N Engl J Med 2022 06;386(24):2273-2282
From the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco (J.M.P., N.J., T.M.D., A.A., C.B., J.M.B.-L.); University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (J.Y.L., S.Y.L.); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (S.E.G., J.A.S.), Weill Cornell Medicine (T.J.W., G.B.E.), Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein School of Medicine (R.L.), and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (T.M.A.) - all in New York; University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (H.A.D.); University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami (I.R.-C.); the Emmes Company, Rockland, MD (J.C.P., D.V.); Anal Dysplasia Clinic Midwest, Chicago (G.B.); Boston University School of Medicine, Boston (E.A.S.); University of Puerto Rico Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Juan (M.T.G.); Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (L.F.); Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC (L.F.B.); University of California, Los Angeles Schools of Medicine (R.T.M.) and Nursing (D.W.), Los Angeles; Denver Public Health, Denver (J.L.); University of Washington School of Medicine (D.M.A., J.T.S.) and the Polyclinic, Virginia Mason Medical Center (J.O.) - both in Seattle; Capital Digestive Care, Washington, DC (J.D.K.); Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (M.H.); and Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark (M.H.E., B.M.C.).
Background: The incidence of anal cancer is substantially higher among persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the general population. Similar to cervical cancer, anal cancer is preceded by high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). Treatment for cervical HSIL reduces progression to cervical cancer; however, data from prospective studies of treatment for anal HSIL to prevent anal cancer are lacking. Read More