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    2415 results match your criteria Androgen Excess

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    Metformin as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris.
    Dermatol Online J 2017 Nov 15;23(11). Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine.
    The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the use of metformin as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne in those not diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or androgen excess. The authors conducted independent literature searches. Results were limited to clinical trials and randomized controlled trials. Read More

    C1QTNF3 in the murine ovary and its function in folliculogenesis.
    Reproduction 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Y Yu, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine (JNU-CUHK), Ministry of Education, Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology,College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
    C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 (C1QTNF3) is a novel adipokine with modulating effects on metabolism, inflammation, and the cardiovascular system. C1QTNF3 expression levels in the sera and omental adipose tissues of women with PCOS are low compared to control subjects. However, the expression and function of C1QTNF3 in the ovary has not previously been examined. Read More

    Genes and Pathways Regulated by Androgens in Human Neural Cells, Potential Candidates for the Male Excess in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    Biol Psychiatry 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7104, Illkirch, France; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U964, Illkirch, France; Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France; Laboratory of Genetic Diagnostics, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Prenatal exposure to androgens during brain development in male individuals may participate to increase their susceptibility to develop neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the action of androgens in human neural cells.

    Methods: We used human neural stem cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells to investigate targets of androgens. Read More

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based analysis in the United States.
    J Invest Dermatol 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Dermatology, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New Hyde Park, New York, USA.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been linked to hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). However, evidence establishing a relationship between the two conditions is limited. We sought to determine prevalence of PCOS among HS patients and the strength of the association. Read More

    Perimenarchal air pollution exposure and menstrual disorders.
    Hum Reprod 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Medicine, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Landmark Center, 401 Park Drive, 3rd F West, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Study Question: What is the association between perimenarchal exposure to total suspended particulate (TSP) in air, menstrual irregularity phenotypes and time to menstrual cycle regularity?

    Summary Answer: Exposures to TSP during high school are associated with slightly increased odds of menstrual irregularity and longer time to regularity in high school and early adulthood.

    What Is Known Already: The menstrual cycle is responsive to hormonal regulation. Particulate matter air pollution has demonstrated hormonal activity. Read More

    Circadian blood pressure profiles and ambulatory arterial stiffness index in children and adolescents with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency in relation to their genotypes.
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2017 Dec 3;38(7):509-518. Epub 2017 Dec 3.
    Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology, Chair of Pediatrics, Institute of Pediatrics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.
    Objective: Lifelong steroid therapy and exposure to adrenal androgen excess in 21-hydroxylase deficient (21-OHD) congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) children and adolescents may modify circadian blood pressure profile and result in vascular complications. The objective of the study was to evaluate vascular abnormalities in 21-OHD children and adolescents in relation to their genotypes.

    Design: A cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary referral center. Read More

    New perspectives on the definition and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Unit of Endocrinology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University Alma Mater Studiorum of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Background: There is a growing debate on the opportunity of improving the understanding in the diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Objective: This review article summarizes recent research related to the definition of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Methods: Review of the recent literature on the topic. Read More

    Testosterone a key factor in gender related metabolic syndrome.
    Obes Rev 2018 Jan 21. Epub 2018 Jan 21.
    Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy.
    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly correlated with cardiovascular diseases. Although an excess of body fat is a determinant factor for MetS development, a reduced level of testosterone plays a fundamental role in its regulation. Low testosterone level is highly related to insulin resistance, visceral obesity and MetS. Read More

    Insulin signaling displayed a differential tissue specific response to low dose DHT in female mice.
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2017 Dec 19. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    John Hopkins.
    Hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia are believed to play prominent roles in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We explored the effects of low dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a PCOS model, on insulin signaling in metabolic and re-productive tissues in a female mouse model. Insulin resistance in the energy storage tissues is associated with type 2 diabetes. Read More

    Causes, patterns and severity of androgen excess in 1205 consecutively recruited women.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Context: Androgen excess in women is predominantly due to underlying polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However there is a lack of clarity regarding patterns and severity of androgen excess that should be considered predictive of non-PCOS pathology.

    Objective: We examined the diagnostic utility of simultaneous measurement of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T) to delineate biochemical signatures and cut-offs predictive of non-PCOS disorders in women with androgen excess. Read More

    Children with premature pubarche: is an alterated neonatal 17-Ohp screening test a predictive factor?
    Ital J Pediatr 2018 Jan 16;44(1):10. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Pediatric Division, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Background: Neonatal screening for 21 hydroxylase deficiency is designed to detect classical form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). It is still unclear whether newborns who result false positives at neonatal screening might later develop signs of androgen excess. The aim of this study is to verify whether a slightly elevated 17-OHP at newborn screening is a predictive factor for premature pubarche. Read More

    Mitotane treatment in patients with metastatic testicular Leydig cell tumor associated with severe androgen excess.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Mar 12;178(3):K21-K27. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems ResearchUniversity of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Mitotane (o,p'DDD) is established in the adjuvant and advanced-stage treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma and counteracts both tumor growth and tumor-related steroid production. Both the adrenal glands and the gonads are steroidogenically active organs and share a common embryogenic origin. Here, we describe the effects of mitotane in two patients with metastatic Leydig cell tumor (LCT) of the testes and associated severe androgen excess (serum testosterone 93 and 88 nmol/L, respectively; male reference range 7-27 nmol/L). Read More

    Premature Adrenarche.
    Pediatr Ann 2018 Jan;47(1):e7-e11
    Adrenarche is when a child's adrenal cortex starts to secrete adrenal androgen precursors. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant product of the adrenal cortex, and is a weak androgen agonist thought to be responsible for the clinical signs of pubarche by conversion to more potent androgens, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone. DHEA's extra-adrenal sulfation product, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, is a stable marker for adrenal androgenic activity. Read More

    Anogenital distance in newborn daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome indicates fetal testosterone exposure.
    J Dev Orig Health Dis 2018 Jan 9:1-8. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    9Department of Preventive Medicine,Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai,New York,NY,USA.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects ~7% of reproductive age women. Although its etiology is unknown, in animals, excess prenatal testosterone (T) exposure induces PCOS-like phenotypes. While measuring fetal T in humans is infeasible, demonstrating in utero androgen exposure using a reliable newborn biomarker, anogenital distance (AGD), would provide evidence for a fetal origin of PCOS and potentially identify girls at risk. Read More

    Suspected ontogeny of a recently described hypo-androgenic PCOS-like phenotype with advancing age.
    Endocrine 2018 Jan 6. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    The Center for Human Reproduction, New York, NY, 10021, USA.
    Background: A recent report described a new PCOS-like phenotype in lean older infertile women, and was characterized by high age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) but hypo- rather than the expected hyper-androgenism. The hypo-androgenism was, furthermore, characterized of, likely, adrenal origin and autoimmune etiology.

    Patients And Methods: We extracted data on 708 consecutive infertility patients, and separated them into three age-strata, <35, 36-42, and >42 years. Read More

    Combined oral contraceptives and/or antiandrogens versus insulin sensitizers for polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Hum Reprod Update 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal & Universidad de Alcalá, E-28034 Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Androgen excess is a key pathogenetic mechanism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), although hyperinsulinism also contributes to androgen secretion. Therapeutic approaches for adult patients not seeking fertility include combined oral contraceptives (COC), antiandrogens (AA) and/or insulin sensitizers, although these practices are supported by limited high-quality evidence.

    Objective And Rationale: We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of these common treatments for PCOS by conducting a meta-analysis of RCTs with the following review questions: Which is the more appropriate therapeutic approach for hyperandrogenic symptoms, hyperandrogenemia, and ovulatory dysfunction in adult women with PCOS not seeking fertility; What is the impact on classic cardiometabolic risk factors of the more common treatments used in those women; Does the combination of the antiandrogenic therapy plus metformin have any impact on efficacy or cardiometabolic profile?

    Search Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for articles published up to 16 September 2017. Read More

    Androgen excess is due to elevated 11-oxygenated androgens in treated children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Dec 23. Epub 2017 Dec 23.
    Steroid Research & Mass Spectrometry Unit, Laboratory for Translational Hormone Analytics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Adrenal androgen excess is the hallmark of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Recently, 11-oxygenated C19 steroids, a class of highly active adrenal-derived androgens, have been described in patients with CAH. The aim of our study was to elucidate the significance of 11-oxygenated androgens in children with CAH. Read More

    Enlarged adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue associated to hyperandrogenism and visceral adipose tissue volume in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Steroids 2018 Feb 20;130:15-21. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Endocrinology and Metabolism Laboratory, West Division, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an androgen excess disorder associated with obesity and adipose tissue disturbances. Our aim was to evaluate gene expression of adipocytokines and adipocyte characteristics in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of PCOS women.

    Design: Twelve PCOS (PCOSw) and 12 control (Cw) premenopausal women (BMI 20-35 kg/m) were included, with measurements of whole-body composition assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume, by magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

    Alterations in Hydrocortisone Pharmacokinetics in a Patient With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Following Bariatric Surgery.
    J Endocr Soc 2017 Jul 21;1(7):994-1001. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
    Management of adult patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is challenging and often complicated by obesity, metabolic syndrome, and adverse cardiovascular risk. Alterations in weight can influence cortisol kinetics. A 19-year-old woman with classic CAH and morbid obesity experienced persistent elevations of androgen levels while receiving oral glucocorticoid therapy. Read More

    Developmental Programming: Impact of Prenatal Testosterone Excess on Steroidal Machinery and Cell Differentiation Markers in Visceral Adipocytes of Female Sheep.
    Reprod Sci 2017 Jan 1:1933719117746767. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated female sheep manifest reduced adipocyte size and peripheral insulin resistance. The small adipocyte phenotype may reflect defects in adipogenesis and its steroidal machinery. To test whether prenatal T treatment from gestational days 30 to 90 alters the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) steroidal machinery and reduces adipocyte differentiation, we examined expression of the steroidogenic enzymes, steroid receptors, and adipocyte differentiation markers at fetal day 90 and postnatal ages 10 and 21 months. Read More

    Do Different Diagnostic Criteria Cause Impact Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Diagnosis for Adolescents?
    J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2017 Dec 9. Epub 2017 Dec 9.
    Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Objective: While early diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents may allow for earlier treatment and prevention of chronic disorders, incorrect or premature diagnosis carries risks of unnecessary treatment and psychological distress. There is no consensus concerning which diagnostic criteria to use for adolescents and current criteria vary. The objective of this study was to determine whether using different diagnostic criteria will affect PCOS diagnosis in adolescents. Read More

    The Role of Androgen Excess in Metabolic Dysfunction in Women : Androgen Excess and Female Metabolic Dysfunction.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;1043:597-608
    Diabetes Obesity and Human Reproduction Research Group, Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal & Universidad de Alcalá & Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS & Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas CIBERDEM, Madrid, Spain.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the association of androgen excess with chronic oligoovulation and/or polycystic ovarian morphology, yet metabolic disorders and classic and nonclassic cardiovascular risk factors cluster in these women from very early in life. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying the association of PCOS with metabolic dysfunction, focusing on the role of androgen excess on the development of visceral adiposity and adipose tissue dysfunction. Read More

    Sex Differences in Androgen Regulation of Metabolism in Nonhuman Primates.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;1043:559-574
    Division of Cardiometabolic Health, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
    The in-depth characterization of sex differences relevant to human physiology requires the judicious use of a variety of animal models and human clinical data. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) represent an important experimental system that bridges rodent studies and clinical investigations. NHP studies have been especially useful in understanding the role of sex hormones in development and metabolism and also allow the elucidation of the effects of pertinent dietary influences on physiology pertinent to disease states such as obesity and diabetes. Read More

    Molecular Modifiers of Hormone Receptor Action: Decreased Androgen Receptor Expression in Mismatch Repair Deficient Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma.
    Int J Gynecol Pathol 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
    Endometrial endometrioid carcinoma is related to estrogen excess and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to elevated androgens, as in polycystic ovarian syndrome, increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Factors impacting androgen receptor (AR) expression are not well studied. Read More

    Effects of vitamin D on ovary in DHEA-treated PCOS rat model: A light and electron microscopic study.
    Ultrastruct Pathol 2018 Jan-Feb;42(1):55-64. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    a Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine , Cukurova University , Adana , Turkey.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D treatment on ovary in experimentally designed polycystic ovary syndrome of female rats using light and electron microscopic techniques.

    Methods: Twenty-four female pre-pubertal rats were divided into control, DHEA and DHEA+Vit.D groups. Read More

    Dermatologic manifestations of endocrine disorders.
    Transl Pediatr 2017 Oct;6(4):300-312
    The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
    The skin serves as a window for clinicians to understand, diagnose, and monitor endocrine disease. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrinopathies contribute significantly to an individual's health and quality of life. In this review, we outline various disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and androgen axis as well as hereditary endocrine syndromes. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
    Transl Pediatr 2017 Oct;6(4):248-255
    Section of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, the Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Controversy continues about the underlying etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, and recommendations for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents. Recent literature has recognized these deficiencies and evidence based expert recommendations have become more available. The purpose of this chapter is to offer primary care providers a practical understanding and approach to the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS in adolescents. Read More

    Hypernatraemic hypovolaemia with anaemia: an unusual presentation of primary testicular insufficiency.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 10;2017. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Endocrinology, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Hypogonadal men may experience intense vasomotor symptoms, and vasomotor sweating can occasionally be associated with profound fluid losses. We describe a 37-year-old male, who exhibited persistent hypovolaemic hypernatraemia that was challenging to treat despite a continuous high fluid input (>4-5 L/day). He was noted to have drenching sweats and normochromic anaemia. Read More

    Massive adrenal incidentalomas and late diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in prostate cancer.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 28;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,Canada.
    In a 61-year-old Caucasian male with prostate cancer, leuprolide and bicalutamide failed to suppress the androgens. He presented to endocrinology with persistently normal testosterone and incidental massive (up to 18 cm) bilateral adrenal myelolipomas on CT scan. Blood test did not reveal metanephrine excess. Read More

    [Diet in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris].
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 2017 Oct;43(256):186-189
    Chair and Department of Histology and Embriology, Medical University of Warsaw.
    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic condition especially among adolescents. Acne is related to excess sebum production by sebaceous glands, inflammation both within and adjacent to the comedones, hyperproliferation of Propionibacterium acnes. Some of investigations show association between acne and diet. Read More

    Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Sci Rep 2017 Oct 26;7(1):14156. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Shanghai National Clinical Research Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of Chinese Ministry of Health, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.
    The study explored differences in the steroidogenic pathway between obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1044 women with PCOS (including 350 lean, 312 overweight and 382 obese) and 366 control women without PCOS (including 203 lean, 32 overweight and 131 obese) were enrolled. The differences in steroid hormones were amplified in lean PCOS versus lean controls compared with obese PCOS versus obese controls. Read More

    A follow-up history of young man with apparent cortisone reductase deficiency (ACRD) - several years after diagnosis.
    Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2017 ;23(1):42-48
    Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Diabetes with a Cardiology Unit, Medical University in Bialystok, Poland.
    Introduction: Inactivating mutations in the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH), the enzyme responsible for NADPH generation playing critical role in 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11b-HSD1) activity, cause apparent cortisone reductase deficiency (ACRD). It leads to increased metabolic clearance rate of cortisol due to a defect in cortisone to cortisol conversion by 11b-HSD1. We want to analyse the process of the disease, efficacy of long-lasting treatment with glucocorticoids throughout childhood and adolescence in only male patient with ACRD. Read More

    Heterogenous origins of hyperandrogenism in the polycystic ovary syndrome in relation to body mass index and insulin resistance.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 Mar 25;34(3):238-242. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    a Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism , Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences , Tirupati , India.
    Background: Insulin resistance and obesity are not universal features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We planned to assess the differences between patients with nonobese /insulin-sensitive phenotype vs. obese/ insulin-resistant phenotype in terms of the potential mechanisms underlying their hyperandrogenism. Read More

    PDGFRA, HSD17B4 and HMGB2 are potential therapeutic targets in polycystic ovarian syndrome and breast cancer.
    Oncotarget 2017 Sep 13;8(41):69520-69526. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, P.R. China.
    To explore the key genes associated with both PCOS and breast cancer, we overlapped the synchronously differently expressed genes in two obese insulin-resistant GEO datasets in muscle tissue and genes exert essential roles in breast cancer prognosis together base on the following reasons: (1) Androgens excess is believed to contribute to the onset of both PCOS and breast cancer. (2) PCOS is usually complicated with metabolic symptoms, such as obesity and insulin-resistance. (3) Muscle is the main place where energy metabolism and material metabolism take place. Read More

    New Diagnostic Criteria of Polycystic Ovarian Morphology for Adolescents: Impact on Prevalence and Hormonal Profile.
    Horm Res Paediatr 2017 19;88(6):401-407. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Institute of Maternal and Child Research, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Background: The ultrasonographic criteria used to identify polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) during adolescence have changed over time. Recently, a Worldwide Pediatric Consensus (PedC) defined PCOM using stricter criteria than the previous recommendations of the Rotterdam Consensus (RC) and Androgen Excess-Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Society (AES/PCOS) criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PCOM in healthy adolescents according to the 3 reported diagnostic criteria and compare the hormonal profile in females with and without PCOM based on the PedC criteria. Read More

    Defective insulin signaling and the protective effects of dimethyldiguanide during follicular development in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Dec 29;16(6):8164-8170. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Provincial Key Laboratory for Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, P.R. China.
    It is established that the physiological effects of insulin are primarily mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. However, a defective insulin signaling is closely associated with the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which include excess androgen levels, insulin resistance and anovulation, and is involved in the pathophysiology of PCOS at the molecular level. Dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) has been widely employed to alleviate reproduction dysfunction in women with PCOS, however, the exact mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Read More

    Clinical Case Seminar: Postmenopausal androgen excess-challenges in diagnostic work-up and management of ovarian thecosis.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Jan 7;88(1):13-20. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Endocrinology, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
    Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism can be tumour- or non-tumour-related, with pathology residing either in the ovary or adrenal gland(s). The tempo of investigation is determined by the clinical severity of hyperandrogenism (presence/absence of actual virilisation) and degree of serum testosterone elevation. When clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism is severe, rapidly developing, or associated with hypercortisolism, screening for adrenocortical or ovarian carcinoma with cross-sectional imaging should be prioritised over detailed biochemical evaluation. Read More

    Androgen excess and metabolic disorders in women with PCOS: beyond the body mass index.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Policlinico "G. Rodolico", Via S. Sofia 78, 95123, Catania, Italy.
    Background: Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II).

    Objective: The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest. Read More

    Combined oral contraceptives plus spironolactone compared with metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a one-year randomized clinical trial.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Nov;177(5):399-408
    DiabetesObesity and Human Reproduction Research Group, Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal & Universidad de Alcalá & Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS & Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas CIBERDEM, Madrid, Spain
    Objective: We aimed to compare a combined oral contraceptive (COC) plus the antiandrogen spironolactone with the insulin sensitizer metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Design: We conducted a randomized, parallel, open-label, clinical trial comparing COC (30 μg of ethinylestradiol and 150 μg of desogestrel) plus spironolactone (100 mg/day) with metformin (850 mg b.i. Read More

    Developmental Programming: Impact of Gestational Steroid and Metabolic Milieus on Mediators of Insulin Sensitivity in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Female Sheep.
    Endocrinology 2017 09;158(9):2783-2798
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109.
    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep leads to peripheral insulin resistance (IR), reduced adipocyte size, and tissue-specific changes, with liver and muscle but not adipose tissue being insulin resistant. To determine the basis for the tissue-specific differences in insulin sensitivity, we assessed changes in negative (inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity) and positive mediators (adiponectin and antioxidants) of insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of control and prenatal T-treated sheep. Because T excess leads to maternal hyperinsulinemia, fetal hyperandrogenism, and functional hyperandrogenism and IR in their female offspring, prenatal and postnatal interventions with antiandrogen, flutamide, and the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone were used to parse out the contribution of androgenic and metabolic pathways in programming and maintaining these defects. Read More

    The impact of androgen actions in neurons on metabolic health and disease.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States. Electronic address:
    The male hormone testosterone exerts different effects on glucose and energy homeostasis in males and females. Testosterone deficiency predisposes males to visceral obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, testosterone excess predisposes females to similar metabolic dysfunction. Read More

    Kisspeptin expression features in the arcuate and anteroventral periventricular nuclei of hypothalamus of letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Nov 5;296(5):957-963. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of the reproductive system characterized by polycystic ovaries and androgen excess. Letrozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that is used in experimental research to induce PCOS. Kisspeptin is an essential protein in regulation of cyclicity. Read More

    Evaluation of pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and its association with inflammatory cytokines in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2018 Feb 4;34(2):148-152. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    b Department of Clinical Biochemistry , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences , Hamadan , Iran.
    Chronic low-grade inflammation has been suggested as a key contributor of the pathogenesis and development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To investigate the association between oxidative stress status and inflammatory cytokines in follicular fluid of 21 PCOS women compared to 21 women with normal ovarian function who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Concentration of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α was measured using sandwich ELISA. Read More

    Gonadal soma controls ovarian follicle proliferation through Gsdf in zebrafish.
    Dev Dyn 2017 Nov 25;246(11):925-945. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
    Background: Aberrant signaling between germ cells and somatic cells can lead to reproductive disease and depends on diffusible signals, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) -family proteins. The TGFB-family protein Gsdf (gonadal soma derived factor) controls sex determination in some fish and is a candidate for mediating germ cell/soma signaling.

    Results: Zebrafish expressed gsdf in somatic cells of bipotential gonads and expression continued in ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli cells. Read More

    Combined androgen excess and Western-style diet accelerates adipose tissue dysfunction in young adult, female nonhuman primates.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Sep;32(9):1892-1902
    Division of Cardiometabolic Health, Oregon National Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.
    Study Question: What are the separate and combined effects of mild hyperandrogenemia and consumption of a high-fat Western-style diet (WSD) on white adipose tissue (WAT) morphology and function in young adult female nonhuman primates?

    Summary Answer: Combined exposure to mild hyperandrogenemia and WSD induces visceral omental (OM-WAT) but not subcutaneous (SC-WAT) adipocyte hypertrophy that is associated with increased uptake and reduced mobilization of free fatty acids.

    What Is Known Already: Mild hyperandrogenemia in females, principally in the context of polycystic ovary syndrome, is often associated with adipocyte hypertrophy, but the mechanisms of associated WAT dysfunction and depot specificity remain poorly understood.

    Study Design, Size And Duration: Female rhesus macaques were randomly assigned at 2. Read More

    Ultrasonographic evaluation of intra-abdominal fat distribution and study of its influence on subclinical atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017 Oct 12;217:18-22. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Objectives: To evaluate abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to determine the independent risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Study Design: One hundred and twenty-four women with PCOS were compared with 118 age and BMI-matched controls. Abdominal obesity was assessed as the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and abdominal fat distribution was measured as subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), pre-peritoneal fat thickness (PFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) using Ultrasound (US). Read More

    Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 2018 Jan 29;62:1-9. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239-3098, USA. Electronic address:
    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0. Read More

    The effect of androgen excess on maternal metabolism, placental function and fetal growth in obese dams.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 14;7(1):8066. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often overweight or obese. To study the effects of maternal androgen excess in obese dams on metabolism, placental function and fetal growth, female C57Bl6J mice were fed a control (CD) or a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 4-10 weeks, and then mated. On gestational day (GD) 15. Read More

    Adding abiraterone to androgen deprivation therapy in men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Eur J Cancer 2017 10 8;84:88-101. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH, UK.
    Background: There is a need to synthesise the results of numerous randomised controlled trials evaluating the addition of therapies to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). This systematic review aims to assess the effects of adding abiraterone acetate plus prednisone/prednisolone (AAP) to ADT.

    Methods: Using our framework for adaptive meta-analysis (FAME), we started the review process before trials had been reported and worked collaboratively with trial investigators to anticipate when eligible trial results would emerge. Read More

    Amiloride Is Effective in the Management of Abiraterone-Induced Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome without Interfering with Its Antineoplastic Activity.
    Pharmacology 2017 11;100(5-6):261-268. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: The administration of abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) leads to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-driven increase in mineralocorticoid hormones, requiring glucocorticoid supplementation that may stimulate the growth of prostate cancer (PCa). Amiloride is a drug that selectively reduces the aldosterone-sensitive Na+/K+ exchange and could be effective in the management of mineralocorticoid excess syndrome (MCES).

    Methods: The efficacy of amiloride + hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in the clinical management of abiraterone-induced MCES was assessed in 5 consecutive patients with castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Read More

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