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    2366 results match your criteria Androgen Excess

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    Activity of VT-464, a selective CYP17 lyase inhibitor, in the LNCaP prostate cancer xenograft model.
    J Clin Oncol 2012 Feb;30(5_suppl):64
    Clinical Pharmacology Program, SAIC-Frederick, Bethesda, MD; Molecular Pharmacology Section, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; Viamet Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Morrisville, NC.
    64 Background: With the recent FDA approval of abiraterone acetate, CYP17 (17α hydroxylase/C17, 20-lyase) has become a proven target for the treatment of castration- resistant prostate cancer. Inhibition of CYP17-lyase causes a decrease in circulating androgens, severely hampering activation of the androgen receptor signaling pathway that prostate cancer relies on for proliferation. However, inhibition of CYP17-hydroxylase, a second enzymatic activity of CYP17, leads to an increase in upstream steroids that can cause mineralocorticoid excess syndrome as well as a decrease in cortisol production. Read More

    Differential effects of galeterone, abiraterone, orteronel, and ketoconazole on CYP17 and steroidogenesis.
    J Clin Oncol 2013 Feb;31(6_suppl):184
    Tokai Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA.
    184 Background: Because CYP17 has a central role in converting progestogens to androgens, inhibitors have been developed to treat CRPC. CYP17 has both hydroxylase and lyase catalytic functions. However, selective hydroxylase inhibition causes build-up of progestogens and mineralocorticoids, resulting in secondary mineralocorticoid excess (ME), edema, hypokalemia and hypertension (treated clinically with prednisone). Read More

    The effect of androgen excess on maternal metabolism, placental function and fetal growth in obese dams.
    Sci Rep 2017 Aug 14;7(1):8066. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are often overweight or obese. To study the effects of maternal androgen excess in obese dams on metabolism, placental function and fetal growth, female C57Bl6J mice were fed a control (CD) or a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 4-10 weeks, and then mated. On gestational day (GD) 15. Read More

    Adding abiraterone to androgen deprivation therapy in men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Eur J Cancer 2017 Aug 8;84:88-101. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH, UK.
    Background: There is a need to synthesise the results of numerous randomised controlled trials evaluating the addition of therapies to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). This systematic review aims to assess the effects of adding abiraterone acetate plus prednisone/prednisolone (AAP) to ADT.

    Methods: Using our framework for adaptive meta-analysis (FAME), we started the review process before trials had been reported and worked collaboratively with trial investigators to anticipate when eligible trial results would emerge. Read More

    Amiloride Is Effective in the Management of Abiraterone-Induced Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome without Interfering with Its Antineoplastic Activity.
    Pharmacology 2017 Aug 11;100(5-6):261-268. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: The administration of abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) leads to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-driven increase in mineralocorticoid hormones, requiring glucocorticoid supplementation that may stimulate the growth of prostate cancer (PCa). Amiloride is a drug that selectively reduces the aldosterone-sensitive Na+/K+ exchange and could be effective in the management of mineralocorticoid excess syndrome (MCES).

    Methods: The efficacy of amiloride + hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in the clinical management of abiraterone-induced MCES was assessed in 5 consecutive patients with castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). Read More

    A novel method to demonstrate that pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome hyper-expose their fetus to androgens as a possible stepping stone for the developmental theory of PCOS. A pilot study.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2017 Aug 8;15(1):61. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Harrogate & District NHS Foundation Trust, Lancaster Park Road, Harrogate, HG2 7SX, UK.
    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whose aetiology is unknown, is predominately a familial syndrome but confirmation of candidate genes has proved elusive. The developmental hypothesis for the origin of PCOS suggests that exposure of the fetus to excess androgens influences imprinting, leading to altered genetic expression in adult life. The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether the female fetus of a mother with PCOS is indeed exposed to excess androgens. Read More

    Independent relationship between body mass index and LH peak value of GnRH stimulation test in ICPP girls: A cross-sectional study.
    J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2017 Aug 8;37(4):556-562. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.
    The effect of obesity on idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) girls is still under discussion. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sexual hormone levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test in ICPP girls is controversial and the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study aims to further explore the independent effect of excess adiposity on peak luteinizing hormone (LH) level of stimulation test in ICPP girls and the role of other related factors. Read More

    Puberty arises with testicular alterations and defective AMH expression in rams prenatally exposed to testosterone.
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 2017 Jun 23;61:100-107. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Endocrinology (FISENLAB), Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Concepción, Chillán, Chile. Electronic address:
    The male gonadal tissue can be a sensitive target to the reprogramming effects of testosterone (T) during prenatal development. We have demonstrated that male lambs born to dams receiving T during pregnancy-a model system to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-show a decreased number of germ cells early in life, and when adult, a reduced amount of sperm and ejaculate volume. These findings are a key to put attention to the male offspring of women bearing PCOS, as they are exposed to increased levels of androgen during pregnancy which can reprogram their reproductive outcome. Read More

    Modified Ferriman-Gallwey Score in Hirsutism and its Association with Metabolic Syndrome.
    Int J Trichology 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):7-13
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    Background: Hirsutism is the presence of terminal hair in females in males pattern. It occurs in 5%-15% of women. Modified Ferriman-Gallwey (mFG) score of ≥ 8 is considered hirsutism, but there are populations with a low mFG score. Read More

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome among Obese Adolescents.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Jul 29:1-4. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    a Pediatric Endocrinology Unit , Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo , São Paulo , Brazil.
    Background And Aims: In adolescence and obesity, the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is very difficult to distinguish. We aimed to assess the diagnosis of PCOS in the population of obese adolescent.

    Methods: Cross-sectional study. Read More

    Fasting as possible complementary approach for polycystic ovary syndrome: Hope or hype?
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Aug 23;105:1-3. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. In several cases, PCOS women show infertility or subfertility and other metabolic alteration, such as insulin resistance (InsR), dyslipidaemia, hyperinsulinemia and obesity. Despite the aetiology of the syndrome is still far from be elucidated, it could be considered the result of concurrent endocrine modifications, lifestyle factors and genetic background. Read More

    Implications of the 2014 Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society guidelines on polycystic ovarian morphology for polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis.
    Reprod Biomed Online 2017 Jul 8. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Reproductive Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society (AEPCOS) has recommended an updated threshold for polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) of 25 follicles or more, 10 ml or more of ovarian volume, or both. We describe the effect of these guidelines on reproductive and metabolic characteristics in 404 women. These women were separated into four groups: group A: hyperandrogenism and oligo-amenorrhoea (n = 157); group B: hyperandrogenism or oligo-amenorrhoea and PCOM meeting AEPCOS 2014 criteria (n = 125); group C: hyperandrogenism or oligo-amenorrhoea and PCOM meeting Rotterdam 2003 but not AEPCOS 2014 criteria (n = 72); and group D: non-PCOS not meeting either criteria (n = 50). Read More

    A regulatory role of androgen in ovarian steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Sep 4;172:160-165. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    General Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kitaku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:
    Excess androgen and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in the ovarian follicle has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here we investigated the impact of androgen and IGF-I on the regulatory mechanism of ovarian steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells. It was revealed that androgen treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) amplified progesterone synthesis in the presence of FSH and IGF-I, whereas it had no significant effect on estrogen synthesis by rat granulosa cells. Read More

    Poorly Differentiated Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumour of Ovary with Heterologous Elements.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):XD01-XD02. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Acharya Harihara Regional Cancer Centre, Cuttack, Odisha, India.
    Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumour (SLCT) is included under sex-cord stromal tumour of testis or ovary. Ovarian pathology is an extremely rare entity constituting less than 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. Read More

    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Oct;77 Suppl 1:S1-S10
    INSERM Unité 1185, Faculté de Médecine Paris-Sud, 63 rue Gabriel Péri, 94276 Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.
    Steroid resistance syndrome (mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, estrogens, androgens) is a rare clinical disorder, androgen insensitivity syndrome being the most commonly described. Resistance syndromes are characterized by elevated steroid hormone levels, secondary to an impaired signal transduction and a lack of negative feedback, without any specific clinical signs of steroid excess. In most cases, steroid hormone resistance is generally caused by steroid receptor mutations. Read More

    AKR1C3-mediated adipose androgen generation drives lipotoxicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent metabolic disorder, occurring in up to 10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Androgen excess is a defining feature of PCOS and has been suggested as causally associated with insulin resistance; however, mechanistic evidence linking both is lacking. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome.
    Arch Gynecol Obstet 2017 Jun 22. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Department of Surgical, Microsurgical and Medical Sciences, Gynecologic and Obstetric Clinic, University of Sassari, 07100, Sassari, Italy.
    Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Read More

    Severe Short Stature in an Adolescent Male with Prader-Willi Syndrome and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Therapeutic Conundrum.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 30;2017:4271978. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Rhode Island Hospital and Hasbro Children's Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency results in excess androgen production which can lead to early epiphyseal fusion and short stature. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder resulting from a defect on chromosome 15 due to paternal deletion, maternal uniparental disomy, or imprinting defect. Ninety percent of patients with PWS have short stature. Read More

    New biomarkers for diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Aug 15;471:248-253. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The University of California at Davis, Davis, CA, United States; Department of Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Mather, CA, United States. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting young women. Even though the definition of PCOS has changed over the years, all diagnostic criteria include two or more of the following: oligomenorrhea/oligoovulation/anovulation, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries (PCO). Traditional method of assessing the ovarian morphology has been transvaginal pelvic ultrasound. Read More

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Purpose: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an insidious pathologic condition that can manifest from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH) with potential progression to cirrhosis. Like the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), NAFLD is associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. PCOS women have an increased risk of NAFLD, but it is debatable which features of PCOS, either specific (androgen excess) or unspecific (metabolic derangements) affect the NAFLD risk. Read More

    Competing Factors Link to Bone Health in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation Takes a Toll.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jun 13;7(1):3432. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia; Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada.
    Chronic inflammation predisposes to poor bone health. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) experience androgen excess, ovulatory disturbances, insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity and chronic inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the relationships among bone health parameters, chronic subclinical inflammation and anthropometric measures in premenopausal women with and without PCOS. Read More

    Genetics of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2017 Jul 19;17(7):723-733. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    d Chief Officer of Academic Health and Hospital Affairs, State University Plaza , The State University of New York , Albany , NY , USA.
    Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal and metabolic disorder affecting 5 to 20% of reproductive-aged women worldwide that results in androgen excess, menstrual dysfunction and oligo-ovulatory subfertility, with increased risks for type 2 diabetes, endometrial adenocarcinoma, and potentially vascular disease, among other morbidities. PCOS is a complex genetic trait with strong heritability accounting for as high as 70% of the development of the disorder. Areas covered: The authors summarize the historical and recent findings of genetic studies of PCOS, such as familial studies, twin studies, and molecular genetic studies, including the results of recent genome wide associated studies. Read More

    Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency revisited: an update with a special focus on adolescent and adult women.
    Hum Reprod Update 2017 Jun 5:1-20. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Medicine, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.
    Background: Non-classic congenital hyperplasia (NCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by androgen excess.

    Objective And Rationale: We conducted a systematic review and critical assessment of the available evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of NCAH. A meta-analysis of epidemiological data was also performed. Read More

    The BMP4-Smad signaling pathway regulates hyperandrogenism development in a female mouse model.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jul 1;292(28):11740-11750. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    From the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Disease, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200090, China and
    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder and a major cause of anovulatory sterility in women at reproductive age. Most patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have hyperandrogenism, caused by excess androgen synthesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is an essential regulator of embryonic development and organ formation, and recent studies have also shown that BMP4 may be involved in female steroidogenesis process. Read More

    MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: The sexually dimorphic role of androgens in human metabolic disease.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Sep 31;177(3):R125-R143. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems ResearchUniversity of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency manifest with an overlapping adverse metabolic phenotype, including abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the impact of androgens on metabolic target tissues in an attempt to unravel the complex mechanistic links with metabolic dysfunction; we also evaluate clinical studies examining the associations between metabolic disease and disorders of androgen metabolism in men and women. We conceptualise that an equilibrium between androgen effects on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle underpins the metabolic phenotype observed in female androgen excess and male androgen deficiency. Read More

    Recent highlights of research on androgen receptors in women.
    Dev Period Med 2017;21(1):7-12
    Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland.
    In this brief review we present an outline of the current state of research on examples of hyperandrogenism that can be strongly associated with diverse modifications in the androgen signaling pathway. We discuss the most prominent clinical features of androgen excess and correlate them with studies on androgen receptor (AR) alterations. For the first time we summarize the confirmed localizations of all known AR receptors in women. Read More

    Polycystic ovary syndrome: Understanding the role of the brain.
    Front Neuroendocrinol 2017 Jul 25;46:1-14. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Physiology, Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Electronic address:
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. Characterised by hyperandrogenism, menstrual dysfunction and polycystic ovaries, PCOS is a broad-spectrum disorder unlikely to stem from a single common origin. Although commonly considered an ovarian disease, the brain is now a prime suspect in both the ontogeny and pathology of PCOS. Read More

    The effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight, food intake, and adipose tissue are changed by estrogen treatment in female rats.
    Horm Behav 2017 Jul 17;93:53-61. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-Cho, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.
    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excess body weight (BW) gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgens in female BW, appetite, and energy metabolism have not been fully examined. We hypothesized that androgens' effects on food intake (FI) and BW regulation change according to the estrogens' levels. Read More

    Combining a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify metabolic pathways significantly altered in polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Metabolism 2017 Jun 8;71:52-63. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS).

    Methods: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Read More

    Insulin sensitizers in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Minerva Pediatr 2017 Oct 11;69(5):434-443. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common disorder of androgen excess in women of reproductive age. The diagnosis of PCOS can be more challenging in adolescents than in adult women given significant overlap between normal puberty and the signs of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Optimal treatments for adult women with PCOS vary depending on patient risk factors and reproductive goals, but mainly include hormonal contraception and insulin sensitizers. Read More

    Endocrine evaluation of hirsutism.
    Int J Womens Dermatol 2017 Mar 16;3(1 Suppl):S6-S10. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    University of Connecticut Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Farmington, CT.
    Hirsutism is defined as excessive terminal hair growth in a male pattern in females. It typically affects 5 to 10% of reproductive-age women. Excessive hair growth can often cause significant psychological and emotional distress. Read More

    Prevalence of 'obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction' in severely obese men and women and its resolution after bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Hum Reprod Update 2017 Jul;23(4):390-408
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal & Universidad de Alcalá, E-28034 Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Sexual dimorphism manifests noticeably in obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction. In women, obesity is associated with androgen excess disorders, mostly the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whereas androgen deficiency is frequently present in obese men in what has been termed as male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH). Obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction, consisting of PCOS in women and MOSH in men, is a frequent finding in patients with severe obesity and it may be ameliorated or even resolve with marked weight loss, especially after bariatric surgery. Read More

    Fragrance compounds: The wolves in sheep's clothings.
    Med Hypotheses 2017 May 22;102:106-111. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego 92182, USA. Electronic address:
    In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. Read More

    Use of cyproterone acetate/ethinylestradiol in polycystic ovary syndrome: rationale and practical aspects.
    Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2017 Jun 2;22(3):183-190. Epub 2017 May 2.
    a Department of Gynecological Endocrinology , Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University , Beijing , China.
    Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, heterogeneous disorder characterised by hyperandrogenic skin symptoms, irregular menstruation and subfertility, increased risk of endometrial malignancy, and increased risk of preventable diseases associated with metabolic syndrome. Cyproterone acetate (CPA) 2 mg, combined with ethinylestradiol (EE) 35 μg, is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe acne related to androgen-sensitivity (with or without seborrhea) and/or hirsutism, in women of reproductive age.

    Objectives: To review the present knowledge about PCOS and summarize the role of CPA/EE in the care of patients suffering from this condition for the practitioner. Read More

    Androgens and Hypertension in Men and Women: a Unifying View.
    Curr Hypertens Rep 2017 May;19(5):44
    Department of Health Sciences and Mother and Child Care, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Purpose Of Review: This review was designed to revaluate the androgen role on the mechanisms of hypertension and cardiovascular risks in both men and women. Sex steroids are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, but pathophysiological mechanism is not well understood. Androgens have an important effect on metabolism, adipose and endothelial cell function, and cardiovascular risk in both men and women. Read More

    Sexual function in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Aug 26;217(2):191.e1-191.e19. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Biostatistics, Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT.
    Background: While female sexual dysfunction is a frequent occurrence, characteristics in infertile women are not well delineated. Furthermore, the impact of infertility etiology on the characteristics in women with differing androgen levels observed in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility has not been assessed.

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of sexual dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility. Read More

    Confounder factors masking a Leydig-cell ovarian tumor in a post-menopausal woman treated for androgen-positive receptor breast cancer.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 26:1-5. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    a Endocrinology Division.
    Post-menopause hyperandrogenism is a condition that needs careful evaluation. Aromatase inhibitors (AI), which are important in the management of positive estrogen breast cancer, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) can puzzle the evaluation of this condition. A postmenopause female with type-2 diabetes and advanced CKD was attended due to progressive virilization, which has started after the introduction of an AI for breast cancer 5 years earlier. Read More

    Management of Childhood Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia-An Integrative Review of the Literature.
    J Pediatr Health Care 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an endocrine condition that requires parents to administer steroids up to three times daily, supplementing maintenance doses with oral or injectable doses during times of illness. The purpose of this integrative review was to explore the management, care, and associated health issues for children with CAH and the family response to the condition. Four literature indexes were searched, with 39 articles included. Read More

    A Case Report of Cushing's Disease Presenting as Hair Loss.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2017 Jan-Apr;9(1):45-50. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Roger Williams Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA.
    Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that comprises a large group of signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess corticosteroids. Most cases of Cushing's syndrome are due to increased adrenocorticotropic hormone production from a pituitary adenoma, which is referred to as Cushing's disease. Most of the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and common in the general population, making a diagnosis often challenging. Read More

    Maternal hirsutism and autism spectrum disorders in offspring.
    Autism Res 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, 17129, Sweden.
    Because animal and human studies indicate that androgen exposure can influence neurodevelopment, it has been hypothesized that prenatal exposure to excess androgens may predispose to disorders with male-skewed ratio such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, maternal conditions characterized by hyperandrogenism such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or hirsutism may be relevant to child ASD. We previously found in a large Swedish case-control study of 23,748 ASD cases and 208,796 matched controls that PCOS in mothers is associated with increased offspring risk of ASD. Read More

    Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Optimal Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
    Am J Chin Med 2017 30;45(3):405-422. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    * School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction; it is now known to be closely linked to metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS which may lead to the excessive production of androgens by ovarian theca cells. Currently there is no single drug that can treat both the reproductive and metabolic complications of the disorder. Read More

    Birth Weight in Different Etiologies of Disorders of Sex Development.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar;102(3):1044-1050
    Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; and.
    Context: It is well established that boys are heavier than girls at birth. Although the cause of birth weight (BW) difference is unknown, it has been proposed that it could be generated from prenatal androgen action.

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the BW of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) of different etiologies and to evaluate the effects of androgen action on BW. Read More

    Modulation of steroidogenesis by vitamin D3 in granulosa cells of the mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.
    Syst Biol Reprod Med 2017 Jun 27;63(3):150-161. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    a Department of Anatomy, School of medicine , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovarian morphology, anovulation or oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. It is shown that disruption in the steroidogenesis pathway caused by excess androgen in PCOS is a critical element of abnormal folliculogenesis and failure in dominant follicle selection. Vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of ovulatory dysfunction and can influence genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Read More

    Effects of Chronic ACTH Excess on Human Adrenal Cortex.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 8;8:43. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Service des Maladies Endocriniennes et Métaboliques, Centre de Référence des Maladies Rares de la Surrénale, Faculté de Médecine Paris Descartes, Université Paris 5, Hôpital Cochin , Paris , France.
    Chronic ACTH excess leads to chronic cortisol excess, without escape phenomenon, resulting in Cushing's syndrome. Excess adrenal androgens also occur: in females, they will overcompensate the gonadotrophic loss, inducing high testosterone; in males, they will not compensate it, inducing low testosterone. Chronic ACTH excess leads to chronic adrenal mineralocorticoid excess and low aldosterone levels: after an acute rise, aldosterone plasma levels resume low values after a few days when ACTH is prolonged. Read More

    Androgen Stimulates Growth of Mouse Preantral Follicles In Vitro: Interaction With Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and With Growth Factors of the TGFβ Superfamily.
    Endocrinology 2017 04;158(4):920-935
    Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
    Androgens are essential for the normal function of mature antral follicles but also have a role in the early stages of follicle development. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, is characterized by androgen excess and aberrant follicle development that includes accelerated early follicle growth. We have examined the effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on development of isolated mouse preantral follicles in culture with the specific aim of investigating interaction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the steroidogenic pathway, and growth factors of the TGFβ superfamily that are known to have a role in early follicle development. Read More

    Neuroendocrine androgen action is a key extraovarian mediator in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Apr 20;114(16):E3334-E3343. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Andrology Laboratory, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2139, Australia;
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder characterized by reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities. As the origins of PCOS remain unknown, mechanism-based treatments are not feasible and current management relies on treatment of symptoms. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent PCOS characteristic; however, it is unclear whether androgen excess, which is treatable, is a cause or a consequence of PCOS. Read More

    Developmental Programming: Gestational Exposure to Excess Testosterone Alters Expression of Ovarian Matrix Metalloproteases and Their Target Proteins
    Reprod Sci 2017 01 1:1933719117697127. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
    Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated sheep, similar to women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), manifests reproductive defects that include multifollicular ovarian phenotype. Women with PCOS manifest increased ovarian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. We tested the hypothesis that gestational T excess in sheep would alter ovarian expression of MMPs, tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) and their target proteins laminin B (LAMB), collagen, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), and connexin 43 (GJA1) consistent with increased MMP activity and that these changes are developmentally regulated. Read More

    Testosterone Levels in Pre-Menopausal Women are Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Midlife.
    Am J Gastroenterol 2017 May 14;112(5):755-762. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Objectives: Young women with hyperandrogenism have high risk of metabolic co-morbidities, including increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether testosterone (the predominant androgen) is associated with NAFLD independent of metabolic co-factors is unclear. Additionally, whether testosterone confers increased risk of NAFLD in women without hyperandrogenism is unknown. Read More

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