Front Immunol 2023 4;14:1268916. Epub 2023 Sep 4.
Centers of Cardiovascular Research, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.
To determine the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and trained immunity, we performed transcriptome analyses on the thoracic aorta (TA) and abdominal aorta (AA) from the angiotensin II (Ang II)-HFD-ApoE-KO aneurysm model and made significant findings: 1) Ang II bypassed HFD-induced metabolic reprogramming and induced stronger inflammation in AA than in TA; 2) Ang II and HFD upregulated 890 genes in AA versus TA and induced cytokine signaling; 3) Ang II AA and TA upregulated 73 and 68 cytokines, scRNA-Seq identified markers of macrophages and immune cells, cell death regulators, respectively; transdifferentiation markers of neuron, glial, and squamous epithelial cells were upregulated by Ang II-AA and TA; and pyroptosis signaling with IL-1β and caspase-4 were more upregulated in Ang II-AA than in TA; 4) Six upregulated transcriptomes in patients with AAA, Ang II AA, Ang II TA, additional aneurysm models, PPE-AAA and BAPN-Ang II-AAA, were partially overlapped with 10 lists of new ER stress gene sets including 3 interaction protein lists of ER stress regulators ATF6, PERK, and IRE1, HPA ER localization genes, KEGG signal genes, XBP1 transcription targets, ATF4 (PERK) targets, ATF6 targets, thapsigargin ER stress genes, tunicamycin-ER stress genes, respectively; 5) Ang II-AA and TA upregulated ROS regulators, MitoCarta genes, trained immunity genes, and glycolysis genes; and 6) Gene KO transcriptomes indicated that ATF6 and PERK played more significant roles than IRE1 in promoting AAA and trained immunity whereas antioxidant NRF2 inhibited them. Our unprecedented ER-focused transcriptomic analyses have provided novel insights on the roles of ER as an immune organelle in sensing various DAMPs and initiating ER stress that triggers Ang II-accelerated trained immunity and differs susceptibilities of thoracic and abdominal aortas to diseases. Read More