Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Section of Pediatrics, Federico II University, Via S. Pansini, 5, 80131, Naples, Italy.
Since the discovery of FOXN1 deficiency, the human counterpart of the nude mouse, a growing body of evidence investigating the role of FOXN1 in thymus and skin, has been published. FOXN1 has emerged as fundamental for thymus development, function, and homeostasis, representing the master regulator of thymic epithelial and T cell development. In the skin, it also plays a pivotal role in keratinocytes and hair follicle cell differentiation, although the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain to be fully elucidated. Read More
Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI.
Clostridium difficile infections can be life-threatening but are increasingly being treated successfully with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We report two patients with alopecia universalis who developed subsequent hair regrowth after FMT for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infections. Read More
Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb, Zurich-Wallisellen, Switzerland.
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) and fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution (FAPD) as originally reported by Kossard in 1994 and by Zinkernagel and Trüeb in 2000, respectively, represent two distinct patterns of cicatricial pattern hair loss. Both share a patterned distribution and histological evidence of a lichenoid follicular inflammation with fibrosis. FFA is characterized by a marginal alopecia along the frontotemporal hairline, and FAPD by a progressive alopecia of the centroparietal scalp. Read More
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India.
Hair transplantation, a generally regarded as a safe surgical modality for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, is not without its potential risks and complications. A case of an extensive keloid formation at donor site following follicular unit extraction is discussed. Hair transplant surgeons should be aware of this significant potential complication, especially in patients having previous keloidal tendencies to avoid such disastrous outcomes. Read More
Department of Leprosy, Pramukshwami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat, India.
Pseudopelade of Brocq (PPB) is a rare, chronic, slowly progressive cicatricial alopecia that generally affects middle-aged women. Vertex and parietal scalp are commonly involved. It can be primary or secondary to end stage of other scarring alopecia such as lichen planopilaris and discoid lupus erythematosus. Read More
Background: Nutritional deficiencies are known to be associated with hair loss; however, the exact prevalence is not known.
Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies in participants with hair loss.
Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 enrolled participants were divided into telogen effluvium (TE), male-pattern hair loss (MPHL), and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) based on the type of hair loss. Read More
Department of Dermatology, Huashan Hospital affiliated with Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Male-pattern hair loss (MPHL) is a condition that affects the majority of men during adulthood. This condition is not life threatening but needs constant treatment and monitoring, especially in recent years where male appearance is gaining significant importance in society. An ideal classification with high amount of detail, practicality, and reproducibility is required to accurately diagnose and monitor this condition regularly and to assess the outcome of treatment. Read More
Rationale: Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome (CCS) is an idiopathic, nonhereditary syndrome haracterized by gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis and ectodermal changes including alopecia, onychatrophia, and pigmentation. CCS colon polyps were previously considered to be benign neoplasms. However, serrated adenoma was reported to be associated with malignant neoplasms in some cases of gastric and colorectal carcinomas, and esophageal cancers. Read More
From the *Department of Dermatology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA; †Craniofacial Research Laboratory, Section of Plastic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; ‡Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; §Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; ∥Podiatry Section, Department of Surgery, VA Northern California Health Care Systems, Mather, CA; ¶Orthopedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Michigan; and #Pediatric Plastic Surgery Section, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI.
Background: Using distraction osteogenesis (DO) to regenerate robust endogenous bone could greatly enhance postoncologic reconstruction of head and neck cancer. However, radiation (XRT) corrosive effects still preclude DO's immense potential. We posit that adjunctive pretreatment with the radioprotectant amifostine (AMF) can optimize wound healing and allow for successful DO with quantifiable enhancements in bony union and strength despite previous surgical bed irradiation. Read More
Washington Health Systems Family Medicine Residency, Washington, PA, USA.
Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Read More
Pediatric Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
Evidence has emerged about the relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and autoimmune diseases, but the underlying mechanism of this association is complex and still unclear. Recent epidemiological data from the published work suggest a positive correlation. The aim of this review is to analyze the frequency of co-occurrence of AD and autoimmune diseases. Read More
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, ChinaClinical School of Southern Medical University, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, ChinaDepartment of Chemotherapy, Jiangsu Province Cancer Institute and Hospital, Nanjing, ChinaThe Affiliated Jiangning Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
Background: Abraxane is a novel Cremophor-free nanoparticle paclitaxel that has been demonstrated to improve efficacy in the treatment of solid tumors. We undertook this retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Abraxane in the progressive or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Methods: From August 2009 to April 2011, 33 patients who were diagnosed with progressive or recurrent NSCLC and treated with one or more prior platinum-based chemotherapies, were enrolled. Read More
Purpose: Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a distressing side effect of cancer treatment. The aim of this registry study was to assess efficacy and tolerability of scalp hypothermia using Penguin Cold Caps (Penguin) in breast cancer patients.
Methods: Hair loss was assessed by patients using a 100-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and by physicians using the 5-point Dean Scale at baseline, every 3-4 weeks during chemotherapy, and at least 1 month after completion of chemotherapy. Read More
A 13-yr-old male addax (Addax nasomaculatus) presented with locally extensive alopecia, slight erythema, and skin thickening on the medial aspect of the left rear leg between the stifle and tarsus. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed after histopathology and immunohistochemical staining of representative skin-punch biopsies. No treatment was elected, and the addax was euthanized 3 yr later because of poor body condition, chronic dental disease, and confirmed spread of lymphoma to other cutaneous locations. Read More
Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) alopecia syndrome (ABAS) commonly affects captive bears, particularly sexually mature females. ABAS is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical predominantly flank alopecia with or without profound pruritus and secondary bacterial and Malassezia infections. There is no effective treatment and severely affected bears have been euthanized. Read More
Department of Dermatology, Skin Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) is an autoimmune disorder that usually occurs on sun exposed areas of head and neck. Infrequently it could be presented by palpebral involvement and rarely unilateral upper eye lid edema and erythema have been reported as the sole manifestation of DLE. We describe a 38-year-old woman with chronic left upper eye lid edema and erythema from one year ago which was induced by steroid injection for left eyebrow alopecia. Read More
Postgraduate Program in Animal Science, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia, Paraíba, 58397-000, Brazil; Veterinary Hospital, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia, Paraíba, 58397-000, Brazil. Electronic address:
Farmers from Paraiba state, Northeast Brazil, claim that Malachra fasciata causes cutaneous lesions in sheep. To test its toxicity the plant was harvested daily and fed ad libitum for 21 days to 3 sheep as the sole food source (# 1-3). An additional sheep (# 4) was maintained as a control. Read More
Background: Few treatments with a distinct mechanism of action are available for patients with platinum-refractory advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. We assessed the efficacy and safety of treatment with docetaxel plus either ramucirumab-a human IgG1 VEGFR-2 antagonist-or placebo in this patient population.
Methods: We did a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial in patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who progressed during or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Read More
Background: PCOs is a heterogeneous disorder with anovulation/oligo ovulation usually taken as oligo menorrhoea or amenorrhoea, hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism, acne, androgen alopecia and polycystic ovaries as the key diagnostic feathers. The study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective and ameliorating effects of GABA in Letrozole induced PCOS model in rats by targeting insulin resistance.
Methods: PCOs in Adult female rat was induced by the daily gastric administration of letrozole (1 mg/kg/day) in CMC (0. Read More
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Anam, Korea.
Background: Conventional correction of malunioned zygoma requires complete regional exposure through a bicoronal flap combined with a lower eyelid incision and an upper buccal sulcus incision. However, there are many potential complications following bicoronal incisions, such as infection, hematoma, alopecia, scarring and nerve injury. We have adopted a zygomaticofrontal suture osteotomy technique using transconjunctival incision with lateral paracanthal extension. Read More
Estrogens and progestins are known to have profound effects on the immune system and may modulate the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PubMed for any of 153 autoimmune disease terms and the terms contraception, contraceptive, or their chemical components with limits of Humans + Title or Abstract. Over 1,800 titles were returned and scanned, 352 papers retrieved and reviewed in depth and an additional 70 papers retrieved from the bibliographies. Read More
Stem Cell Biology Group, Waghmare Lab, Cancer Research Institute, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, 410210, MH, India.
Secretory phospholipase A2 Group-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is involved in lipid catabolism and growth promoting activity. sPLA2-IIA is deregulated in many pathological conditions including various cancers. Here, we have studied the role of sPLA2-IIA in the development of cyclic alopecia and wound healing response in relation to complete loss of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs). Read More
Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Dr. César Milstein, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Saladillo, 2468 (C1440FFX) Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:
Beyond sexual functions, androgens exert their action in skin physiology and pathophysiology. Skin cells are able to synthesize most of active androgens from gonadal or adrenal precursors and the enzymes involved in skin steroidogenesis are implicated both in normal or pathological processes. Even when the role of androgens and androgen receptor (AR) in skin pathologies has been studied for decades, their molecular mechanisms in skin disorders remain largely unknown. Read More
Alopecia is an uncommon manifestation of syphilis, simulating other common forms of hair-loss, but representing a crucial complaint for the patient, who might by converse have not noticed other signs and symptoms of the disease. Esthetic issues undervaluation might prolong illness, and postpone appropriate treatment. A 42-year-old patient, HIV negative, presented with a 2-month history of progressive generalized thinning of the hairs and small non-scarring irregular alopecia patches of the parietal-occipital areas of the scalp. Read More
This study investigated the potential hair regrowth effects associated with a plant extract of Perilla frutescens, which was selected due to its putative hair regrowth activity. Extracts were prepared from dried P. frutescens suspended in distilled water, where the resultant aqueous suspension was fractionated sequentially using hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Read More
Stem Cells Int 2017 21;2017:4740709. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
Foundation for Nerve Cell Regeneration, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland.
The promising results derived from the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in many diseases are a subject of observation in preclinical studies. ADSCs seem to be the ideal cell population for the use in regenerative medicine due to their easy isolation, nonimmunogenic properties, multipotential nature, possibilities for differentiation into various cell lines, and potential for angiogenesis. This article reviews the current data on the use of ADSCs in the treatment of vitiligo, various types of hair loss, and the healing of chronic wounds. Read More
Abnormal colouring of the nails may be a sign of underlying systemic or local disorders. This study investigated the prevalence and causes of chromonychia as a whole, as well as of each subtype. Among 163 patients with chromonychia, trauma was the pathogenesis in up to 20. Read More
Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol 2017 Apr-Jun;38(2):140-145
Department of Surgery, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India.
Introduction: Anticancer drugs contribute significantly to the global burden of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Any attempt to quantify their magnitude and provide upgraded knowledge would help oncologists in writing safer prescriptions.
Aim: This observational follow-up study was conducted on newly diagnosed cancer patients receiving anticancer therapy with an aim to determine the frequency, severity, causality, predictability, and preventability of ADRs. Read More
Introduction: Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) is one of the six members of cysteine-rich, heparin-binding proteins, secreted as modular protein and recognised to play a major function in cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation as well as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo. CTGF Knockout (KO) mice have several craniofacial defects and bone miss shaped due to an impairment of the vascular system development during chondrogenesis. Read More
Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10. Read More
Department of Dermatology, Columbia University, New York, New York.
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease and it is challenging to predict which patients will have severe disease. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify comorbidities in children enrolled in the National Alopecia Areata Registry. Atopic dermatitis was more common in patients with severe AA than in those with mild disease. Read More
Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor that promotes hair growth; however, the efficacy and mechanism of this effect are not yet understood. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of topical tofacitinib on hair growth in mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided equally into four groups and treated topically with tofacitinib, minoxidil, or vehicle once daily for 21 days. Read More
Thoracic Center, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
Background Dabrafenib is a BRAF inhibitor that has demonstrated clinical activity with a good tolerability profile in patients with BRAF (V600E) mutated metastatic melanoma. This study evaluated the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy of dabrafenib in Japanese patients. Methods This phase I, open-label, dose escalation study was conducted in 12 Japanese patients with BRAF (V600) mutation positive solid tumours. Read More
Background: Biotin has gained commercial popularity for its claimed benefits on healthy hair and nail growth. Despite its reputation, there is limited research to support the utility of biotin in healthy individuals.
Objective: To systematically review the literature on biotin efficacy in hair and nail growth. Read More
Background/aims: Alopecia areata is a common immune-mediated hair condition with limited treatment options and success rates. There is evidence that statins, which are used for reducing atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease, have immunomodulatory activities and therefore may also be used for treatment of selected dermatologic conditions, including alopecia areata. Among treatments evaluated for alopecia areata, oral simvastatin/ezetimibe therapy is currently under the scrutiny of expert opinion. Read More
Skin Appendage Disord 2017 Aug 8;3(3):132-143. Epub 2017 Apr 8.
Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Purpose Of The Study: To analyze the epidemiologic, demographic, clinical, and histological characteristics of primary scarring alopecia (PSA) cases diagnosed over a 7-year period at the Department of Dermatology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain.
Procedures: Seventy-two patients diagnosed with PSA between 2006 and 2012 were included. Age, sex, ethnic group, clinical pattern, predominant histological infiltrate, final clinical diagnosis, time of onset, treatments used, and clinical evolution were evaluated and correlated. Read More
Background: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) differs from lichen planopilaris (LPP) in many clinical aspects, but histology fails to distinguish between these entities. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is a diagnostic technique used for autoimmune diseases, including those affecting skin and hair.
Objective: To characterize DIF patterns in patients with FFA. Read More
Background: Scalp involvement is not directly evaluated in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). Therefore, the exact frequency of scalp dermatomyositis (SDM) and its clinical and trichoscopic characteristics have been poorly described.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical and dermoscopic features of SDM in patients diagnosed with DM. Read More
Alopecia areata (AA) is a clinically heterogeneous disease that is characterized by nonscarring hair loss, nail changes, and increased risk of other autoimmune disease. During clinical visits, children with AA often report bullying. We report survey results that highlight the prevalence of bullying and surrounding emotional impact of AA in pediatric patients. Read More
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue. ADSCs secrete growth factors and other proteins, and have been used to regenerate skin with satisfactory results. ADSCs promote hair growth in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Read More