10,961 results match your criteria Anatomy of the Vestibular System


Dermatologic manifestations in paediatric neurofibromatosis type 2: a cross sectional descriptive multicentric study.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 06 21;17(1):242. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Dermatology, CRMRP-Sud, ARCHET 2 Hospital, CHU de Nice, 151 route st Antoine de Ginestière, 06200, Nice, France.

Background: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is characterized by bilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS) more often in adults but a severe paediatric form with multiple neurological tumours is also described. In this population, a early diagnosis is important to prevent the onset of neurological complications but is difficult, particularly without a familial history. Cutaneous manifestations, which may precede VS or neurological tumours by several years, may contribute to an early diagnosis, but specific studies are lacking. Read More

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Morphometric study of the vestibuloauditory organ of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

Anat Histol Embryol 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Joint Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

Independent auditory end-organs appear first in amphibians in vertebrate phylogeny. In amphibians, sound detection is carried out by the amphibian papilla, basilar papilla and macula saccule. Amphibians inhabit distinct habitats and exhibit specific behaviours and sound frequency responses, so the amphibian vestibuloauditory system is an excellent model for considering the relationships between behaviour and physiological/anatomical vestibuloauditory properties. Read More

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Synaptic transmission at the vestibular hair cells of amniotes.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2022 Jun 3;121:103749. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Experimental Otology Group, InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, and Institute for Auditory Neuroscience, 37075 Göttingen, Germany; Auditory Neuroscience Group, Max Planck Institute for Multidisciplinary Sciences, 37075 Göttingen, Germany; Collaborative Research Center 889, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; Multiscale Bioimaging Cluster of Excellence (MBExC), University of Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

A harmonized interplay between the central nervous system and the five peripheral end organs is how the vestibular system helps organisms feel a sense of balance and motion in three-dimensional space. The receptor cells of this system, much like their cochlear equivalents, are the specialized hair cells. However, research over the years has shown that the vestibular end organs and hair cells evolved very differently from their cochlear counterparts. Read More

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CT anatomy of the head in the Ile de France sheep.

Vet Med Sci 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: CT scan images provide accurate anatomical data from different areas of the body that can be used to diagnose diseases.

Objectives: The present work aimed to describe the normal anatomical structures of the Ile de France sheep head and its morphometric and volumetric properties using computed tomography (CT) and stereological methods.

Methods: Five adult Ile de France sheep heads, which were of mature age (above 10 months), were included in this study. Read More

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A comparative study of two robotic thyroidectomy procedures: transoral vestibular versus bilateral axillary-breast approach.

BMC Surg 2022 May 11;22(1):173. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, The 960th Hospital of the PLA Joint Logistics Support Force (Former Jinan Military General Hospital of People's Liberation Army), Jinan, China.

Objective: To compare the surgical outcomes between the transoral-vestibular robotic thyroidectomy (TOVRT) and bilateral axillo-breast approach robotic thyroidectomy (BABART).

Methods: A total of 99 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma but no distant metastasis were enrolled in this study from May 2020 to April 2021. Lobectomy or total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection were performed in all cases. Read More

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A prostate utricle cyst as a cause of haematospermia in a young adult: a case report.

Acta Biomed 2022 04 14;93(S1):e2022094. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

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Background And Aim: Prostatic utricle cyst is an embryological remnant of the Muller duct system, resulting from an incomplete regression of these structures during embryological development. Most of the time such congenital alteration is asymptomatic, but may sometimes present with various signs and symptoms, from urinary tract infections to episodes of haematospermia in a small percentage of cases.

Methods: We reported the case of a 42-years-old man who suffered from recurrent episodes of haematospermia for about 20 years; the instrumental examinations, first of all TRUS and then MRI evaluation, demonstrated the presence of a cystic formation, located in the posterior median site of the prostate closely to the prostatic urethra. Read More

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Repair of surviving hair cells in the damaged mouse utricle.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 04 5;119(15):e2116973119. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305.

Sensory hair cells (HCs) in the utricle are mechanoreceptors required to detect linear acceleration. After damage, the mammalian utricle partially restores the HC population and organ function, although regenerated HCs are primarily type II and immature. Whether native, surviving HCs can repair and contribute to this recovery is unclear. Read More

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Bate palmas mutant mice as a model of Kabuki syndrome: Higher susceptibility to infections and vocalization impairments?

J Neurosci Res 2022 Jul 1;100(7):1438-1451. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Psychoneuroimmunology Laboratory, Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil.

The recessive mutant mouse bate palmas (bapa) arose from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis. Previous studies of our group revealed some behavioral impairments and a mutation in the lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D (Kmt2d) gene. Because mutations in the KMT2D gene in humans are mainly responsible for Kabuki syndrome, this study was proposed to validate bapa mice as a model of Kabuki syndrome. Read More

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Vestibulo-ocular dysfunction in mTBI: Utility of the VOMS for evaluation and management - A review.

NeuroRehabilitation 2022 ;50(3):279-296

Herbert Wertheim School of Optometry & Vision Science at the University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Background: Individuals who have suffered a concussion/mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) frequently report symptoms associated with vestibular and/or oculomotor dysfunction (VOD) like dizziness, nausea, fatigue, brain fog, headache, gait and neurocognitive impairments which are associated with the development of chronic symptoms. The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) tool has been established as a reliable and clinically relevant complement to use alongside a battery of post-concussion tests to improve screening and referral for further evaluation and treatment of VOD.

Objectives: This paper will review the pathoanatomy and symptomatology of common vestibular and oculomotor disorders after concussion, as well as the utility of the VOMS to assist in diagnosis, referral, and management. Read More

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A Retrospective Study of Recurrent Bacterial Meningitis in Children: Etiology, Clinical Course, and Treatment.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 10;2022:3681871. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Hebei, Shijiazhuang 050031, China.

Objectives: Recurrent bacterial meningitis (RBM) is a rare but life-threatening disease. This study aims to analyze the clinical features, potential causes, and therapeutic outcomes of RBM in children.

Methods: This article retrospectively reviews the clinical characteristics, etiologies, and treatments in children with RBM hospitalized in Hebei children's hospital from 2012 to 2020. Read More

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Crouzon Syndrome Anatomy, Usefulness of Vestibular Orientation.

J Craniofac Surg 2022 Mar 14. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

French National Center for Rare Cranio Maxillo Facial Malformations (2008-2013) Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Lille University Hospital, Lille, France Plastic and Craniofacial Unit, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Coordenador de Cirurgia Craniofacial HRAC-USP, Bauru, Brazil.

Abstract: Spatial resolution of computerized tomographic scanner has reached a level to which accurate anatomic measurements could be done in. Three-dimensional accurate measurements require a reliable referential system. In craniology landmarks are usually selected in the skull base. Read More

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Hearing loss patterns in enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome: Do fluctuations have clinical significance?

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2022 May 22;156:111072. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: To reveal hearing loss patterns in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) syndrome according to demographic and clinical characteristics.

Methods: A retrospective, longitudinal study design was utilized to identify patients with EVA. Ears of patients were categorized into one of four cohorts: progressive fluctuating, progressive non-fluctuating, stable fluctuating, and stable non-fluctuating patterns. Read More

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Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct: Disease Characterization and Exploration of Potential Prognostic Factors for Cochlear Implantation.

Otol Neurotol 2022 06 8;43(5):e563-e570. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Paediatric Otolaryngology Department, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester.

Objectives: There is an unmet need to match the anticipated natural history of hearing loss (HL) in enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) with clinical management strategies. The objectives of this study are therefore to provide a detailed case characterization of an EVA cohort and explore the relationship between candidate prognostic factors and timing of cochlear implant (CI) surgery.

Study Design: A multicenter retrospective review of patients diagnosed with EVA. Read More

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Comparison of Different Mandibular Jawlines Classifications on Transoral Endoscopic Thyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Experiences of 690 Cases.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 17;13:842148. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The influences of patients' different mandibular jawlines on transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) have not been described before. The objective of this study was to introduce a new classification to assess different mandibular jawlines, and to evaluate the effects on TOETVA in terms of safety, feasibility, and postoperative feelings in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).

Methods: The crossing angle of esthetic plane and mandibular plane was defined as Wang Angle, used to assess patients' different mandibular jawlines. Read More

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A newly identified mutation (c.2029 C > T) in SLC26A4 gene is associated with enlarged vestibular aqueducts in a Chinese family.

BMC Med Genomics 2022 03 6;15(1):49. Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 20 East, Yuhuangding Road, Yantai, 264000, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: The enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA), associated with mutations in the SLC26A4 gene, characterized by non-syndromic hearing loss, is an autosomal recessive disorder. Here, we intended to investigate genetic causes of hearing loss in a Han Chinese man.

Method: First, whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the gene mutations responsible for hearing loss in the proband. Read More

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Sox10 Gene Is Required for the Survival of Saccular and Utricular Hair Cells in a Porcine Model.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jun 5;59(6):3323-3335. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

College of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

Pathological changes of the cochlea and hearing loss have been well addressed in Waardenburg syndrome (WS). However, the vestibular organ malformation in WS is still largely unknown. In this study, the differentiation and development of vestibular sensory epithelium and vestibular function caused by SOX10 mutation, a critical gene induces WS, have been studied in minature pig model. Read More

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Cochlear Implant Electrode Misplacement: A Case Series and Contemporary Review.

Otol Neurotol 2022 06 2;43(5):547-558. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Objective: To determine root causes leading to misplaced cochlear implant (CI) electrode arrays and discuss their management using a case series and contemporary literature review.

Study Design: Retrospective case review and contemporary literature review.

Setting: Single tertiary-referral center. Read More

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Surgical Approach for Rapid and Minimally Traumatic Recovery of Human Inner Ear Tissues From Deceased Organ Donors.

Otol Neurotol 2022 04;43(4):e519-e525

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Objective: To develop a surgical approach for rapid and minimally traumatic recovery of inner ear tissue from human organ and tissue donors to provide fresh tissue for use in inner ear research.

Study Design: Exploration of novel surgical methodology and evaluation of the steps necessary for obtaining specimens from donors during the procurement of organs for transplantation.

Setting: Donor procurement locations across multiple local hospitals and tissue processing at the microsurgical temporal bone laboratory. Read More

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Early Cerebellar Development in Relation to the Trigeminal System.

Cerebellum 2022 Mar 2. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada.

Despite the wealth of knowledge of adult cerebellar connectivity, little is known about the developmental mechanisms that underpin its development. Early connectivity is important because it is the foundation of the neural networks crucial for neuronal function and serves as a scaffold on which later tracts form. Conventionally, it is believed that afferents from the vestibular system are the first to invade the cerebellum, at embryonic days (E) 11-E12/13 in mice, where they target the new born Purkinje cells. Read More

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Early Elevation and Normalization of Electrode Impedance in Patients With Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Undergoing Cochlear Implantation.

Otol Neurotol 2022 06 24;43(5):e535-e539. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia.

Objective: To characterize early changes in impedance in patients undergoing cochlear implantation with and without enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA).

Methods: Case-control retrospective study of patients undergoing cochlear implantation with and without EVA. Impedance was measured across all channels intraoperatively and within 24 hours of surgery. Read More

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L-Thyroxine Improves Vestibular Compensation in a Rat Model of Acute Peripheral Vestibulopathy: Cellular and Behavioral Aspects.

Cells 2022 02 16;11(4). Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Aix Marseille Université-CNRS, Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives, LNC UMR 7291, 13331 Marseille, France.

Unilateral vestibular lesions induce a vestibular syndrome, which recovers over time due to vestibular compensation. The therapeutic effect of L-Thyroxine (L-T4) on vestibular compensation was investigated by behavioral testing and immunohistochemical analysis in a rat model of unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN). We demonstrated that a short-term L-T4 treatment reduced the vestibular syndrome and significantly promoted vestibular compensation. Read More

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February 2022

Endolymphatic Sac Tumor as a Ménière-Like Vertiginous Syndrome: A Case Report.

J Int Adv Otol 2022 Jan;18(1):84-87

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital, Monterrey, Mexico.

Endolymphatic sac tumors are rare benign neoplasms with locally aggressive behavior located in the posterior petrous ridge of the temporal bone. They cause sensorineural hearing loss and may develop vestibular damage. A 24-year-old male patient arrived at our office with a history of acute vertiginous syndrome, left hearing loss, and tinnitus 1-year ago. Read More

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January 2022

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: Is It Really an Otolith Disease?

Authors:
Ahmet Koç

J Int Adv Otol 2022 Jan;18(1):62-70

Department of ENT, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

The current theory in physiopathology of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the mechanical theory, namely the cupulolithiasis-canalolithiasis theory. Repositioning maneuvers based on this theory has now taken place in therapy. However, mechanical theory is insufficient to explain some clinical situations and cannot fully enlighten the physiopathology. Read More

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January 2022

Endolymphatic Hydrops Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Menire's Disease Patients on a Vertigo Attack.

Otol Neurotol 2022 04;43(4):489-493

Department of Radiology, Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University.

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of endolymphatic hydrops (EH) in Menire's disease (MD) patient on a vertigo attack.

Study Design: Prospective study.

Setting: Tertiary referral center. Read More

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Assessing the clinical utility of volumetric HRCT in pediatric enlarged vestibular aqueduct related hearing loss.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2022 Apr 14;155:111067. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

University Hospitals Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: |The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of volumetric HRCT measurements in the diagnosis of enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS) and describe the association of this novel radiographic approach with clinical hearing outcomes. We hypothesized that volumetric measurements may have stronger correlation to hearing loss given the anatomic variability of the vestibular aqueduct in linear measurements.

Methods: A retrospective study design was used, including 51 patients that fit the inclusion criteria for the study for a total of 81 ears. Read More

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Magnetic Resonance 3D Measurement of the Endolymphatic Space in 100 Control Human Subjects.

J Int Adv Otol 2021 Nov;17(6):536-540

PixSpace. Ltd., Fukuoka, Japan.

Three Dimensional-magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear endolymphatic space was performed in 100 control human subjects. Ear endolymphatic space was visualized using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with intravenous gadolinium injection. The images were acquired on a 3-tesla magnetic resonance scanner using a 32-channel array head coil for all patients. Read More

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November 2021

The Impact of Vascular Loops in the Cerebellopontine Angle on Audio-Vestibular Symptoms: A Systematic Review.

Audiol Neurootol 2022 17;27(3):200-207. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

First Department of Surgery, Laikon General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

It has been suggested that vascular loops in the cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal are involved in the etiology of audio-vestibular symptoms. Several studies have focused on the compression of the eighth cranial nerve by vascular loops but have yielded contradictory results regarding their clinical significance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether vascular loops in this region correlate with audio-vestibular symptoms and which loop features - if any - can potentially lead to symptom manifestation. Read More

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The Long and Winding Road-Vestibular Efferent Anatomy in Mice.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 28;15:751850. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

The precise functional role of the Efferent Vestibular System (EVS) is still unclear, but the auditory olivocochlear efferent system has served as a reasonable model on the effects of a cholinergic and peptidergic input on inner ear organs. However, it is important to appreciate the similarities and differences in the structure of the two efferent systems, especially within the same animal model. Here, we examine the anatomy of the mouse EVS, from its central origin in the Efferent Vestibular Nucleus (EVN) of the brainstem, to its peripheral terminations in the vestibular organs, and we compare these findings to known mouse olivocochlear anatomy. Read More

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Biochemical analysis reveals the systematic response of motion sickness mice to ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract's amelioration effect.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 May 4;290:115077. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: As a common medicinal and edible plant, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) is often used for the prevention of motion sickness. However, the mechanism of its anti-motion sickness remains to be elucidated.

Aim Of The Study: To explore novel treatment for motion sickness with less side effects, anti-motion sickness effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract (GE) and the possible molecular mechanisms were investigated. Read More

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Low-salt diet increases mRNA expression of aldosterone-regulated transporters in the intermediate portion of the endolymphatic sac.

Pflugers Arch 2022 05 3;474(5):505-515. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Ikenobe 1750-1, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, 761-0793, Japan.

The endolymphatic sac is a small sac-shaped organ at the end of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. The endolymphatic sac absorbs the endolymph, in which the ion balance is crucial for inner ear homeostasis. Of the three sections of the endolymphatic sac, the intermediate portion is the center of endolymph absorption, particularly sodium transport, and is thought to be regulated by aldosterone. Read More

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