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    Hypernatraemic hypovolaemia with anaemia: an unusual presentation of primary testicular insufficiency.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 10;2017. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Endocrinology, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Hypogonadal men may experience intense vasomotor symptoms, and vasomotor sweating can occasionally be associated with profound fluid losses. We describe a 37-year-old male, who exhibited persistent hypovolaemic hypernatraemia that was challenging to treat despite a continuous high fluid input (>4-5 L/day). He was noted to have drenching sweats and normochromic anaemia. Read More

    Massive adrenal incidentalomas and late diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in prostate cancer.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 28;2017. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta,Canada.
    In a 61-year-old Caucasian male with prostate cancer, leuprolide and bicalutamide failed to suppress the androgens. He presented to endocrinology with persistently normal testosterone and incidental massive (up to 18 cm) bilateral adrenal myelolipomas on CT scan. Blood test did not reveal metanephrine excess. Read More

    [Diet in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris].
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 2017 Oct;43(256):186-189
    Chair and Department of Histology and Embriology, Medical University of Warsaw.
    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic condition especially among adolescents. Acne is related to excess sebum production by sebaceous glands, inflammation both within and adjacent to the comedones, hyperproliferation of Propionibacterium acnes. Some of investigations show association between acne and diet. Read More

    Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Sci Rep 2017 Oct 26;7(1):14156. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Shanghai National Clinical Research Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Key Laboratory for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases of Chinese Ministry of Health, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.
    The study explored differences in the steroidogenic pathway between obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1044 women with PCOS (including 350 lean, 312 overweight and 382 obese) and 366 control women without PCOS (including 203 lean, 32 overweight and 131 obese) were enrolled. The differences in steroid hormones were amplified in lean PCOS versus lean controls compared with obese PCOS versus obese controls. Read More

    A follow-up history of young man with apparent cortisone reductase deficiency (ACRD) - several years after diagnosis.
    Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2017 ;23(1):42-48
    Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Diabetes with a Cardiology Unit, Medical University in Bialystok, Poland.
    Introduction: Inactivating mutations in the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH), the enzyme responsible for NADPH generation playing critical role in 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11b-HSD1) activity, cause apparent cortisone reductase deficiency (ACRD). It leads to increased metabolic clearance rate of cortisol due to a defect in cortisone to cortisol conversion by 11b-HSD1. We want to analyse the process of the disease, efficacy of long-lasting treatment with glucocorticoids throughout childhood and adolescence in only male patient with ACRD. Read More

    Heterogenous origins of hyperandrogenism in the polycystic ovary syndrome in relation to body mass index and insulin resistance.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Oct 25:1-5. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    a Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism , Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences , Tirupati , India.
    Background: Insulin resistance and obesity are not universal features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We planned to assess the differences between patients with nonobese /insulin-sensitive phenotype vs. obese/ insulin-resistant phenotype in terms of the potential mechanisms underlying their hyperandrogenism. Read More

    PDGFRA, HSD17B4 and HMGB2 are potential therapeutic targets in polycystic ovarian syndrome and breast cancer.
    Oncotarget 2017 Sep 13;8(41):69520-69526. Epub 2017 May 13.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, P.R. China.
    To explore the key genes associated with both PCOS and breast cancer, we overlapped the synchronously differently expressed genes in two obese insulin-resistant GEO datasets in muscle tissue and genes exert essential roles in breast cancer prognosis together base on the following reasons: (1) Androgens excess is believed to contribute to the onset of both PCOS and breast cancer. (2) PCOS is usually complicated with metabolic symptoms, such as obesity and insulin-resistance. (3) Muscle is the main place where energy metabolism and material metabolism take place. Read More

    New Diagnostic Criteria of Polycystic Ovarian Morphology for Adolescents: Impact on Prevalence and Hormonal Profile.
    Horm Res Paediatr 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Institute of Maternal and Child Research, School of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Background: The ultrasonographic criteria used to identify polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) during adolescence have changed over time. Recently, a Worldwide Pediatric Consensus (PedC) defined PCOM using stricter criteria than the previous recommendations of the Rotterdam Consensus (RC) and Androgen Excess-Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Society (AES/PCOS) criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PCOM in healthy adolescents according to the 3 reported diagnostic criteria and compare the hormonal profile in females with and without PCOM based on the PedC criteria. Read More

    Defective insulin signaling and the protective effects of dimethyldiguanide during follicular development in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Mol Med Rep 2017 Dec 29;16(6):8164-8170. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Provincial Key Laboratory for Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, P.R. China.
    It is established that the physiological effects of insulin are primarily mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. However, a defective insulin signaling is closely associated with the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which include excess androgen levels, insulin resistance and anovulation, and is involved in the pathophysiology of PCOS at the molecular level. Dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) has been widely employed to alleviate reproduction dysfunction in women with PCOS, however, the exact mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Read More

    Clinical Case Seminar: Postmenopausal androgen excess-challenges in diagnostic work-up and management of ovarian thecosis.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Endocrinology, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
    Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism can be tumour- or non-tumour-related, with pathology residing either in the ovary or adrenal gland(s). The tempo of investigation is determined by the clinical severity of hyperandrogenism (presence/absence of actual virilisation) and degree of serum testosterone elevation. When clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism is severe, rapidly developing, or associated with hypercortisolism, screening for adrenocortical or ovarian carcinoma with cross-sectional imaging should be prioritised over detailed biochemical evaluation. Read More

    Androgen excess and metabolic disorders in women with PCOS: beyond the body mass index.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Policlinico "G. Rodolico", Via S. Sofia 78, 95123, Catania, Italy.
    Background: Insulin resistance is a common feature among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), especially in those patients with hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. PCOS women are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes mellitus (DM II).

    Objective: The aim of this review is to explore the existing knowledge of the interplay between androgen excess, pancreatic β-cell function, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), intra-abdominal and subcutaneous (SC) abdominal adipocytes in PCOS, providing a better comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of diabetologic interest. Read More

    Combined oral contraceptives plus spironolactone compared with metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a one-year randomized clinical trial.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Nov;177(5):399-408
    DiabetesObesity and Human Reproduction Research Group, Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal & Universidad de Alcalá & Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS & Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas CIBERDEM, Madrid, Spain
    Objective: We aimed to compare a combined oral contraceptive (COC) plus the antiandrogen spironolactone with the insulin sensitizer metformin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Design: We conducted a randomized, parallel, open-label, clinical trial comparing COC (30 μg of ethinylestradiol and 150 μg of desogestrel) plus spironolactone (100 mg/day) with metformin (850 mg b.i. Read More

    Developmental Programming: Impact of Gestational Steroid and Metabolic Milieus on Mediators of Insulin Sensitivity in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Female Sheep.
    Endocrinology 2017 Sep;158(9):2783-2798
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109.
    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep leads to peripheral insulin resistance (IR), reduced adipocyte size, and tissue-specific changes, with liver and muscle but not adipose tissue being insulin resistant. To determine the basis for the tissue-specific differences in insulin sensitivity, we assessed changes in negative (inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity) and positive mediators (adiponectin and antioxidants) of insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of control and prenatal T-treated sheep. Because T excess leads to maternal hyperinsulinemia, fetal hyperandrogenism, and functional hyperandrogenism and IR in their female offspring, prenatal and postnatal interventions with antiandrogen, flutamide, and the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone were used to parse out the contribution of androgenic and metabolic pathways in programming and maintaining these defects. Read More

    The impact of androgen actions in neurons on metabolic health and disease.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States. Electronic address:
    The male hormone testosterone exerts different effects on glucose and energy homeostasis in males and females. Testosterone deficiency predisposes males to visceral obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, testosterone excess predisposes females to similar metabolic dysfunction. Read More

    Kisspeptin expression features in the arcuate and anteroventral periventricular nuclei of hypothalamus of letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Nov 5;296(5):957-963. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of the reproductive system characterized by polycystic ovaries and androgen excess. Letrozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that is used in experimental research to induce PCOS. Kisspeptin is an essential protein in regulation of cyclicity. Read More

    Evaluation of pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and its association with inflammatory cytokines in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Sep 4:1-5. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    b Department of Clinical Biochemistry , Hamadan University of Medical Sciences , Hamadan , Iran.
    Chronic low-grade inflammation has been suggested as a key contributor of the pathogenesis and development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To investigate the association between oxidative stress status and inflammatory cytokines in follicular fluid of 21 PCOS women compared to 21 women with normal ovarian function who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Concentration of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α was measured using sandwich ELISA. Read More

    Gonadal soma controls ovarian follicle proliferation through Gsdf in zebrafish.
    Dev Dyn 2017 Nov 25;246(11):925-945. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon.
    Background: Aberrant signaling between germ cells and somatic cells can lead to reproductive disease and depends on diffusible signals, including transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) -family proteins. The TGFB-family protein Gsdf (gonadal soma derived factor) controls sex determination in some fish and is a candidate for mediating germ cell/soma signaling.

    Results: Zebrafish expressed gsdf in somatic cells of bipotential gonads and expression continued in ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli cells. Read More

    Combined androgen excess and Western-style diet accelerates adipose tissue dysfunction in young adult, female nonhuman primates.
    Hum Reprod 2017 Sep;32(9):1892-1902
    Division of Cardiometabolic Health, Oregon National Primate Research Center, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.
    Study Question: What are the separate and combined effects of mild hyperandrogenemia and consumption of a high-fat Western-style diet (WSD) on white adipose tissue (WAT) morphology and function in young adult female nonhuman primates?

    Summary Answer: Combined exposure to mild hyperandrogenemia and WSD induces visceral omental (OM-WAT) but not subcutaneous (SC-WAT) adipocyte hypertrophy that is associated with increased uptake and reduced mobilization of free fatty acids.

    What Is Known Already: Mild hyperandrogenemia in females, principally in the context of polycystic ovary syndrome, is often associated with adipocyte hypertrophy, but the mechanisms of associated WAT dysfunction and depot specificity remain poorly understood.

    Study Design, Size And Duration: Female rhesus macaques were randomly assigned at 2. Read More

    Ultrasonographic evaluation of intra-abdominal fat distribution and study of its influence on subclinical atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2017 Oct 12;217:18-22. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Public Health, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Objectives: To evaluate abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to determine the independent risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Study Design: One hundred and twenty-four women with PCOS were compared with 118 age and BMI-matched controls. Abdominal obesity was assessed as the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and abdominal fat distribution was measured as subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), pre-peritoneal fat thickness (PFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) using Ultrasound (US). Read More

    Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 2017 Jul 29;62:1-9. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239-3098, USA. Electronic address:
    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0. Read More

    The effect of androgen excess on maternal metabolism, placental function and fetal growth in obese dams.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 14;7(1):8066. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often overweight or obese. To study the effects of maternal androgen excess in obese dams on metabolism, placental function and fetal growth, female C57Bl6J mice were fed a control (CD) or a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 4-10 weeks, and then mated. On gestational day (GD) 15. Read More

    Adding abiraterone to androgen deprivation therapy in men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Eur J Cancer 2017 Oct 8;84:88-101. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH, UK.
    Background: There is a need to synthesise the results of numerous randomised controlled trials evaluating the addition of therapies to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). This systematic review aims to assess the effects of adding abiraterone acetate plus prednisone/prednisolone (AAP) to ADT.

    Methods: Using our framework for adaptive meta-analysis (FAME), we started the review process before trials had been reported and worked collaboratively with trial investigators to anticipate when eligible trial results would emerge. Read More

    Amiloride Is Effective in the Management of Abiraterone-Induced Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome without Interfering with Its Antineoplastic Activity.
    Pharmacology 2017 Aug 11;100(5-6):261-268. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: The administration of abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) leads to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-driven increase in mineralocorticoid hormones, requiring glucocorticoid supplementation that may stimulate the growth of prostate cancer (PCa). Amiloride is a drug that selectively reduces the aldosterone-sensitive Na+/K+ exchange and could be effective in the management of mineralocorticoid excess syndrome (MCES).

    Methods: The efficacy of amiloride + hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in the clinical management of abiraterone-induced MCES was assessed in 5 consecutive patients with castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Read More

    A novel method to demonstrate that pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome hyper-expose their fetus to androgens as a possible stepping stone for the developmental theory of PCOS. A pilot study.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2017 Aug 8;15(1):61. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Harrogate & District NHS Foundation Trust, Lancaster Park Road, Harrogate, HG2 7SX, UK.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whose aetiology is unknown, is predominately a familial syndrome but confirmation of candidate genes has proved elusive. The developmental hypothesis for the origin of PCOS suggests that exposure of the fetus to excess androgens influences imprinting, leading to altered genetic expression in adult life. The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether the female fetus of a mother with PCOS is indeed exposed to excess androgens. Read More

    Independent relationship between body mass index and LH peak value of GnRH stimulation test in ICPP girls: A cross-sectional study.
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2017 Aug 8;37(4):556-562. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.
    The effect of obesity on idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) girls is still under discussion. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sexual hormone levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test in ICPP girls is controversial and the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study aims to further explore the independent effect of excess adiposity on peak luteinizing hormone (LH) level of stimulation test in ICPP girls and the role of other related factors. Read More

    Puberty arises with testicular alterations and defective AMH expression in rams prenatally exposed to testosterone.
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 2017 Oct 23;61:100-107. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Endocrinology (FISENLAB), Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Concepción, Chillán, Chile. Electronic address:
    The male gonadal tissue can be a sensitive target to the reprogramming effects of testosterone (T) during prenatal development. We have demonstrated that male lambs born to dams receiving T during pregnancy-a model system to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-show a decreased number of germ cells early in life, and when adult, a reduced amount of sperm and ejaculate volume. These findings are a key to put attention to the male offspring of women bearing PCOS, as they are exposed to increased levels of androgen during pregnancy which can reprogram their reproductive outcome. Read More

    Modified Ferriman-Gallwey Score in Hirsutism and its Association with Metabolic Syndrome.
    Int J Trichology 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):7-13
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    Background: Hirsutism is the presence of terminal hair in females in males pattern. It occurs in 5%-15% of women. Modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score of ≥ 8 is considered hirsutism, but there are populations with a low mFG score. Read More

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome among Obese Adolescents.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Jul 29:1-4. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    a Pediatric Endocrinology Unit , Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo , São Paulo , Brazil.
    Background And Aims: In adolescence and obesity, the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is very difficult to distinguish. We aimed to assess the diagnosis of PCOS in the population of obese adolescent.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study. Read More

    Fasting as possible complementary approach for polycystic ovary syndrome: Hope or hype?
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Aug 23;105:1-3. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. In several cases, PCOS women show infertility or subfertility and other metabolic alteration, such as insulin resistance (InsR), dyslipidaemia, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Despite the aetiology of the syndrome is still far from be elucidated, it could be considered the result of concurrent endocrine modifications, lifestyle factors and genetic background. Read More

    Implications of the 2014 Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society guidelines on polycystic ovarian morphology for polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis.
    Reprod Biomed Online 2017 Oct 8;35(4):480-483. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society (AEPCOS) has recommended an updated threshold for polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) of 25 follicles or more, 10 ml or more of ovarian volume, or both. We describe the effect of these guidelines on reproductive and metabolic characteristics in 404 women. These women were separated into four groups: group A: hyperandrogenism and oligo-amenorrhoea (n = 157); group B: hyperandrogenism or oligo-amenorrhoea and PCOM meeting AEPCOS 2014 criteria (n = 125); group C: hyperandrogenism or oligo-amenorrhoea and PCOM meeting Rotterdam 2003 but not AEPCOS 2014 criteria (n = 72); and group D: non-PCOS not meeting either criteria (n = 50). Read More

    A regulatory role of androgen in ovarian steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Sep 4;172:160-165. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    General Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kitaku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:
    Excess androgen and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in the ovarian follicle has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here we investigated the impact of androgen and IGF-I on the regulatory mechanism of ovarian steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. It was revealed that androgen treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) amplified progesterone synthesis in the presence of FSH and IGF-I, whereas it had no significant effect on estrogen synthesis by rat granulosa cells. Read More

    Poorly Differentiated Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumour of Ovary with Heterologous Elements.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):XD01-XD02. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Acharya Harihara Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, India.
    Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumour (SLCT) is included under sex-cord stromal tumour of testis or ovary. Ovarian pathology is an extremely rare entity constituting less than 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. Read More

    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Oct;77 Suppl 1:S1-S10
    INSERM Unité 1185, Faculté de Médecine Paris-Sud, 63 rue Gabriel Péri, 94276 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.
    Steroid resistance syndrome (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, estrogens, androgens) is a rare clinical disorder, androgen insensitivity syndrome being the most commonly described. Resistance syndromes are characterized by elevated steroid hormone levels, secondary to an impaired signal transduction and a lack of negative feedback, without any specific clinical signs of steroid excess. In most cases, steroid hormone resistance is generally caused by steroid receptor mutations. Read More

    AKR1C3-Mediated Adipose Androgen Generation Drives Lipotoxicity in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep;102(9):3327-3339
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom.
    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent metabolic disorder occurring in up to 10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Androgen excess is a defining feature of PCOS and has been suggested as causally associated with insulin resistance; however, mechanistic evidence linking both is lacking. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome.
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Surgical, Microsurgical and Medical Sciences, Gynecologic and Obstetric Clinic, University of Sassari, 07100, Sassari, Italy.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Read More

    Severe Short Stature in an Adolescent Male with Prader-Willi Syndrome and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Therapeutic Conundrum.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 30;2017:4271978. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Rhode Island Hospital and Hasbro Children's Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency results in excess androgen production which can lead to early epiphyseal fusion and short stature. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder resulting from a defect on chromosome 15 due to paternal deletion, maternal uniparental disomy, or imprinting defect. Ninety percent of patients with PWS have short stature. Read More

    New biomarkers for diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Aug 15;471:248-253. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, United States; Department of Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Mather, CA, United States. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Read More

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Dec 13;40(12):1279-1288. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Purpose: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an insidious pathologic condition that can manifest from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH) with potential progression to cirrhosis. Like the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), NAFLD is associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. PCOS women have an increased risk of NAFLD, but it is debatable which features of PCOS, either specific (androgen excess) or unspecific (metabolic derangements) affect the NAFLD risk. Read More

    Competing Factors Link to Bone Health in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Takes a Toll.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 13;7(1):3432. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia; Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada.
    Chronic inflammation predisposes to poor bone health. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience androgen excess, ovulatory disturbances, insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity and chronic inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the relationships among bone health parameters, chronic subclinical inflammation and anthropometric measures in premenopausal women with and without PCOS. Read More

    Genetics of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2017 Jul 19;17(7):723-733. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    d Chief Officer of Academic Health and Hospital Affairs, State University Plaza , The State University of New York , Albany , NY , USA.
    Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal and metabolic disorder affecting 5 to 20% of reproductive-aged women worldwide that results in androgen excess, menstrual dysfunction and oligo-ovulatory subfertility, with increased risks for type 2 diabetes, endometrial adenocarcinoma, and potentially vascular disease, among other morbidities. PCOS is a complex genetic trait with strong heritability accounting for as high as 70% of the development of the disorder. Areas covered: The authors summarize the historical and recent findings of genetic studies of PCOS, such as familial studies, twin studies, and molecular genetic studies, including the results of recent genome wide associated studies. Read More

    Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency revisited: an update with a special focus on adolescent and adult women.
    Hum Reprod Update 2017 Sep;23(5):580-599
    Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Medicine, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.
    Background: Non-classic congenital hyperplasia (NCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by androgen excess.

    Objective And Rationale: We conducted a systematic review and critical assessment of the available evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of NCAH. A meta-analysis of epidemiological data was also performed. Read More

    The BMP4-Smad signaling pathway regulates hyperandrogenism development in a female mouse model.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jul 1;292(28):11740-11750. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    From the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Disease, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200090, China and
    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder and a major cause of anovulatory sterility in women at reproductive age. Most patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have hyperandrogenism, caused by excess androgen synthesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is an essential regulator of embryonic development and organ formation, and recent studies have also shown that BMP4 may be involved in female steroidogenesis process. Read More

    MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: The sexually dimorphic role of androgens in human metabolic disease.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Sep 31;177(3):R125-R143. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems ResearchUniversity of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency manifest with an overlapping adverse metabolic phenotype, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the impact of androgens on metabolic target tissues in an attempt to unravel the complex mechanistic links with metabolic dysfunction; we also evaluate clinical studies examining the associations between metabolic disease and disorders of androgen metabolism in men and women. We conceptualise that an equilibrium between androgen effects on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle underpins the metabolic phenotype observed in female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency. Read More

    Recent highlights of research on androgen receptors in women.
    Dev Period Med 2017;21(1):7-12
    Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland.
    In this brief review we present an outline of the current state of research on examples of hyperandrogenism that can be strongly associated with diverse modifications in the androgen signaling pathway. We discuss the most prominent clinical features of androgen excess and correlate them with studies on androgen receptor (AR) alterations. For the first time we summarize the confirmed localizations of all known AR receptors in women. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome: Understanding the role of the brain.
    Front Neuroendocrinol 2017 Jul 25;46:1-14. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Physiology, Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. Characterised by hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction and polycystic ovaries, PCOS is a broad-spectrum disorder unlikely to stem from a single common origin. Although commonly considered an ovarian disease, the brain is now a prime suspect in both the ontogeny and pathology of PCOS. Read More

    The effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight, food intake, and adipose tissue are changed by estrogen treatment in female rats.
    Horm Behav 2017 Jul 17;93:53-61. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-Cho, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.
    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excess body weight (BW) gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgens in female BW, appetite, and energy metabolism have not been fully examined. We hypothesized that androgens' effects on food intake (FI) and BW regulation change according to the estrogens' levels. Read More

    Combining a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify metabolic pathways significantly altered in polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Metabolism 2017 Jun 8;71:52-63. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS).

    Methods: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Read More

    Insulin sensitizers in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Minerva Pediatr 2017 Oct 11;69(5):434-443. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common disorder of androgen excess in women of reproductive age. The diagnosis of PCOS can be more challenging in adolescents than in adult women given significant overlap between normal puberty and the signs of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Optimal treatments for adult women with PCOS vary depending on patient risk factors and reproductive goals, but mainly include hormonal contraception and insulin sensitizers. Read More

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