2,876 results match your criteria Androgen Excess


Transmission of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome via Epigenetic Inheritance.

Trends Mol Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

A recent study by Mimouni et al. shows that late gestation exposure to anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) results in transgenerational transmission of a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like phenotype in mice. Altered DNA methylation underlies transmission and was also observed in women with PCOS. Read More

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Characterization of DNA Methylation and Screening of Epigenetic Markers in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:664843. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder in women, which is characterized by androgen excess, ovulation dysfunction, and polycystic ovary. Although the etiology of PCOS is largely unknown, many studies suggest that aberrant DNA methylation is an important contributing factor for its pathological changes. In this study, we investigated DNA methylation characteristics and their impact on gene expression in granulosa cells obtained from PCOS patients. Read More

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Inhibition of Improve Lipid Metabolism Disorder in Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Hyperandrogenic Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 24;9:669189. Epub 2021 May 24.

Center for Energy Metabolism and Reproduction, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Hyperandrogenism is a key pathological feature of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Excess androgen can lead to PCOS-like cell hypertrophy in the ovaries and adipose tissue of rodents. Here, we established a dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced hyperandrogenic mouse model to analyze the differences in gene expression and signaling pathways of the ovaries and gonad fat pads of mice treated with or without DHT by RNA microarray analysis. Read More

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Gender-role behaviour and gender identity in girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

BMC Pediatr 2021 06 5;21(1):262. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Introduction: Girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are exposed to excess fetal adrenal androgens in-utero, and often born with masculinised genitalia. They are conventionally reared as females, but show more "boyish" gender-role behaviour (GRB) and gender-identity (GI) issues in childhood and adolescence. Male-rearing is also reported mainly due to delayed treatment and/or socio-cultural factors. Read More

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Using Exercise and Nutrition to Alter Fat and Lean Mass in Men with Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Narrative Review.

Nutrients 2021 May 14;13(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth 6027, WA, Australia.

Fat mass (FM) gain and lean mass (LM) loss are common side effects for patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Excess FM has been associated with an increased risk of developing obesity-related comorbidities, exacerbating prostate cancer progression, and all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. LM is the predominant contributor to resting metabolic rate, with any loss impacting long-term weight management as well as physical function. Read More

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NAD+ deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction in granulosa cells of women with polycystic ovary syndrome‡.

Biol Reprod 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by ovulation dysfunction, androgen excess, ovarian polycystic changes, insulin resistance, and infertility. Although underlying mechanisms for PCOS are still unknown, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in granulosa cells (GCs) of PCOS patients have been reported. Here, we found that Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) levels in GCs of PCOS patients was significantly decreased when compared with controls. Read More

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Higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women with hyperandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome.

Fertil Steril 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objective: To assess the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in relation to body mass index (BMI) and the hyperandrogenic (HA) PCOS phenotype.

Design: Population-based cohort study.

Setting: Data from six Swedish national registers, with participants being followed for a maximum of 19 years. Read More

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Metformin reduces androgen receptor and upregulates homeobox A10 expression in uterine endometrium in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 May 31;19(1):77. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fukushima Medical University, School of Medicine, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes anovulation and is associated with a reduced clinical pregnancy rate. Metformin, which is widely used for treating PCOS, can lead to successful pregnancy by restoring the ovulation cycle and possibly improving endometrial abnormality during the implantation period. However, the mechanism by which metformin improves endometrial abnormality remains unknown. Read More

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Role of insulin and insulin resistance in androgen excess disorders.

World J Diabetes 2021 May;12(5):616-629

Department of Endocrinology, Yeditepe University Medical School, Istanbul, 34755, Turkey.

Insulin has complex effects on cell growth, metabolism and differentiation, and these effects are mediated by a cell-surface bound receptor and eventually a cascade of intracellular signaling events. Among the several metabolic and growth-promoting effects of insulin, insulin resistance is defined as an attenuated effect of insulin on glucose metabolism, primarily the limited export of blood glucose into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. On the other hand, not all the signaling pathways and insulin-responsive tissues are equally affected, and some effects other than the metabolic actions of insulin are overexpressed. Read More

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Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism.

Authors:
T Yoldemir

Climacteric 2021 May 14:1-9. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism is a state of relative or absolute androgen excess originating from the adrenal glands and/or ovaries clinically manifested by the presence of terminal hair in androgen-dependent areas of the body, and other manifestations of hyperandrogenism such as acne and alopecia or the development of virilization. In such circumstances, physicians must exclude the possibility of rare but serious androgen-producing tumors of the adrenal glands or ovaries. Worsening of undiagnosed hyperandrogenic disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, ovarian hyperthecosis, Cushing syndrome and iatrogenic hyperandrogenism should be considered for differential diagnosis. Read More

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Functional mapping of androgen receptor enhancer activity.

Genome Biol 2021 May 11;22(1):149. Epub 2021 May 11.

Vancouver Prostate Centre, Department of Urologic Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Androgen receptor (AR) is critical to the initiation, growth, and progression of prostate cancer. Once activated, the AR binds to cis-regulatory enhancer elements on DNA that drive gene expression. Yet, there are 10-100× more binding sites than differentially expressed genes. Read More

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Hydrocortisone dosing in children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia: results of the German/Austrian registry.

Endocr Connect 2021 May 19;10(5):561-569. Epub 2021 May 19.

University Children's Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Objective: Treatment of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is necessary to compensate for glucocorticoid/mineralocorticoid deficiencies and to suppress androgen excess. Hydrocortisone (HC) is preferred in growing children with classic CAH but recommendations regarding dosage/administration are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate HC dosing in children with CAH in relation to chronological age, sex, and phenotype based on a multicenter CAH registry. Read More

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A high-androgen microenvironment inhibits granulosa cell proliferation and alters cell identity.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 07 24;531:111288. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Animal Science, 3940 Fair Street, Lincoln, NE, 68583-0908, USA. Electronic address:

A naturally occurring bovine model with excess follicular fluid androstenedione (High A4), reduced fertility, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like characteristics has been identified. We hypothesized High A4 granulosa cells (GCs) would exhibit altered cell proliferation and/or steroidogenesis. Microarrays of Control and High A4 GCs combined with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that High A4 GCs had cell cycle inhibition and increased expression of microRNAs that inhibit cell cycle genes. Read More

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Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: a meta-analysis.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There is evidence of a relationship between prenatal excess androgen exposure and central nervous developmental problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring of mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Purpose: Here we aimed to use a meta-analysis to investigate whether the offspring of mothers with PCOS are at an increased chance of developing ADHD.

Methods: Three main English databases were searched for articles published through December 2020. Read More

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An up-to-date evaluation of abiraterone for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Apr 27:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Director of Genitourinary Oncology, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

: Abiraterone acetate, an oral 17-alpha-hydroxylase inhibitor, effectively prevents the synthesis of androgens from steroid precursors. Abiraterone has become a standard of care in patients with metastatic prostate cancer due to its efficacy in both castrate-sensitive and castrate-resistant disease when given in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Abiraterone may have a role in additional aspects of prostate cancer treatment in the future. Read More

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The way toward adulthood for females with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Endocrine 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Females with NC21OHD may present as asymptomatic or develop a wide range of androgen excess expression. Clinical manifestations may become evident in childhood and adolescence and include premature pubarche, precocious puberty, acne, hirsutism, and menstrual disorders or present later in life as oligo-ovulation and infertility. Glucocorticoids have been the mainstay of treatment as they regulate excess androgen expression by dampening ACTH activation. Read More

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Systemic and adipocyte transcriptional and metabolic dysregulation in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

JCI Insight 2021 May 24;6(10). Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

BACKGROUNDIdiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition predominantly affecting obese women of reproductive age. Recent evidence suggests that IIH is a disease of metabolic dysregulation, androgen excess, and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Here we evaluate systemic and adipose specific metabolic determinants of the IIH phenotype. Read More

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Use of community-based reference ranges to estimate the prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome by the recognised diagnostic criteria, a cross-sectional study.

Hum Reprod 2021 05;36(6):1611-1620

Women's Health Research Program, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Study Question: Does the application of reference ranges for sex steroids and the modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) scale established in the community from which the study sample was drawn, combined with the most conservative polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM) criteria to the recognised diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) improve the certainty of diagnosis of PCOS in non-healthcare-seeking women?

Summary Answer: Despite application of the stringent definitions of the elements used to diagnose PCOS in a non-healthcare seeking community-based sample, the risk of diagnostic uncertainty remains.

What Is Known Already: There is heterogeneity in prevalence estimates for PCOS due, in part, to lack of standardisation of the elements comprising the recognised National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam and Androgen Excess Society (AE-PCOS) diagnostic criteria. The AE-PCOS Society proposed refinements to the definitions of biochemical androgen excess and PCOM that can now be incorporated into these sets of diagnostic criteria to estimate PCOS prevalence. Read More

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Estrogen-secreting adrenocortical tumor in a postmenopausal woman: a challenging diagnosis.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Mar 15;2021. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Internal MedicineHematology and Oncology, University of Sao Paulo Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Summary: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant disorder with rapid evolution and severe prognosis in adults and most produce cortisol and androgen. Estrogen-secreting adrenocortical carcinomas are extremely rare, especially in women, tend to be larger and have worse prognosis compared with other types of ACCs. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with bilateral breast enlargement and postmenopausal genital bleeding. Read More

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Prevalence of at-risk hyperandrogenism by age and race/ethnicity among females in the United States using NHANES III.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 May 26;260:189-197. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Office of Research Resources, Biostatistics and Epidemiology Consulting Lab, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA; Division of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Hyperandrogenism in females leads to multiple endocrine and metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that yields adverse health outcomes across all ages. We sought to estimate the prevalence of hyperandrogenemia and at-risk hyperandrogenism among the US females of different age groups, racial/ethnic, and metabolic characteristics.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective population-based cross-sectional study of females 6 years or older having serum testosterone measures using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013-2016 was conducted. Read More

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Clinical and hormonal profiles correlate with molecular characteristics in patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Marmara University, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Given the rarity of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11βOHD), there is a paucity of data about the differences in clinical and biochemical characteristics of classic (C-11βOHD) and non-classic 11βOHD (NC-11βOHD).

Objective: To characterize a multicenter pediatric cohort with 11βOHD.

Method: The clinical and biochemical characteristics were retrospectively retrieved. Read More

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Neonatal androgenization in rats affects oocyte maturation.

Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratorio de Biología de la Reproducción, Departamento de Histología y Embriología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Androgens are relevant in order to achieve a normal growth and maturation of the follicle and oocyte, since both excess and absence of androgens may affect the correct ovarian function. The current study analyzes the impact of neonatal androgenization in the first ovulation and oocyte maturation in response to exogenous gonadotrophin stimulation. Neonatal rats were daily treated with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or vehicle during follicle assembly period (days 1 to 5). Read More

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International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Systemic Testosterone for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women.

J Sex Med 2021 05 1;18(5):849-867. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Andrology, Women's Endocrinology & Gender Incongruence Unit, Department of "Excellence" Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio"-Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Florence, Italy; Consorzio Interuniversitario I.N.B.B., Rome, Italy.

Background: The Global Consensus Position Statement on the Use of Testosterone Therapy for Women (Global Position Statement) recommended testosterone therapy for postmenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).

Aim: To provide a clinical practice guideline for the use of testosterone including identification of patients, laboratory testing, dosing, post-treatment monitoring, and follow-up care in women with HSDD.

Methods: The International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health appointed a multidisciplinary panel of experts who performed a literature review of original research, meta-analyses, review papers, and consensus guidelines regarding testosterone use in women. Read More

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International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Systemic Testosterone for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 04 1;30(4):474-491. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Andrology, Women's Endocrinology & Gender Incongruence Unit, Department of "Excellence" Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio"-Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The Global Consensus Position Statement on the Use of Testosterone Therapy for Women (Global Position Statement) recommended testosterone therapy for postmenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). To provide a clinical practice guideline for the use of testosterone including identification of patients, laboratory testing, dosing, post-treatment monitoring, and follow-up care in women with HSDD. The International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health appointed a multidisciplinary panel of experts who performed a literature review of original research, meta-analyses, review papers, and consensus guidelines regarding testosterone use in women. Read More

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Effect of body mass index (BMI) on phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Singapore women: a prospective cross-sectional study.

BMC Womens Health 2021 04 1;21(1):135. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Level 12, Singapore, Republic of Singapore, 119228.

Background: A diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and its related phenotypic features including increased hair growth can affect a woman's social and emotional well-being. We aim to determine firstly, if excess body weight affects menstrual cycle length, excessive hair growth and other phenotypic features in healthy women without PCOS and secondly, whether having PCOS exacerbates the effects of high body mass index (BMI).

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving healthy women (21-45 years) recruited at an annual health screen for hospital staff and volunteers from the university community, and PCOS cases referred to tertiary gynecological clinics in Singapore. Read More

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International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Systemic Testosterone for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder in Women.

Climacteric 2021 Apr 1:1-18. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Andrology, Women's Endocrinology & Gender Incongruence Unit, Department of "Excellence" Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", Careggi Hospital-University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Aim: To provide a clinical practice guideline for the use of testosterone including identification of patients, laboratory testing, dosing, post-treatment monitoring, and follow-up care in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).

Methods: The International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health appointed a multidisciplinary panel of experts who performed a literature review of original research, meta-analyses, review papers, and consensus guidelines regarding testosterone use in women. Consensus was reached using a modified Delphi method. Read More

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Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity: clinical aspects and nutritional management.

Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Endocrinology Service, SOLCA Guayaquil, Ecuador.

Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial endocrine and metabolic disorder characterized by androgen excess, oligo-anovulatory infertility, polycystic ovaries in ultrasound examination, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic disorders, with overweight/obesity and visceral adiposity. This review aims to provide an overview of the clinical characteristics and nutritional therapy of PCOS and obesity.

Methods: The authors analyzed the updated and relevant publications found on Pubmed about clinical aspects and nutritional management of PCOS and obesity in studies done in animal and human models. Read More

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Hyperthecosis: an underestimated nontumorous cause of hyperandrogenism.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Mar 24:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Hyperthecosis is defined as the presence of nests of luteinized theca cells in the ovarian stroma. Persistent testosterone released by ovarian theca cells is unmasked postmenopausally through the loss of granulosa cell-mediated aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. Ovarian hyperthecosis (OH) usually presents with symptoms of hyperandrogenism and is often described as a severe or extreme form of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Read More

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Inositol treatment for psychological symptoms in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome women.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Mar;25(5):2383-2389

Institute for Interpersonal Cognitive Therapy, Rome, Italy.

Objective: PCOS women experience different discomfort as a consequence of the illness. During the years, several risk factors and treatments emerged. This review aims at underlining evidence on psychological symptoms in PCOS women and on the effectiveness of therapies. Read More

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Androgens and Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Infertile Patients.

Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Dexeus University Hospital, Salud de la Mujer Dexeus, Barcelona, Spain.

To investigate whether there is an association between androgens and ovarian reserve, expressed through anti-Mullerian hormone. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of all consecutive women attending a tertiary fertility center, who presented with regular menstrual cycles. Patients had their AMH values measured with the same AMH assay (Immunotech (IOT) Beckmann Coulter assay), the same day in which androgens sampling was performed. Read More

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