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    Relationship of Methylation within Upper Stream Region of Transcription Starts Site of HOXA5 Gene with Neural Tube Defects.
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2017 Dec;39(6):785-791
    Institute of Reproductive & Child Health,Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health,Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics,School of Public Health,Peking University,Beijing 100191,China.
    Objective To investigate the relationship between the methylation level of transcription starts site (TSS) upper stream of homeobox gene and the neural tube defects (NTDs). Methods A case-control study of two stages was designed. In the first stage,10 cases and 8 controls were extracted,in whom Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k genome-wide beadchip was used for the quantification of DNA methylation levels of brain and spinal tissue. Read More

    Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections - United States, 2014.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jan 12;67(1):18-22. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Read More

    A Novel Occulta-Type Spina Bifida Mediated by Murine Double Heterozygotes EphA2 and EphA4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.
    Front Cell Dev Biol 2017 12;5:105. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase have previously been implicated in cranial neural tube development. Failure of neural tube closure leads to the devastating conditions known as anencephaly and spina bifida. EphA2 and EphA4 are expressed at the tips of the closing spinal neural folds prior and during neural tube closure. Read More

    First and second trimester screening for fetal structural anomalies.
    Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Dec 9. Epub 2017 Dec 9.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia; Department of Perinatal Medicine, Mercy Hospital for Women, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia; Public Health Genetics Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:
    Fetal structural anomalies are found in up to 3% of all pregnancies and ultrasound-based screening has been an integral part of routine prenatal care for decades. The prenatal detection of fetal anomalies allows for optimal perinatal management, providing expectant parents with opportunities for additional imaging, genetic testing, and the provision of information regarding prognosis and management options. Approximately one-half of all major structural anomalies can now be detected in the first trimester, including acrania/anencephaly, abdominal wall defects, holoprosencephaly and cystic hygromata. Read More

    A targeted sequencing panel identifies rare damaging variants in multiple genes in the cranial neural tube defect, anencephaly.
    Clin Genet 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Genetics and Genomic Medicine, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Neural tube defects (NTDs) affecting the brain (anencephaly) are lethal before or at birth, whereas lower spinal defects (spina bifida) may lead to life-long neurological handicap. Collectively NTDs rank among the most common birth defects worldwide. This study focuses on anencephaly, which despite having a similar frequency to spina bifida and being the most common type of NTD observed in mouse models, has had more limited inclusion in genetic studies. Read More

    Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Center for Spina Bifida Prevention, Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. Read More

    Association between severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy and the risk of neural tube defects in Northern China.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Institute of Reproductive and Child Health/Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China, Peking University, Beijing 100191, People's Republic of China.
    Background: This study assessed the association between severe NVP and the risk of NTD in offspring compared with a population and a malformed control group. We also assessed whether folic acid supplements modified this association.

    Study Design And Setting: A case-control study was conducted with subjects enrolled from June 19, 2002, to November 18, 2014, from a population-based birth defects surveillance system that monitors major external structural birth defects through active case ascertainment in Shanxi Province, China. Read More

    Practice Bulletin No. 187: Neural Tube Defects.
    • Authors:
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 12;130(6):e279-e290
    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital structural abnormalities of the central nervous system and vertebral column. Neural tube defects may occur as an isolated malformation, in combination with other malformations, as part of a genetic syndrome, or as a result of teratogenic exposure (1). Neural tube defects are the second-most-common major congenital anomaly (2) after cardiac malformations, and their prevalence varies by geographic region, race, and environmental factors (3). Read More

    Practice Bulletin No. 187 Summary: Neural Tube Defects.
    • Authors:
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;130(6):1394-1396
    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital structural abnormalities of the central nervous system and vertebral column. Neural tube defects may occur as an isolated malformation, in combination with other malformations, as part of a genetic syndrome, or as a result of teratogenic exposure (1). Neural tube defects are the second-most-common major congenital anomaly (2) after cardiac malformations, and their prevalence varies by geographic region, race, and environmental factors (3). Read More

    Genetic epidemiology of neural tube defects.
    J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2017 Dec;10(3-4):189-194
    Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, UTHealth School of Public Health, Houston, TX, USA.
    It has been estimated that 60-70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) have a genetic component, but few causative genes have been identified. The lack of information on genes associated with non-syndromic NTDs in humans is especially notable as the "genomic revolution" has led to new tools (e.g. Read More

    Maternal report of fever from cold or flu during early pregnancy and the risk for noncardiac birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2011.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Nov 2. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    Texas Department of State Health Services, Birth Defects Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, Austin, Texas.
    Background: As maternal fever affects approximately 6-8% of early pregnancies, it is important to expand upon previous observations of an association between maternal fever and birth defects.

    Methods: We analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, case-control study of major structural birth defects. Telephone interviews were completed by mothers of cases (n = 17,162) and controls (n = 10,127). Read More

    Prevalence and Risk of Birth Defects Observed in a Prospective Cohort Study: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.
    J Epidemiol 2017 Oct 28. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Hokkaido University Center for Environmental and Health Sciences.
    Background: Prevalence rates of all anomalies classified as birth defects, including those identified before the 22nd gestational week, are limited in published reports, including those from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). In our birth cohort study, we collected the data for all birth defects after 12 weeks of gestation.

    Methods: Subjects in this study comprised 19,244 pregnant women who visited one of 37 associated hospitals in the Hokkaido Prefecture from 2003 through 2012, and completed follow-up. Read More

    Risk comparison for prenatal use of analgesics and selected birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study 1997-2011.
    Ann Epidemiol 2017 Oct 20;27(10):645-653.e2. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Purpose: To compare the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or opioids to the use of acetaminophen without NSAIDs or opioids with respect to associations with birth defects.

    Methods: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011). Exposure was self-reported maternal analgesic use from the month before through the third month of pregnancy (periconceptional). Read More

    Comparison of Quality Metrics for Pediatric Shunt Surgery and Proposal of the Negative Shunt Revision Rate.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Jan 5;109:e404-e408. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Objective: Shunt surgery is common in pediatric neurosurgery and is associated with relevant complication rates. We aimed to compare previously published metrics in a single data set and propose the Negative Shunt Revision Rate (NSRR), defined as proportion of shunt explorations revealing a properly working system, as a new quality metric.

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of our shunt surgery activity in 2015 was performed. Read More

    Changing trends in the prevalence of anencephaly in Liaoning province of Northeast China from 2006-2015: data from a population-based birth defects registry.
    Oncotarget 2017 Aug 26;8(32):52846-52853. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Science and Education, Shenyang Women and Children Health Care Centre, Shenyang, China.
    The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence and trends of anencephaly on the basis of a large population-based cases identified by the Liaoning Birth Defects Registry, which included 14 cities over a 10-year period. Anencephaly prevalence, percent change, average changeand the contribution rates of each city were calculated. Statistical analysis was undertaken on the basis of a Poisson regression model. Read More

    Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a duplication of 15q24.2-q26.2 associated with anencephaly and neural tube defect.
    Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Aug;56(4):550-553
    Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Objective: We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of a duplication of 15q24.2-q26.2 associated with anencephaly and neural tube defect (NTD). Read More

    Apoptosis, Expression of PAX3 and P53, and Caspase Signal in Fetuses with Neural Tube Defects.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Nov 8;109(19):1596-1604. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, and Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common and severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that apoptosis is involved in the development of NTDs. However, little evidence is available from human studies. Read More

    Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System in Rural Western Honduras: A 6-Year Report on Trends.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Nov 29;107:249-254. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) malformations, including neural tube defects (NTDs), are the second most common type of birth defects worldwide and are major causes of childhood disability and mortality. We report the first analysis of birth prevalence in Western Honduras of CNS malformations including NTDs over 6 consecutive years.

    Methods: Data from all patients with congenital CNS malformations and total live births for the period 2010-2015 were obtained through institution and regional registries from all 3 public referral hospitals in Western Honduras, representing 67 municipalities. Read More

    Are concentrations of alkaline earth elements in maternal hair associated with risk of neural tube defects?
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Dec 28;609:694-700. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100191, PR China; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, PR China.
    The relationship between maternal intake of alkaline earth elements (AEEs) during the period of neural tube closure and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is still unclear. We propose that AEE deficiency during the early period of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of NTDs in the offspring. In this study, we recruited 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women who delivered healthy infants (controls). Read More

    Interaction between Maternal and Paternal SHMT1 C1420T Predisposes to Neural Tube Defects in the Fetus: Evidence from Case-Control and Family-Based Triad Approaches.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Jul;109(13):1020-1029
    Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.
    Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are caused by the failure of neural tube formation which occurs during early embryonic development. NTDs are the most severe and leading cause of fetal mortality. Serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT1) provides one-carbon units necessary for embryogenesis and defects in one-carbon production result in specific pathological conditions during pregnancy. Read More

    Thyroid Medication Use and Birth Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Nov 31;109(18):1471-1481. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Congenital Malformations Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York.
    Background: Thyroid disorders are common among reproductive-aged women, with hypothyroidism affecting 2 to 3% of pregnancies, and hyperthyroidism affecting an additional 0.1 to 1%. We examined associations between thyroid medications and individual birth defects using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Read More

    Raised Frequency of Central Nervous System Malformations Related to Zika Virus Infection in Two Birth Defects Surveillance Systems in Bogotá and Cali, Colombia.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    1 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali. 2Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Bogotá. Congenital Malformations Surveillance Programme of Bogotá. 3 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Congenital Birth Defects Surveillance Programme of Cali. 4Secretaria de Salud de Bogotá, Congenital Malformations Surveillance Programme of Bogotá. 5Secretaria de Salud de Bogotá. 6Secretaria de Salud Pública Municipal de Cali. 7 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Bogotá- Hospital Universitario San Ignacio.
    Zika virus infection during pregnancy is now known to cause congenital microcephaly and severe brain defects. Colombia has been experiencing an epidemic wave of Zika infection, starting approximately in October 2015. Here we document the trends of microcephaly and severe CNS malformations in two major cities in Colombia from 2012 through 2016, tracking the epidemiologic curve from before through the major Zika epidemic so far. Read More

    Lipoencephalocele in a Child: An Uncommon Swelling in the Occipital Region.
    Pediatr Neurosurg 2017 1;52(4):275-278. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India.
    Neural tube defects are common congenital malformations of the central nervous system. The 3 most common neural tube defects are anencephaly, myelomeningocele, and encephalocele. Lipoencephalocele is an extremely uncommon entity with sporadic reports in the literature. Read More

    Genetic Risk Factors for Folate-Responsive Neural Tube Defects.
    Annu Rev Nutr 2017 Aug 19;37:269-291. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Medical Genomics and Metabolic Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; email: ,
    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system. The etiology is complex, with both genetic and environmental factors having important contributions. Researchers have known for the past two decades that maternal periconceptional use of the B vitamin folic acid can prevent many NTDs. Read More

    Quantitative Measurement of PARD3 Copy Number Variations in Human Neural Tube Defects.
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 2017 Jun 16. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Capital Institute of Pediatrics, No.2, Yabao Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100020, People's Republic of China.
    Although more than 200 genes are known to be related to neural tube defects (NTDs), the exact molecular basis is still unclear. Evaluating the contribution of copy number variation (CNV) might be a priority because CNV involves changes in the copy number of large segments of DNA, leading to phenotypic traits and disease susceptibility. Recent studies have documented that the polarity protein partitioning defective 3 homolog (Pard3) plays an essential role in the process of neural tube closure. Read More

    Clinical and molecular genetic characterization of two siblings with trisomy 2p24.3-pter and monosomy 5p14.3-pter.
    Am J Med Genet A 2017 Aug 9;173(8):2201-2209. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Genetics, Institute for Developmental Research, Aichi Human Service Center, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan.
    Partial trisomy 2p syndrome is occasionally associated with neural tube defects (NTDs), such as anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida, in addition to common features of intellectual disability, developmental delay, and characteristic facial appearance. The 2p24 region has been reported to be associated with NTDs. Here, we report the cases of 2 siblings with trisomy 2p24. Read More

    A fetal diagnostic center's referral rate for perinatal palliative care.
    Ann Palliat Med 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    UCSD Maternal-Fetal Care and Genetics, CA, USA; Department of Radiology, UC San Diego, CA, USA.
    Background: Fetal specialists support standardizing the practice of offering women palliative care for life limiting fetal diagnoses. However, there is little data available regarding what fetal specialists do in practice. Since 2003, our center has kept a database of all women referred for fetal complications. Read More

    Fetal Pathology of Neural Tube Defects - An Overview of 68 Cases.
    Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2017 May 24;77(5):495-507. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Institute of Pathology, WG Fetal Pathology, University of Gießen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
    Introduction: The prevalence of neural tube defects worldwide is 1 - 2 per 1000 neonates. Neural tube defects result from a disturbance of neurulation in the 3rd or 4th week of development and thus represent the earliest manifestation of organ malformation. Neural tube defects (NTD) are classified into cranial dysraphism leading to anencephaly or meningoencephalocele and spinal dysraphism with or without meningomyelocele. Read More

    Two Cases of Craniospinal Rachischisis Totalis: Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnosis and Review of Neural Tube Defects in the Indian Context with Implications for Folate Fortification.
    J Pediatr Neurosci 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):32-35
    Department of Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
    Craniospinal rachischisis is a rare and severe form of neural tube defects (NTDs), which is always fatal. It is characterized by anencephaly accompanied by a bony defect of the spine and exposure of neural tissue. We describe the two patients with ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of craniospinal rachischisis totalis, detected antenatally at 22 and 25 weeks of gestation, and confirmed after termination of pregnancy. Read More

    Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects and the Impact of Prenatal Diagnosis in Three Districts of Beijing, China.
    Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2017 Jul 2;31(4):293-300. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing, China.
    Background: The objectives of this study were to explore the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in three districts of Beijing, and to evaluate the impact of prenatal diagnosis on the prevalence.

    Methods: Data were collected between 2006 and 2012 from the Beijing Birth Defects Surveillance System. P13 and P28 represent the prevalence of NTDs diagnosed from 13 weeks and 28 weeks of gestation, respectively, to 7 days after delivery. Read More

    A pilot study on the association between rare earth elements in maternal hair and the risk of neural tube defects in north China.
    Environ Pollut 2017 Jul 12;226:89-93. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/ Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100191, PR China; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, PR China. Electronic address:
    Rare earth elements (REEs) have many applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine, resulting in occupational and environmental exposure and concerns regarding REE-associated health effects. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the adverse effects of REEs on pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the REE concentrations in maternal hair growing during early pregnancy and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Read More

    Interaction between Maternal and Paternal SHMT1 C1420T Predisposes to Neural Tube Defects in the Fetus: Evidence from Case-Control and Family-Based Triad Approaches.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana State, India.
    Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are caused by the failure of neural tube formation which occurs during early embryonic development. NTDs are the most severe and leading cause of fetal mortality. Serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT1) provides one-carbon units necessary for embryogenesis and defects in one-carbon production result in specific pathological conditions during pregnancy. Read More

    The fetal safety of clomiphene citrate: a population-based retrospective cohort study.
    BJOG 2017 Oct 15;124(11):1664-1670. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Objective: To evaluate whether exposure to clomiphene citrate (CC) for ovulation induction is associated with major malformations overall or with specific fetal anomalies.

    Design: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study. Exposure was defined as CC dispension from 2 months before conception through the first month of pregnancy. Read More

    Neural tube closure and embryonic metabolism.
    Congenit Anom (Kyoto) 2017 Sep 31;57(5):134-137. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Genetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Neural tube closure (NTC) is an embryonic process during formation of the mammalian central nervous system. Disruption of the dynamic, sequential events of NTC can cause neural tube defects (NTD) leading to spina bifida and anencephaly in the newborn. NTC is affected by inherent factors such as genetic mutation or if the mother is exposed to certain environmental factors such as intake of harmful chemicals, maternal infection, irradiation, malnutrition, and inadequate or excessive intake of specific nutrients. Read More

    [Confrontation between ultrasound and fetopathological examination following therapeutic abortion performed in a maternity clinic in Tunisia].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 21;25:256. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Service C du Centre de Maternité et de Néonatologie de Tunis, Faculté de Médecine de Tunis, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunisie.
    This study aims to evaluate the value of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis by comparing it with the results of the fetopathological examination in case of therapeutic interruption of pregnancy for fetal indication. We conducted a retrospective descriptive and analytical study carried out over a three-year period from January 2013 to December 2015. It involved 66 fetuses autopsied after therapeutic interruption of pregnancy for fetal indication. Read More

    Fetal brain anomalies detection during the first trimester: expanding the scope of antenatal sonography.
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2018 Feb 15;31(4):506-512. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    a Antenatal Diagnostic Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Sheba Medical Center , Tel HaShomer , Ramat Gan , Israel.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe fetal brain anomalies identified during nuchal translucency (NT) examination and their clinical management.

    Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated charts of pregnant women performed the first trimester scan (FTS) between 1.1. Read More

    A detailed musculoskeletal study of a fetus with anencephaly and spina bifida (craniorachischisis), and comparison with other cases of human congenital malformations.
    J Anat 2017 Jun 7;230(6):842-858. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Department of Anatomy, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.
    Few descriptions of the musculoskeletal system of humans with anencephaly or spina bifida exist in the literature. Even less is published about individuals in which both phenomena occur together, i.e. Read More

    Time trends in the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of neural tube defects in Liaoning Province, China, 2006-2015: A population-based study.
    Oncotarget 2017 Mar;8(10):17092-17104
    Department of Science and Education, Shenyang Women and Children Health Care Centre, Shenyang, China.
    To evaluate the time trends in the prevalence of neural tube defects and all their subtypes as well as to identify the epidemiological characteristics of these malformations documented in the Liaoning Province of northeast China from 2006 to 2015. This was a population-based observational study using data from 3,248,954 live births as well as from 6217 cases of neural tube defects, 1,600 cases of anencephaly, 2,029 cases of spina bifida, 404 cases of encephalocele, and 3,008 cases of congenital hydrocephalus from 14 cities in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. All analyses were conducted using SPSS software. Read More

    A homozygous mutation in TRIM36 causes autosomal recessive anencephaly in an Indian family.
    Hum Mol Genet 2017 03;26(6):1104-1114
    Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.
    Anencephaly (APH) is characterized by the absence of brain tissues and cranium. During primary neurulation stage of the embryo, the rostral part of the neural pore fails to close, leading to APH. APH shows a heterogeneous etiology, ranging from environmental to genetic causes. Read More

    Secondary Myelitis in Dermal Sinus Causing Paraplegia in a Child with Previously Normal Neurological Function.
    Case Rep Neurol Med 2016 6;2016:8918954. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
    Department of Pediatrics, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania; Department of Internal Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania; Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Neural tube defects result from failure of neural tube fusion during early embryogenesis, the fourth week after conception. The spectrum of severity is not uniform across the various forms of this congenital anomaly as certain presentations are not compatible with extrauterine life (anencephaly) while, on the other hand, other defects may remain undiagnosed as they are entirely asymptomatic (occult spina bifida). We report a child with previously normal neurological development, a devastating clinical course following superinfection of a subtle spina bifida defect which resulted in a flaccid paralysis below the level of the lesion and permanent neurological deficits following resolution of the acute infection and a back closure surgery. Read More

    Association between titanium and silver concentrations in maternal hair and risk of neural tube defects in offspring: A case-control study in north China.
    Reprod Toxicol 2016 12 29;66:115-121. Epub 2016 Oct 29.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, PR China; Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/ Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing 100191, PR China.
    Increasing uses of titanium and silver in various products raise concerns for their potential adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to examine the associations between titanium and silver concentrations in maternal hair growing during the periconception period and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Our case-control study recruited 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 261 women delivering healthy infants. Read More

    Association of essential trace metals in maternal hair with the risk of neural tube defects in offspring.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Feb;109(3):234-243
    Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Peking University/ Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health, National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China, Beijing, P.R. China.
    Background: The relationship between essential trace metals (ETMs) and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is still unclear. One of the challenges is to evaluate the intake of ETMs of women during their early period of pregnancy. We proposed the hypothesis that an ETM deficiency in women during their early period of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of NTDs in offspring. Read More

    Fetal malformation in maternal toxoplasma and rubella co-infection in Cameroon: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2016 Dec 3;10(1):345. Epub 2016 Dec 3.
    General Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Republic of Cameroon.
    Background: There has been a recent increase in the number of newborns with brain malformations due to congenital infections, but the impact of these diseases remains largely under ascertained in middle-income and low-income countries. This case report presents a fetal anencephaly following maternal toxoplasma and rubella co-infection in a resource-limited setting and the challenges faced by the patient and the health care provider in the management of the condition.

    Case Presentation: A 25-year-old black Cameroonian woman of Bakossi origin, gravida3 para1010, presented with a positive rubella and toxoplasma immunoglobulin G serologic test at 21 weeks of pregnancy; she could not benefit from a fetal morphologic ultrasound partly because there was none at the site of her antenatal clinic and because there were accessibility constraints getting to the nearest referral hospital approximately 100 km away. Read More

    Race and ethnicity and preconception folic acid supplement use among pregnant women in Georgia, PRAMS 2009 to 2011.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Jan;109(1):38-48
    Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: The United States Public Health Service recommends that all women of reproductive age consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to prevent major neural tube defects. Hispanics have the highest prevalence of neural tube defects compared with other race/ethnic groups. We studied prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use, and its association with race/ethnicity among pregnant women in Georgia. Read More

    Using state and provincial surveillance programs to reduce risk of recurrence of neural tube defects in the United States and Canada: A missed opportunity?
    Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 2016 Nov;106(11):875-880
    College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida.
    Background: Once a woman has had a fetus or infant affected with a neural tube defect (NTD), the risk of recurrence is approximately 3%. This risk can be significantly reduced by folic acid supplement consumption during the periconceptional period; however, this requires women at risk to be adequately informed about the appropriate dosage and timing of supplement intake before planning another pregnancy. As birth defects surveillance programs are tasked with identifying and documenting NTD-affected pregnancies and births, they are in a unique position to support recurrence prevention activities. Read More

    Nutrition, One-Carbon Metabolism and Neural Tube Defects: A Review.
    Nutrients 2016 Nov 23;8(11). Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.
    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of severe congenital malformations, induced by the combined effects of genes and the environment. The most valuable finding so far has been the protective effect of folic acid supplementation against NTDs. However, many women do not take folic acid supplements until they are pregnant, which is too late to prevent NTDs effectively. Read More

    Genomic approaches to the assessment of human spina bifida risk.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Jan;109(2):120-128
    Dell Pediatric Research Institute, Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
    Structural birth defects are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children world-wide, affecting as much as 6% of all live births. Among these conditions, neural tube defects (NTDs), including spina bifida and anencephaly, arise from a combination of complex gene and environment interactions that are as yet poorly understood within human populations. Rapid advances in massively parallel DNA sequencing and bioinformatics allow for analyses of the entire genome beyond the 2% of the genomic sequence covering protein coding regions. Read More

    Research: Prevalence of neural tube defects Khartoum, Sudan August 2014-July 2015.
    BMC Res Notes 2016 Nov 24;9(1):495. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Academy of Medical Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Background: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects that results from failure of the neural tube to develop properly during early pregnancy.

    Methods: We studied the prevalence of neural tube defects in newborns admitted to the NICU in Soba University and Omdurman Maternity hospitals, during the period 1st August 2014 to 31st July 2015. A cross-sectional hospital based study, involved all newborns with any type of neural tube defect admitted to the NICU in the study area during the study period. Read More

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