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    1755 results match your criteria Anesthesia Progress [Journal]

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    Anesthetic Considerations for Patients on Antidepressant Therapy-Part I.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):253-261
    Professor, Pharmacology Director, Division of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
    Millions of patients take antidepressant medications in the United States for the treatment of depression or anxiety disorders. Some antidepressants are prescribed off-label to treat problems such as chronic pain, low energy, and menstrual symptoms. Antidepressants are a broad and expansive group of medications, but the more common drug classes include tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Read More

    A Case of Laryngeal Granuloma Likely Caused by Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease Following a Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):248-250
    Department of Anesthesiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.
    Laryngeal granuloma is an uncommon complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation. A 25-year-old woman with severe jaw deformity underwent sagittal split ramus osteotomy under general anesthesia. Two days after extubation, the patient complained of hoarseness, sore throat, and dyspnea. Read More

    Dexmedetomidine Increases the Latency of Thermal Antinociception in Rats.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):230-234
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Japan.
    Recent reports have stated that dexmedetomidine (DEX), an α-adrenoreceptor agonist, enhances the local anesthetic effects of ropivacaine and prolongs its effective duration. However, little is known about the effect of a combination of DEX and lidocaine on anesthetic duration. Therefore, we investigated whether DEX can prolong the local anesthetic effect of lidocaine, using the thermal paw withdrawal test in Wistar rats in order to measure local anesthetic duration. Read More

    Retropharyngeal Dissection by Parker Flex-Tip Nasal Endotracheal Tube.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):240-243
    Professor, Division of Dental Anesthesiology, Department of Tissue Regeneration and Reconstruction, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.
    Possible complications of nasotracheal intubation include injury to the nasal or pharyngeal mucosa. Dissection of the retropharyngeal tissue by the endotracheal tube is one of the rarer of the more severe complications. Previous studies have indicated that the Parker Flex-Tip (PFT) tracheal tube (Parker Medical, Highlands Ranch, Colo) reduces the incidence of mucosal injury. Read More

    Anesthetic Efficacy of Articaine and Lidocaine in a Primary Intraseptal Injection: A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind Study.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):203-211
    Emeritus Associate Professor, Division of Oral Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
    Additional studies are needed to evaluate intraseptal anesthesia in the mandibular first molar. The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of a primary intraseptal injection of articaine and lidocaine, administered with a computer-controlled local anesthetic delivery (CCLAD) system, in asymptomatic mandibular first molars. Using a crossover design, 100 subjects randomly received intraseptal injections of 1. Read More

    Comparison of Anesthesia for Dental/Oral Surgery by Office-based Dentist Anesthesiologists versus Operating Room-based Physician Anesthesiologists.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):212-220
    Starkey Research Professor and Chair, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Indiana University School of Dentistry, and Adjunct Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.
    Few studies have examined the practice characteristics of dentist anesthesiologists and compared them to other anesthesia providers. Using outcomes from the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry and the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry for dental/oral surgery procedures, we compared 7133 predominantly office-based anesthetics by dentist anesthesiologists to 106,420 predominantly operating room anesthetics performed by physician anesthesia providers. These encounters were contrasted with 34,191 previously published encounters from the practices of oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Read More

    Anesthesia for a Patient With Excessive Supragastric Belching.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):244-247
    Dental Anesthesiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Department of Dentistry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Excessive supragastric belching is rarely described in the anesthesia literature. Anesthesia planning of a 26-year-old patient with excessive supragastric belching, history of superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS), and dental anxiety requires preoperative assessment. This case report outlines the anesthetic considerations and the management to facilitate comprehensive dentistry. Read More

    Anesthetic Management of a Patient With a History of Rhabdomyolysis for Dental Treatment.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):251-252
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    When general anesthesia is administered for patients considered at high risk for rhabdomyolysis, appropriate precautions are warranted. The use of suitable anesthetics, with attention to intravenous fluid management, electrolyte balance, respiration, and metabolism, should be addressed. We performed general anesthesia for dental treatment and biopsy for fibrous hyperplasia of the buccal mucosa in a patient with a history of rhabdomyolysis. Read More

    Influence of Fasting Duration on Body Fluid and Hemodynamics.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):226-229
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Fasting before general anesthesia aims to reduce the volume and acidity of stomach contents, which reduces the risk of regurgitation and aspiration. Prolonged fasting for many hours prior to surgery could lead to unstable hemodynamics, however. Therefore, preoperative oral intake of clear fluids 2 hours prior to surgery is recommended to decrease dehydration without an increase in aspiration risk. Read More

    Anesthetic Management in Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy: A Case Report.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):235-239
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.
    We report on a morbidly obese 16-year-old boy (weight, 116 kg; height, 176 cm; body mass index, 35.5 kg/m) with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and a history of cerebral infarction, epilepsy, and severe mental retardation. The patient was scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia for multiple dental caries and entropion of the left eye. Read More

    A Combination of Dexmedetomidine and Lidocaine Is a Cardiovascularly Safe Dental Local Anesthetic for Hypertensive Rats Treated With a Nonselective β-Adrenergic Antagonist.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(4):221-225
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Hypertensive patients receiving nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists are vulnerable to hypertension and bradycardia when injected with dental local anesthetic formulations containing epinephrine. Dexmedetomidine (DEX), an α-adrenergic agonist, has been reported to prolong and enhance the local anesthetic effects of lidocaine. The cardiovascular effects of the DEX-lidocaine combination have not yet been investigated in the presence of nonselective β-adrenergic antagonists. Read More

    Inner Wall Detachment of the Spiral Tube During Extubation: A Case Report.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):171-172
    Department of Dental Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Aidu Chuo Hospital, Aizuwakamatsu, Japan.
    We report a case of endotracheal tube malfunction, in which the inner surface of the tube peeled off during anesthesia. The patient, a 7-year-old boy, was under general anesthesia for the treatment of multiple dental caries. The damaged tube could have caused respiratory failure, putting the patient's life at risk. Read More

    A Case With Deteriorating Palmoplantar Pustulosis and Hyperthyroidism After Simultaneous Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):173-174
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Program of Dental Sciences, Integrated Health Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    A case of palmoplantar pustulosis and hyperthyroidism following orthognathic surgery is presented. Both diseases may have been related to allergic phenomena. Read More

    Office-Based Anesthesia: Safety and Outcomes in Pediatric Dental Patients.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):144-152
    Program Director and Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Riley Hospital for Children/Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana.
    The number of children with caries requiring general anesthesia to achieve comprehensive dental care and the demand for dentist anesthesiologists to provide ambulatory anesthesia for these patients is increasing. No current published studies examine the safety and outcomes of ambulatory anesthesia performed by dentist anesthesiologists for dental procedures in pediatric patients, and there is no national requirement for reporting outcomes of these procedures. In 2010, the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry was developed. Read More

    Liposomal Bupivacaine Use in Third Molar Impaction Surgery: INNOVATE Study.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):127-135
    Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Parsippany, New Jersey.
    The analgesic efficacy and safety of liposomal bupivacaine (LB) in third molar extraction was evaluated in this phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of subjects undergoing bilateral third molar extraction. Subjects were randomized 2 : 1 to infiltration with LB (133 mg/10 mL) or placebo, and received opioid rescue medication as needed. Primary efficacy measure was cumulative area under the curve (AUC) of numeric rating scale (NRS) pain severity scores through 48 hours (AUC of NRS) postsurgery. Read More

    Nitrous Oxide Inhalation Sedation Through a Nasal High-Flow System: The Possibility of a New Technique in Dental Sedation.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):175-177
    Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Course of Medical and Dental Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan.
    High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) systems are increasingly used for patients with both acute and chronic respiratory failure because of the clinical effectiveness and patient comfort associated with their use. Recently, HFNC has been used not only as a respiratory support device, but also as a drug delivery system. HFNC is designed to administer heated and humidified inspiratory oxygen flows (100% relative humidity at 37°C). Read More

    The Anesthetic Management for a Patient With Trisomy 13.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):162-164
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal disorder that occurs in complete or partial mosaic forms. It is characterized by central apnea, mental retardation, seizure and congenital heart disease. The survival of the patients with trisomy 13 is the majority dying before one month. Read More

    Preemptive Effect of Dexamethasone in Third-Molar Surgery: A Meta-Analysis.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):136-143
    Pharmacology and Therapeutic Professor, Department of Basic Sciences, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of preemptive dexamethasone in surgery of the lower third molars and to compare it with other oral anti-inflammatories. An electronic search was conducted for preemptive effects related to lower third-molar surgery in 3 separate databases. The variables pain, swelling, and trismus were assessed. Read More

    Submental Intubation in Cases of Panfacial Fractures: A Retrospective Study.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):153-161
    Professor, Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, Araçatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho - UNESP, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Surgical treatment of panfacial fractures usually requires intraoperative temporary occlusion of the teeth and simultaneous access to the nasal pyramid. In such cases, the standard method of airway management is to perform a tracheostomy, but this may be associated with a significant number of perioperative and late complications. This study aimed to determine if submental endotracheal intubation (SEI) is a viable alternative to tracheostomy, especially when short-term postoperative control of the airway is foreseen. Read More

    Squamous Papilloma Causing Airway Obstruction During Conscious Sedation.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):168-170
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Monitoring for respiratory depression is essential during conscious sedation. We report a case of a squamous papilloma as an unusual cause of intermittent partial airway obstruction in a 43-year-old man undergoing intravenous conscious sedation with midazolam. The Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI) is an algorithm included in some commercially available monitors that constitutes a representation of 4 parameters: end-tidal carbon dioxide, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and pulse rate. Read More

    Junctional Rhythm Preoperatively and During General Anesthesia for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):165-167
    Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka, Japan.
    We report a case of junctional rhythm that occurred both preoperatively and later during a portion of general anesthesia. A 19-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy after being diagnosed with a jaw deformity. Preoperative electrocardiography (ECG) revealed a junctional rhythm with a slow heart rate (HR). Read More

    Opioid Use Disorder in Dental Patients: The Latest on How to Identify, Treat, Refer and Apply Laws and Regulations in Your Practice.
    Anesth Prog Fall 2017;64(3):178-187
    Director, Pediatric Craniomaxillofacial Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nova Southeastern University College of Dental Medicine; Associate Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Nova Southeastern University College of Dental Medicine, Ft Lauderdale, Florida.
    Opioid use disorder is a persistent problem in the United States and has become an important issue to medical and dental professionals. Americans are the largest users of opioids by a large margin. The importance of knowing how to identify, handle, refer, and treat patients with opioid use disorder cannot be understated. Read More

    Nitrous Oxide and Midazolam Sedation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(2):59-65
    Assistant Professor in Prosthodontics, Department of Oral Health, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Fiji National University, Suva, Fiji.
    Nitrous oxide and midazolam have been used as sedative agents to decrease fear and anxiety associated with dental procedures. Although these agents have been widely used individually, the combination of the two is also commonly used. Four clinical trials were identified that compared the combination technique with the individual use of the drugs. Read More

    Anesthetic Management Using a Laryngeal Mask Airway in a Child With Congenital Bronchial Atresia.
    Anesth Prog Summer 2017;64(2):102-103
    Department of Perioperative Medicine, Division of Anesthesiology, Showa University School of Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Congenital bronchial atresia is a relatively rare malformation that causes a segmental obstruction of the bronchus during the fetal period. The peripheral lung distal from the obstructed bronchus becomes hyperinflated because of the unidirectional flow through collateral check-valve entry. Positive pressure ventilation during general anesthesia may cause a rupture of the bulla, resulting in pneumothorax. Read More

    Safety and Efficacy of 3 Pediatric Midazolam Moderate Sedation Regimens.
    Anesth Prog Summer 2017;64(2):66-72
    Clinical Assistant Professor, The Ohio State University College of Dentistry, Columbus.
    Our aim was to characterize effectiveness and complications in children receiving oral midazolam alone, nasal midazolam alone, or oral midazolam with other sedatives. Children received oral midazolam alone, nasal midazolam, or oral midazolam in combination with other sedative medications. All subjects received a presedation history and physical examination and were sedated per protocol by any of 28 resident providers under attending supervision. Read More

    Risk Factors for Pressure Ulcers at the Ala of Nose in Oral Surgery.
    Anesth Prog Summer 2017;64(2):104-105
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    A quality review revealed pressure ulcers at the ala of nose in 16 cases (2.2%) over 3 years. We therefore retrospectively investigated the risk factors for alar pressure ulcers from nasal tubes. Read More

    Anesthetic Management of a Patient With Multiple Sclerosis.
    Anesth Prog Summer 2017;64(2):97-101
    Department of Anesthesiology, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan.
    A 54-year-old woman diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) at the age of 19 years was scheduled to undergo temporomandibular joint mobilization. She was currently in a remission phase from her MS but with persistent sequelae, including impaired eyesight and muscle weakness of the limbs. In addition, the blood vessels in her upper limbs were compromised by the formation of internal shunts secondary to vascular prosthesis replacements for plasma exchange therapy in MS. Read More

    Comparison of Articaine and Lidocaine for Buccal Infiltration After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block For Intraoperative Pain Control During Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.
    Anesth Prog Summer 2017;64(2):80-84
    Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas.
    In order to compare the efficacy of lidocaine and articaine for pain control during third molar surgery, 160 patients presenting bilateral asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molars were selected. They received 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 during inferior alveolar nerve block. Read More

    Effect of Topical Anesthesia Using an Adhesive Patch and Anesthetic Solution.
    Anesth Prog Summer 2017;64(2):73-79
    Professor and Chairman, Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Tokyo Dental College, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi, Japan.
    We analyzed trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials (TSEP) to the alveolar mucosa to investigate the efficacy of an amide local anesthetic, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 12.5 μg/mL epinephrine (Lido treatment) as a topical anesthetic. Eighteen consenting healthy adult volunteers were enrolled. Read More

    Dexmedetomidine Infusion for Routine Dental Management of an ASA IV Patient: A Case Report.
    Anesth Prog Summer 2017;64(2):88-96
    Department of Dental Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Anesthetic management of elderly patients requires numerous physiological considerations. With aging, degenerative changes occur in the structure and functional capacity of tissues and organs. Typically, these patients experience clinical effects with lower doses of medication. Read More

    Tension Pneumothorax After Percutaneous Tracheostomy.
    Anesth Prog Summer 2017;64(2):85-87
    Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Dental University, Osaka, Japan.
    A 76-year-old woman with right mandibular gingival cancer was scheduled for surgery. A percutaneous tracheostomy kit was used for tracheostomy under intravenous sedation. After puncturing the cricothyroid membrane, a dilator was inserted along a guidewire. Read More

    Temperament as a Predictor of Nitrous Oxide Inhalation Sedation Success.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(1):17-21
    Acting Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Little is known about implications of temperament for children who receive nitrous oxide inhalation sedation (NO/O) for dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate whether child temperament is associated with success in NO/O. Child-caregiver dyads were enrolled from patients aged 36-95 months receiving dental care with NO/Oat a university-based pediatric dental clinic. Read More

    Salivary Alpha Amylase, Dental Anxiety, and Extraction Pain: A Pilot Study.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(1):22-28
    Center for Oral, Facial and Head Pain, College of Dental Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York.
    The primary intention of this study was to determine whether salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) factors or the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) was a better predictor of dental extraction pain. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample (n = 23) recruited from an outpatient oral surgery clinic. While waiting for their scheduled appointments, consenting patients completed both basic demographic/medical history questionnaires and Corah's DAS as well as submitted sublingual saliva samples. Read More

    Comparing the Efficiencies of Third Molar Surgeries With and Without a Dentist Anesthesiologist.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(1):8-16
    Adjunct Professor, Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana.
    Two different anesthesia models were compared in terms of surgical duration, safer outcomes, and economic implications. Third molar surgeries performed with and without a separate dentist anesthesiologist were evaluated by a retrospective data analysis of the surgical operative times. For more difficult surgeries, substantially shorter operative times were observed with the dentist anesthesiologist model, leading to a more favorable surgical outcome. Read More

    Cardiac Failure in a Trisomy 9 Patient Undergoing Anesthesia: A Case Report.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(1):29-32
    Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.
    A 27-year-old female with Trisomy 9 mosaicism presented to Children's Hospital Colorado for outpatient dental surgery under general anesthesia. The patient's past medical history was also significant for premature birth, gastroesophageal reflux, scoliosis and kyphosis, obesity, and developmental delay. Per her mother's report, the patient had no cardiac issues. Read More

    Remifentanil Reduces Blood Loss During Orthognathic Surgery.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(1):3-7
    Professor and Chairman, Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Tokyo Dental College, Japan.
    Remifentanil is reported to reduce oral tissue blood flow. We performed a retrospective investigation using logistic regression analysis of anesthesia records to investigate whether the use of remifentanil infusion in a balanced anesthesia technique was useful as a primary technique to reduce blood loss during orthognathic surgery. Subjects were 80 patients who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible. Read More

    Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Anesthetic Management in the Ambulatory Setting: Part 2: Pharmacology and Guidelines for Perioperative Management.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(1):39-44
    Assistant Professor, Department of Dental Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Type 2 diabetes is a disease of metabolism in which the afflicted patient cannot properly utilize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Because the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the general population, anesthesia providers must realize that a significant percentage of their patients will present with the disease. Anesthesia providers should have an intimate knowledge of the comorbidities and complications that are associated with type 2 diabetes and know the specific pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drugs used to treat the disease. Read More

    Anesthetic Management of a Child With Unspecified Mitochondrial Disease in an Outpatient Dental Setting.
    Anesth Prog 2017 ;64(1):33-38
    Assistant Professor, Department of Dental Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
    Mitochondrial disease (MD) represents a category of metabolic disorders with a wide range of symptoms across a variety of organ systems. It occurs with an incidence of greater than 1:5000 and can be difficult to specifically diagnose because of the variety of clinical presentations and multiple genomic origins. Although phenotypically variable, MD symptoms often include hypotonia, cardiac defects, dysautonomia, and metabolic dysfunction. Read More

    Correlation Between Body Movements and Salivary Secretion During Sedation.
    Anesth Prog 2016 ;63(4):185-191
    Section of Anesthesiology and Clinical Physiology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    During dental sedation, control of the cough reflex is crucial for a safe and smooth procedure. Accumulated saliva is one of the predisposing factors for coughing. Body movements during dental sedation appear to enhance salivation. Read More

    The Effect of Various Concentrations of Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen on the Hypersensitive Gag Reflex.
    Anesth Prog 2016 ;63(4):181-184
    Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Endodontics, and Director, Postgraduate Endodontic Program, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various concentrations of NO/Oon obtunding a hypersensitive gag reflex. We hypothesized that the administration of nitrous oxide and oxygen would obtund a hypersensitive gag reflex enough to allow a patient to tolerate the placement and holding of a digital x-ray sensor long enough to obtain a dental radiograph. Volunteers claiming to have a hypersensitive gag reflex were first screened to validate their claim and then tested by placing a size 2 digital x-ray sensor in the position for a periapical radiograph of the right mandibular molar area and holding it in place for 10 seconds. Read More

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