade Federal da Paraíba,Rodovia BR 079 km 12,Areia,58397-000 Paraíba,Brazil.

Spineless cactus is a useful feed for various animal species in arid and semiarid regions due to its adaptability to dry and harsh soil, high efficiency of water use and carbohydrates storage. This meta-analysis was carried out to assess the effect of spineless cactus on animal performance, and develop and evaluate equations to predict dry matter intake (DMI) and average daily gain (ADG) in meat lambs. Equations for predicting DMI and ADG as a function of animal and diet characteristics were developed using data from eight experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000326DOI Listing

Gelsolin expression in sheep milk somatic cells during lactation.

Animal 2019 Mar 6:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria (Council for Agricultural Research and Economics) - CREA-ZA,Centro di ricerca Zootecnia e Acquacoltura (Research Centre for Animal Production and Aquaculture),Via Salaria 31,00015 Monterotondo,Italy.

The identification of genes involved in phenotypes related to milk quality is important for both economic and health aspects in livestock production. The aim of this study was to assess the level of gelsolin gene expression in two breeds of dairy sheep - Sarda and Gentile - with pronounced differences in quantitative and qualitative milk traits. Gelsolin, a type of actin-modulating proteins is involved in the processes of actin remodeling during cell growth and apoptosis; therefore a role of this protein in mammary changes during lactation was here hypothesized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000399DOI Listing

Analysis of lambing distribution in the Ripollesa sheep breed. I. Development and comparison of circular von Mises models.

Animal 2019 Mar 6:1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

1Departament de Ciència Animal i dels Aliments,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,08193 Bellaterra,Spain.

Circular data originates in a wide range of scientific fields and can be analyzed on the basis of directional statistics and special distributions wrapped around the circumference. However, both propensity to transform non-linear to linear data and complexity of directional statistics limited the generalization of the circular paradigm in the animal breeding framework, among others. Here, we generalized a circular mixed (CM) model within the context of Bayesian inference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000363DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Analysis of lambing distribution in the Ripollesa sheep breed. II. Environmental and genetic sources of variation.

Animal 2019 Mar 6:1-6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

1Departament de Ciència Animal i dels Aliments,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,08193 Bellaterra,Spain.

Seasonal reproduction patterns are typically observed in small ruminants and are a major limitation for production efficiency in most meat- and dairy-type production systems. Indeed, selection for reduced seasonality could be an appealing strategy for the small ruminant industry worldwide, although its genetic background has been poorly analyzed. One of the main limitations relied on the availability of appropriate analytical tools to cope with the circular (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000375DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The genetic background of clinical mastitis in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

Animal 2019 Mar 5:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

5Department of Animal Genetics,West Pomeranian University of Technology,Doktora Judyma 26,71-466 Szczecin,Poland.

Mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, which has a significant economic impact and is an animal welfare concern. This work examined the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variations (CNVs) with the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM). Using information from 16 half-sib pairs of Holstein-Friesian cows (32 animals in total) we searched for genomic regions that differed between a healthy (no incidence of CM) and a mastitis-prone (multiple incidences of CM) half-sib. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000338DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Carbohydrate source offered in the prepartum diet did not affect postpartum metabolic status or milk yield in dairy cows.

Animal 2019 Mar 5:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

3Departamento de Reproducción,Facultad de Veterinaria,Universidad de la República,Lasplaces 1620,CP 11600,Montevideo,Uruguay.

Increasing the provision of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) during the prepartum period is a feeding strategy that has been recommended to facilitate the transition to the onset of lactation and improve dairy cow performance, but results are contradictory, probably because most studies have confounded the effects of level and source of energy. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the source of carbohydrate offered in the prepartum diet on postpartum cow performance. Holstein dairy cows (n=24) were assigned to receive diets with either low (LNFC), or high (HNFC) levels of NFC during the last 3 weeks before expected calving date according to a randomized complete block design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000387DOI Listing

Behavioural responses of piglets to different types of music.

Animal 2019 Mar 4:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

1College of Animal Science and Technology,Northeast Agricultural University,Changjiang Road No. 600,150030 Harbin,Heilongjiang,P.R. China.

Music or other background sounds are often played in barns as environmental enrichment for animals on farms or to mask sudden disruptive noises. Previous studies looking at the effects of this practice on non-human animal well-being and productivity have found contradictory results. However, there is still a lack of discussion on whether piglets have the ability to distinguish different types of music. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000260DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Review: An integrated graphical tool for analysing impacts and services provided by livestock farming.

Animal 2019 Mar 4:1-13. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

1UMR AGIR,Université de Toulouse,INRA,31326 Castanet-Tolosan,France.

Livestock farming is criticized for negatively impacting the environment, concerns about animal welfare and the impact of excessive meat consumption on human health. However, livestock farming provides other underappreciated and poorly communicated benefits to society in terms of employment, product quality, cultural landscapes and carbon storage by grasslands. Few attempts have been made so far to simultaneously consider the services and impacts provided by livestock production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000351DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

A comparative study of four rumen buffering agents on productive performance, rumen fermentation and meat quality in growing lambs fed a total mixed ration.

Animal 2019 Mar 1:1-8. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

2Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,Kafrelsheikh University,Kafrelsheikh 33516,Egypt.

Controlling rumen fermentation using buffering agents could contribute to enhancing ruminant productivity and performance. This study was realized to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of AcidBuf, sodium bicarbonate, calseapowder and WMC seaweed (Utva Lactuca extra) on the animal performance, volatile fatty acids, rumen pH, rumen histology and carcass characteristics of growing male Awassi lambs. A total of 60 lambs was divided into five groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000296DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Benefits of a multimodal analgesia compared to local anesthesia alone to alleviate pain following castration in sheep: a multiparametric approach.

Animal 2019 Feb 27:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Université Clermont Auvergne,INRA,VetAgro Sup,UMR Herbivores,63122Saint-Genès-Champanelle,France.

Castration of male ruminants is a common livestock management practice, but induces pain. However, little is known about the effectiveness of multimodal analgesia compared to local anesthesia (LA) alone in reducing pain associated with burdizzo castration in sheep. This study aimed to monitor the pain response induced by castration in sheep and to assess the efficacy of analgesia strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000314DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Genetic variation in milk urea nitrogen concentration of dairy cattle and its implications for reducing urinary nitrogen excretion.

Animal 2019 Feb 27:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

4CRV BV,Wassenaarweg 20,6843 NW Arnhem,The Netherlands.

Nitrogen (N) leached into groundwater from urine patches of cattle grazing in situ is an environmental problem in pasture-based dairy industries. One potential mitigation is to breed cattle for lower urinary nitrogen (UN) excretion. Urinary nitrogen is difficult to measure, while milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) is relatively easy to measure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000235DOI Listing
February 2019

Possible risk factors for keel bone damage in organic laying hens.

Animal 2019 Feb 27:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

1Farm Animal Behaviour and Husbandry Section,University of Kassel,Nordbahnhofstr. 1a,37213 Witzenhausen,Germany.

Keel bone damage (KBD) in laying hens is an important welfare problem in both conventional and organic egg production systems. We aimed to identify possible risk factors for KBD in organic hens by analysing cross-sectional data of 107 flocks assessed in eight European countries. Due to partly missing data, the final multiple regression model was based on data from 50 flocks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S175173111900003XDOI Listing
February 2019

Correlated response to selection for litter size environmental variability in rabbits' resilience.

Animal 2019 Feb 26:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

3Institute for Animal Science and Technology,Universitat Politècnica de València,P.O. Box 22012,46022 Valencia,Spain.

Resilience is the ability of an animal to return soon to its initial productivity after facing diverse environmental challenges. This trait is directly related to animal welfare and it plays a key role in fluctuations of livestock productivity. A divergent selection experiment for environmental variance of litter size has been performed successfully in rabbits over ten generations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000302DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Review: Microbial endocrinology: intersection of microbiology and neurobiology matters to swine health from infection to behavior.

Authors:
J M Lyte M Lyte

Animal 2019 Feb 26:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

2Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Preventive Medicine,College of Veterinary Medicine,Iowa State University,Ames,IA 50011,USA.

From birth to slaughter, pigs are in constant interaction with microorganisms. Exposure of the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and other systems allows microorganisms to affect the developmental trajectory and function of porcine physiology as well as impact behavior. These routes of communication are bi-directional, allowing the swine host to likewise influence microbial survival, function and community composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000284DOI Listing
February 2019

Predicting feed intake and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows using digesta marker techniques.

Animal 2019 Feb 26:1-12. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

1Department of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,SE-901 83 Umeå,Sweden.

Direct measurement of individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) remains a fundamental challenge to assessing dairy feed efficiency (FE). Digesta marker, is currently the most used indirect technique for estimating DMI in production animals. In this meta-analysis we evaluated the performance of marker-based estimates against direct or observed measurements and developed equations for the prediction of FE (g energy-corrected milk (ECM)/kg DMI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000247DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of dietary CP and amino acid restriction on the growth dynamics of organs and body components in entire male, castrated and female pigs.

Animal 2019 Feb 26:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

1Agroscope,Tioleyre 4,1725 Posieux,Switzerland.

The optimized use of dietary nutrients and the accurate knowledge of the growth dynamics of body components is important for efficient pig production. This study aimed at evaluating the growth of carcass components and organs of Swiss Large White pigs from birth to 140 kg BW depending on the CP and amino acid (AA) supply. A total of 66 entire males (EM), 58 castrates (CA) and 66 female (FE) pigs were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000132DOI Listing
February 2019

Choices between red clover and fescue in the diet can be reliably estimated in heifers post-weaning using n-alkanes.

Animal 2019 Feb 21:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

1Department of Animal and Poultry Science,Virginia Tech,Blacksburg,VA 24061,USA.

Measuring diet choice in grazing animals is challenging, complicating the assessment of feed efficiency in pasture-based systems. Furthermore, animals may modify their intake of a forage species depending on its nutritive value and on their own physiological status. Various fecal markers have been used to estimate feed intake in grazing animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S175173111900017XDOI Listing
February 2019

Performance of ad libitum fed dairy calves weaned using fixed and individual methods.

Animal 2019 Feb 21:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

2Trouw Nutrition Research and Development,PO Box 299,3800 AG,Amersfoort,The Netherlands.

The increasing availability of automated milk dispensers on dairy farms facilitates ad libitum milk supply but weaning calves from high milk allowances is challenging. This study evaluated effects of gradual weaning methods on starter intake, growth, selected blood parameters and weaning distress in ad libitum fed dairy calves during weaning and early post-weaning periods. Thirty-six male Holstein (n=30) or crossbred (n=6) calves were individually housed from days 2 to 14 of age and had ad libitum access to milk replacer (MR) from teat buckets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000181DOI Listing
February 2019

The effect of diet and covering fully slatted concrete floors with rubber strips on the intake, performance and cleanliness of dairy-origin bulls.

Animal 2019 Feb 21:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

2Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute,18a Newforge Lane,Belfast BT9 5PX,Northern Ireland.

Fully slatted concrete floors are prevalent in beef cattle housing. However, concerns have been raised about welfare of cattle accommodated on slats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet and floor type on the intake, performance and cleanliness of dairy-origin bulls from a mean age of 8 months to slaughter at 15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000272DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Dietary alanyl-glutamine improves growth performance of weaned piglets through maintaining intestinal morphology and digestion-absorption function.

Animal 2019 Feb 21:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition,Engineering Research Center of Feed Development,Jiangxi Agricultural University,Nanchang 330045,Jiangxi,China.

Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln), a highly soluble and stable glutamine dipeptide, is known to improve gut integrity and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and digestive-absorption function in weaned piglets. A total of 100 purebred Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were assigned randomly to four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (control group) or a basal diet containing 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000223DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Energy and protein requirements for maintenance of Texel lambs.

Animal 2019 Feb 21:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Departamento de Zootecnia,Universidade Federal de Santa Maria,Santa Maria 97105-900,RS,Brasil.

It can be hypothesized that the body composition characteristics of different sheep breeds affect their nutritional requirements. However, no study has yet been carried out to determine the nutritional requirements for maintenance of Texel purebred lambs, despite their growing importance in sheep meat production globally. Our objective was therefore to determine the energy and protein requirements for maintenance of Texel lambs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000259DOI Listing
February 2019

Temporal fermentation and microbial community dynamics in rumens of sheep grazing a ryegrass-based pasture offered either in the morning or in the afternoon.

Animal 2019 Feb 21:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

AgResearch, Grasslands Research Centre,Tennent Drive,Private Bag 11008,Palmerston North 4442,New Zealand.

Eight ruminally-fistulated wethers were used to examine the temporal effects of afternoon (PM; 1600h) v. morning (AM; 0800 h) allocation of fresh spring herbage from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture on fermentation and microbial community dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000168DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of dietary menhaden oil on growth and reproduction in gilts farrowed by sows that consumed diets containing menhaden oil during gestation and lactation.

Animal 2019 Feb 19:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center,Virginia Tech,Suffolk,VA 23437,USA.

In sows, n-3 fatty acids increase litter sizes, however, effects on gilt reproductive development have not been adequately studied. Moreover, not determined are effects of feeding n-3 fatty acids to sows on reproduction in offspring. The objective here was to determine effects of 4% dietary menhaden oil on growth and puberty in gilts farrowed by sows fed menhaden oil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000193DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of diet management and composition on vitamin B12 concentration in milk of Holstein cows.

Animal 2019 Feb 18:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

3Agriculture et Agroalimentaire Canada,Centre de recherche et développement de Sherbrooke,2000 rue College,Sherbrooke,Québec,Canada J1M 0C8.

As vitamin B12 is only synthesized by bacteria, ruminant products, especially dairy products, are excellent sources of this vitamin. This study aims to identify if diet and cow characteristics could affect vitamin B12 concentration in milk of dairy cows. Information on 1484 first, 1093 second and 1763 third and greater parity Holstein cows in 100 herds was collected during three consecutive milkings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000211DOI Listing
February 2019

Digestibility of fractionated green biomass as protein source for monogastric animals.

Animal 2019 Feb 18:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Animal Science,Aarhus University,Blichers Allé 20,8830 Tjele,Denmark.

Globally, there is an increased demand for sustainable protein sources for animal feed. Grass and forage legumes have the yield potential to become such alternatives, but the protein needs to be separated from the fibres. Red clover, white clover, lucerne and perennial ryegrass were fractionated into a green juice and a fibrous pulp in a screw-press and protein was subsequently precipitated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000156DOI Listing
February 2019
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Dietary fish oil and flaxseed for rabbit does: fatty acids distribution and Δ6-desaturase enzyme expression of different tissues.

Animal 2019 Feb 18:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

1Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences,University of Perugia,Borgo XX Giugno,74,06121 Perugia,Italy.

Standard feeds are imbalanced in term of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio, with a low proportion of the latter. The reproductive system appears to be strongly affected by administration of n-3 PUFA, and ingredients rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA; i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S175173111900020XDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Pathway-oriented action of dietary essential oils to prevent muscle protein oxidation and texture deterioration of farmed rainbow trout.

Animal 2019 Feb 18:1-12. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

2Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IIM-CSIC),Eduardo Cabello 6,E-36208 Vigo,Spain.

Recently, great attention has been directed towards the use of essential oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidant in food matrix. Fish is well known to be a high perishable food. Indeed, fish muscle is susceptible to suffer protein and lipid oxidation during frozen storage, which can lead to the development of softening and undesirable volatile molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000016DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Effects of three husbandry systems on health, welfare and productivity of organic pigs.

Animal 2019 Feb 14:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

10Institute of Animal Welfare and Animal Husbandry,Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute,Dörnbergstraße 25/27,29223 Celle,Germany.

Organic pig husbandry systems in Europe are diverse - ranging from indoor systems with concrete outside run (IN) to outdoor systems all year round (OUT) and combinations of both on one farm (POUT). As this diversity has rarely been taken into account in research projects on organic pig production, the aim of this study was to assess and compare pig health, welfare and productivity in these three systems. Animal health and welfare were assessed using direct observation and records of 22 animal-based measures, comprising 17 health-, 3 productivity- and 2 behavioural measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000041DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of ruminal degradability of ensiled whole crop maize varieties on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows.

Animal 2019 Feb 12:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

2Division of Livestock Sciences,Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences,Gregor Mendel-Straße 33,1180 Vienna,Austria.

The feed value of whole crop maize silage (WCMS) depends on nutrient composition, ruminal degradability and whole tract digestibility. However, as the ruminal degradation rate is involved in physical regulation of feed intake, ruminal degradability of WCMS may also affect feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine relationships between nutrient composition, ruminal degradability, and whole tract digestibility of WCMS and feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119000028DOI Listing
February 2019

Evaluation and application potential of an accelerometer-based collar device for measuring grazing behavior of dairy cows.

Animal 2019 Feb 11:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

1Teagasc, Animal & Grassland Research and Innovation Centre,Moorepark,Fermoy Co. Cork,P61 C997,Ireland.

The commercially available collar device MooMonitor+ was evaluated with regards to accuracy and application potential for measuring grazing behavior. These automated measurements are crucial as cows feed intake behavior at pasture is an important parameter of animal performance, health and welfare as well as being an indicator of feed availability. Compared to laborious and time-consuming visual observation, the continuous and automated measurement of grazing behavior may support and improve the grazing management of dairy cows on pasture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731118003658DOI Listing
February 2019