2,708 results match your criteria Anatomy of the Vestibular System


Investigation of inner ear anatomy in mouse using X-ray phase contrast tomography.

Microsc Res Tech 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

A thorough understanding of inner ear anatomy is important for investigators. However, investigation of the mouse inner ear is difficult due to the limitations of imaging techniques. X-ray phase contrast tomography increases contrast 100-1,000 times compared with conventional X-ray imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23121DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Three-dimensional imaging of the human internal acoustic canal and arachnoid cistern: a synchrotron study with clinical implications.

J Anat 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

A thorough knowledge of the gross and micro-anatomy of the human internal acoustic canal (IAC) is essential in vestibular schwannoma removal, cochlear implantation (CI) surgery, vestibular nerve section, and decompression procedures. Here, we analyzed the acoustic-facial cistern of the human IAC, including nerves and anastomoses using synchrotron phase contrast imaging (SR-PCI). A total of 26 fresh human temporal bones underwent SR-PCI. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/joa.12926
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12926DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Sensorimotor anatomy of gait, balance, and falls.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;159:3-26

Department of Neurology and Institute for Translational Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States. Electronic address:

The review demonstrates that control of posture and locomotion is provided by systems across the caudal-to-rostral extent of the neuraxis. A common feature of the neuroanatomic organization of the postural and locomotor control systems is the presence of key nodes for convergent input of multisensory feedback in conjunction with efferent copies of the motor command. These nodes include the vestibular and reticular nuclei and interneurons in the intermediate zone of the spinal cord (Rexed's laminae VI-VIII). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B97804446391650
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63916-5.00001-XDOI Listing
January 2018
12 Reads

Calyx junction dismantlement and synaptic uncoupling precede hair cell extrusion in the vestibular sensory epithelium during sub-chronic 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile ototoxicity in the mouse.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Departament de Ciències Fisiològiques, Institut de Neurociènces, Universitat de Barcelona, Feixa Llarga s/n, 08907, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Catalunya, Spain.

The cellular and molecular events that precede hair cell (HC) loss in the vestibular epithelium during chronic ototoxic exposure have not been widely studied. To select a study model, we compared the effects of sub-chronic exposure to different concentrations of 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) in the drinking water of two strains of mice and of both sexes. In subsequent experiments, male 129S1/SvImJ mice were exposed to 30 mM IDPN for 5 or 8 weeks; animals were euthanized at the end of the exposure or after a washout period of 13 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2339-0DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Distribution of the Extracellular Matrix in the Pararubral Area of the Rat.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 24;394:177-188. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98., Debrecen H-4032, Hungary; MTA-DE Neuroscience Research Group, Nagyerdei krt. 98., Debrecen 4032, Hungary. Electronic address:

Previously we described similarities and differences in the organization and molecular composition of an aggrecan based extracellular matrix (ECM) in three precerebellar nuclei, the inferior olive, the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus and the red nucleus of the rat associated with their specific cytoarchitecture, connection and function in the vestibular system. The aim of present study is to map the ECM pattern in a mesencephalic precerebellar nucleus, the pararubral area, which has a unique function among the precerebellar nuclei with its retinal connection and involvement in the circadian rhythm regulation. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry we have described for the first time the presence of major ECM components, the hyaluronan, aggrecan, versican, neurocan, brevican, tenascin-R (TN-R), and the HAPLN1 link protein in the pararubral area. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064522183069
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.10.027DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

Purkinje Neurons: Development, Morphology, and Function.

Authors:
Tomoo Hirano

Cerebellum 2018 Dec;17(6):699-700

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.

Cerebellar Purkinje neurons are arguably some of the most conspicuous neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system. They have characteristic planar fan-shaped dendrites which branch extensively and fill spaces almost completely with little overlap. This dendritic morphology is well suited to receiving a single or a few excitatory synaptic inputs from each of more than 100,000 parallel fibers which run orthogonally to Purkinje cell dendritic trees. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12311-018-0985-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-018-0985-7DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Optical coherence tomography follow-up of patients treated from periodontal disease.

J Biophotonics 2018 Sep 27:e201800209. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Graduate Program in Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most important imaging modalities for biophotonics applications. In this work, an important step towards the clinical use of OCT in dental practice is reported, by following-up patients treated from periodontal disease (PD). A total of 147 vestibular dental sites from 14 patients diagnosed with PD were evaluated prior and after treatment, using a swept-source OCT and two periodontal probes (Florida probe and North Carolina) for comparison. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jbio.201800209
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbio.201800209DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Vestibular-related eye movements in the rat following selective electrical stimulation of the vestibular sensors.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2018 Sep 11. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Rats are the most commonly used species in the neurosciences; however, little is known about the effects of selective electrical stimulation of individual vestibular sensors, on their eye movements. This limits their use to study the effects of vestibular stimulation on the brain, and their use in further exploring novel technologies such as artificial vestibular implants. We describe the effects of electrical stimulation of each vestibular sensor on vestibular-related eye movement in rats and compared the results to other species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00359-018-1286-9DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Human inner ear blood supply revisited: the Uppsala collection of temporal bone-an international resource of education and collaboration.

Ups J Med Sci 2018 Sep 11;123(3):131-142. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

a Department of Surgical Sciences , Section of Otolaryngology, Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.

Background: The Uppsala collection of human temporal bones and molds is a unique resource for education and international research collaboration. Micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) and synchrotron imaging are used to investigate the complex anatomy of the inner ear. Impaired microcirculation is etiologically linked to various inner ear disorders, and recent developments in inner ear surgery promote examination of the vascular system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03009734.2018.1492654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198224PMC
September 2018

The vertebrate middle and inner ear: A short overview.

J Morphol 2018 Aug 17. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Steinmann Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, Bonn, Germany.

The evolution of the various hearing adaptations is connected to major structural changes in nearly all groups of vertebrates. Besides hearing, the detection of acceleration and orientation in space are key functions of this mechanosensory system. The symposium "show me your ear - the inner and middle ear in vertebrates" held at the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology (ICVM) 2016 in Washington, DC (USA) intended to present current research addressing adaptation and evolution of the vertebrate otic region, auditory ossicles, vestibular system, and hearing physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20880DOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Octopus vulgaris: An Alternative in Evolution.

Results Probl Cell Differ 2018 ;65:585-598

Department of Biology, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

Octopus vulgaris underwent a radical modification to cope with the benthic lifestyle. It diverged from other cephalopods in terms of body plan, anatomy, behavior, and intelligence. It independently evolved the largest and most complex nervous system and sophisticated behaviors among invertebrates in a separate evolutionary lineage. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-92486-1_26
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-92486-1_26DOI Listing
January 2018
23 Reads

A re-evaluation of the basicranial soft tissues and pneumaticity of the therizinosaurian Nothronychus mckinleyi (Theropoda; Maniraptora).

PLoS One 2018 31;13(7):e0198155. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

White Mountain Dinosaur Exploration Center, Springerville, Arizona, United States of America.

The soft-tissue reconstruction and associated osteology of the North American therizinosaurian Nothronychus mckinleyi is updated. The cranial nerve topology is revised, bringing it more in line with coelurosaurs. The trunk of the trigeminal nerve is very short, with an incompletely intracranial trigeminal ganglion, an ophthalmic branch diverging anteriorly first, with later divergences of the maxillomandibular branches, following typical pathways. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198155PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6067709PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Semicircular Canal Size and Shape Influence on Disorientation.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2018 Aug;89(8):744-748

Introduction: Orientation in a 3-dimensional environment increases demands on the vestibular system. The anterior, lateral, and posterior semicircular canals sense pitch, roll, and yaw acceleration, respectively. The macular end organs sense linear acceleration and provide gravity reference. Read More

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http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/10.3357/AMHP.5104.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5104.2018DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Balance in multiple sclerosis: relationship to central brain regions.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Oct 17;236(10):2739-2750. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Henry Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Dizziness, postural instability, and ataxia are among the most debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), reflecting, in large part, dysfunctional integration of visual, somatosensory, and vestibular sensory cues. However, the role of MS-related supratentorial lesions in producing such symptoms is poorly understood. In this study, motor control test (MCT) and dynamic sensory organization test (SOT) scores of 58 MS patients were compared to those of 72 healthy controls; correlations were determined between the MS scores of 49 patients and lesion volumes within 26 brain regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-018-5332-1DOI Listing
October 2018

Single neuron activity and c-Fos expression in the rat striatum following electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system.

Physiol Rep 2018 Jul;6(13):e13791

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Connections between the vestibular system and the basal ganglia have been postulated since the early 20th century. However, the results of electrophysiological studies investigating neuronal responses to electrical stimulation of the vestibular system have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electrical stimulation of the vestibular labyrinth on single neuron activity and c-Fos expression in the rat striatum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6043475PMC
July 2018
7 Reads

Random-amplitude sinusoidal linear acceleration causes greater vestibular modulation of skin sympathetic nerve activity than constant-amplitude acceleration.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Oct 2;236(10):2619-2626. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia.

We tested the hypothesis that random variations in the magnitude of sinusoidal linear acceleration cause greater modulation of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), but not muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), than sinusoidal stimuli of the same frequency but constant amplitude. Subjects (n = 22) were seated in a sealed room mounted on a linear motor that could deliver peak sinusoidal accelerations of 30 mG in the antero-posterior direction. Subjects sat on a padded chair with their neck and head supported vertically, thereby minimizing somatosensory cues, facing the direction of motion in the anterior direction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-018-5323-2DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Localisation of Formyl-Peptide Receptor 2 in the Rat Central Nervous System and Its Role in Axonal and Dendritic Outgrowth.

Neurochem Res 2018 Aug 13;43(8):1587-1598. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 119260, Singapore.

Arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) released by the action of phospholipases A (PLA) on membrane phospholipids may be metabolized by lipoxygenases to the anti-inflammatory mediators lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and resolvin D1 (RvD1), and these can bind to a common receptor, formyl-peptide receptor 2 (FPR2). The contribution of this receptor to axonal or dendritic outgrowth is unknown. The present study was carried out to elucidate the distribution of FPR2 in the rat CNS and its role in outgrowth of neuronal processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-018-2573-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6061218PMC
August 2018
13 Reads

Cerebellopontine Angle Anaplastic Ganglioglioma Masquerading as Vestibular Schwannoma: Unusual Entity.

World Neurosurg 2018 Sep 19;117:221-224. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Neuro-Surgery, Govind Ballabh Pant Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, New Delhi, India.

Background: Anaplastic gangliogliomas at the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are exceptionally rare with only a few reported cases in published literature. These are composed of atypical ganglion cells and astrocytes accounting for nearly 1% of all central nervous system tumors. The authors report the case of anaplastic ganglioglioma in an adult patient presenting as a CPA mass lesion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.06.054DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads
2.420 Impact Factor

The role of insula-cerebellum connection underlying aversive regulation with acupuncture.

Mol Pain 2018 Jan-Dec;14:1744806918783457. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

2 Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Acupuncture at pericardium 6 (PC6) shows a consistently positive efficacy in nausea response suggested by consensus expert guidelines. Nausea encompasses aversive symptom as well as strong emotional components. Disgust is a subjective emotion of uneasy commonly accompanying with a physiological response that is accompanied by strong visceral sensations (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744806918783457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077882PMC
October 2018
45 Reads

Characteristics of vestibular corrective saccades in patients with slow visual saccades, vestibular disorders and controls: A descriptive analysis.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(5):e0197079. Epub 2018 May 30.

Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

Objective: Our aim was to determine whether overt catch up saccades (OS) provoked by vestibular stimuli, as observed in the video head impulse test (vHIT), have comparable metrics as visually triggered horizontal saccades (VS), indicating a common saccadic brainstem generator.

Methods: Three groups of patients were studied: patients with neurological disorders causing slow saccades (group 1, n = 12), patients with peripheral vestibular lesions (group 2, n = 43), and normal controls (group 3, = 24). All patients underwent vHIT and Videooculographic testing. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197079PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976173PMC
August 2018
3 Reads

Bilateral tympanokeratomas (cholesteatomas) with bilateral otitis media, unilateral otitis interna and acoustic neuritis in a dog.

Acta Vet Scand 2018 May 22;60(1):31. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, K-221 Mosier Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506-5802, USA.

Background: An aural cholesteatoma, more appropriately named tympanokeratoma, is an epidermoid cyst of the middle ear described in several species, including dogs, humans and Mongolian gerbils. The cyst lining consists of stratified, keratinizing squamous epithelium with central accumulation of a keratin debris. This case report describes vestibular ganglioneuritis and perineuritis in a dog with chronic otitis, bilateral tympanokeratomas and presumed extension of otic infection to the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-018-0386-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5964671PMC
May 2018
4 Reads

Amphibian sacculus and the forced Kuramoto model with intrinsic noise and frequency dispersion.

Phys Rev E 2018 Apr;97(4-1):042411

Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The amphibian sacculus (AS) is an end organ that specializes in the detection of low-frequency auditory and vestibular signals. In this paper, we propose a model for the AS in the form of an array of phase oscillators with long-range coupling, subject to a steady load that suppresses spontaneous oscillations. The array is exposed to significant levels of frequency dispersion and intrinsic noise. Read More

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https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevE.97.042411
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.97.042411DOI Listing
April 2018
1 Read

Segmental Analysis of the Vestibular Nerve and the Efferents of the Vestibular Complex.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology and IMIB-Arrixaca Institute, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, E30071, Spain.

Use of a segmental approach in the study of vestibular centers in the hindbrain improves morphological and functional understanding of this region controlled by Hox genes, among other molecular determinants. Here, we review accrued data about segmental organization of vestibular afferents and efferents. Inner ear-originated vestibular fibers enter the hindbrain, together with auditory ones, through the alar plate of rhombomere 4, then branch into descending and ascending branches to reach appropriate vestibular nuclei along the vestibular column. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.23828DOI Listing

Effects of electrical stimulation of the rat vestibular labyrinth on c-Fos expression in the hippocampus.

Neurosci Lett 2018 06 22;677:60-64. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand Centre of Research Excellence, New Zealand; Eisdell Moore Centre for Hearing and Balance Research, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Several studies have demonstrated that electrical activation of the peripheral vestibular system can evoke field potential, multi-unit neuronal activity and acetylcholine release in the hippocampus (HPC). However, no study to date has employed the immediate early gene protein, c-Fos, to investigate the distribution of activation of cells in the HPC following electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. We found that vestibular stimulation increased the number of animals expressing c-Fos in the dorsal HPC compared to sham control rats (P ≤ 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2018.04.041DOI Listing
June 2018
1 Read

The Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Neurons: The Auditory Portion of the VIII Nerve.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Neurobiology of Hearing, Dept. of Immunology, Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain).

The VIII nerve is formed by sensory neurons that innervate the inner ear, i.e., the vestibular and the auditory receptors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.23815DOI Listing

Fine structure of the canal neuromasts of the lateral line system in the adult zebrafish.

Anat Histol Embryol 2018 Aug 26;47(4):322-329. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

The mechanosensory lateral line system of fish is responsible for several functions such as balance, hearing, and orientation in water flow and is formed by neuromast receptor organs distributed on head, trunk and tail. Superficial and canal neuromasts can be distinguished for localization and morphological differences. Several information is present regarding the superficial neuromasts of zebrafish and other teleosts especially during larval and juvenile stages, while not as numerous data are so far available about the ultrastructural characteristics of the canal neuromasts in adult zebrafish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ahe.12356DOI Listing

Analysis of Vestibular Labyrinthine Geometry and Variation in the Human Temporal Bone.

Front Neurosci 2018 26;12:107. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Stable posture and body movement in humans is dictated by the precise functioning of the ampulla organs in the semi-circular canals. Statistical analysis of the interrelationship between bony and membranous compartments within the semi-circular canals is dependent on the visualization of soft tissue structures. Thirty-one human inner ears were prepared, post-fixed with osmium tetroxide and decalcified for soft tissue contrast enhancement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5834493PMC
February 2018
4 Reads

The parietal lobe and the vestibular system.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;151:119-140

German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders-IFB, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; Clinical Neuroscience, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

The vestibular cortex differs in various ways from other sensory cortices. It consists of a network of several distinct and separate temporoparietal areas. Its core region, the parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), is located in the posterior insula and retroinsular region and includes the parietal operculum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63622-5.00006-1DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

Head stabilisation in fast running lizards.

Zoology (Jena) 2018 04 29;127:114-120. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Functional Morphology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

The cyclic patterns of terrestrial animal locomotion are frequently perturbed in natural environments. The terrain can be complex or inclined, the substrate can move unexpectedly and animals can misjudge situations. Loosing stability due to perturbations increases the probability of capture by predators and decreases the chance of successful prey capture and winning intraspecific battles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2017.11.008DOI Listing

Recent inner ear specialization for high-speed hunting in cheetahs.

Sci Rep 2018 02 2;8(1):2301. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY, 10024, USA.

The cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is the fastest living land mammal. Because of its specialized hunting strategy, this species evolved a series of specialized morphological and functional body features to increase its exceptional predatory performance during high-speed hunting. Using high-resolution X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT), we provide the first analyses of the size and shape of the vestibular system of the inner ear in cats, an organ essential for maintaining body balance and adapting head posture and gaze direction during movement in most vertebrates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-20198-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5797172PMC
February 2018
1 Read

Saccular Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Is Associated with Driving Difficulty.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2017 26;44(5-6):294-302. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background/aims: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience increased rates of vestibular loss. Recent studies suggest that saccular impairment in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients is associated with impaired spatial cognitive function. However, the impact of saccular impairment on everyday behaviors that rely on spatial cognitive function is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906193PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

Liponeurocytoma of the Cerebellopontine Angle.

World Neurosurg 2018 Apr 8;112:18-24. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Skull Base Surgery Unit, Department of Neurosurgery B, University Hospital of Lyon, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; CREATIS Laboratory, CNRS UMR5220, INSERM U1206, Lyon 1 University, INSA, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Background: Liponeurocytoma is a very rare tumor classified as grade II (neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors) according to 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system. The median age at detection is 50 years, and the most frequent location is the posterior cranial fossa, especially within the cerebellar hemispheres; liponeurocytomas arising in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are exceptional.

Case Description: Here we report the clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics of a CPA liponeurocytoma in a 35-year-old woman, as well as a review of the literature. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18788750183005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.01.012DOI Listing
April 2018
9 Reads

Model-based Vestibular Afferent Stimulation: Modular Workflow for Analyzing Stimulation Scenarios in Patient Specific and Statistical Vestibular Anatomy.

Front Neurosci 2017 19;11:713. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department for Biomedical Computer Science and Mechatronics, Institute of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria.

Our sense of balance and spatial orientation strongly depends on the correct functionality of our vestibular system. Vestibular dysfunction can lead to blurred vision and impaired balance and spatial orientation, causing a significant decrease in quality of life. Recent studies have shown that vestibular implants offer a possible treatment for patients with vestibular dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2017.00713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5742128PMC
December 2017
7 Reads

Inner ear involvement in Fabry disease: Clinical and audiometric evaluation of a large cohort of patients followed in a reference centre.

Eur J Med Genet 2018 Jun 4;61(6):341-347. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Reference Centre on Lysosomal Storage Disorders, Hospital Senhora da Oliveira, Guimarães, Portugal.

Background: Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that involves the cochleovestibular system. Tinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss are frequent complains. A stabilization of hearing function has been reported with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.01.006DOI Listing
June 2018
22 Reads

Isolation and culture of adult mouse vestibular nucleus neurons

Turk J Med Sci 2017 Dec 19;47(6):1903-1911. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Background/aim: Isolated cell cultures are widely used to study neuronal properties due to their advantages. Although embryonic animals are preferred for culturing, their morphological or electrophysiological properties may not reflect adult neurons, which may be important in neurodegenerative diseases. This paper aims to develop a method for preparing isolated cell cultures of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) from adult mice and describe its morphological and electrophysiological properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-1706-158DOI Listing
December 2017
2 Reads

The reliability of nonlinear least-squares algorithm for data analysis of neural response activity during sinusoidal rotational stimulation in semicircular canal neurons.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(1):e0190596. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Although many mathematical methods were used to analyze the neural activity under sinusoidal stimulation within linear response range in vestibular system, the reliabilities of these methods are still not reported, especially in nonlinear response range. Here we chose nonlinear least-squares algorithm (NLSA) with sinusoidal model to analyze the neural response of semicircular canal neurons (SCNs) during sinusoidal rotational stimulation (SRS) over a nonlinear response range. Our aim was to acquire a reliable mathematical method for data analysis under SRS in vestibular system. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0190596PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5755832PMC
February 2018
2 Reads

Cone beam computed tomography imaging of superior semicircular canal morphology: a retrospective comparison of cleft lip/palate patients and normal controls.

Acta Odontol Scand 2018 May 4;76(4):247-252. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

e Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry , Akdeniz University , Antalya , Turkey.

Objective: This study evaluated the prevalence and morphological characteristics of the superior semicircular canal (SSCC) in cleft lip and palate (CL/P) patients using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Materials And Methods: CBCT images of 53 CL/P patients (28 males and 25 females) and a control group of 76 patients (42 males and 34 females) were evaluated. Retrospectively, 258 temporal bone images from 129 patients were evaluated in terms of SSCC morphology and divided into a normal pattern (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016357.2017.1412498DOI Listing
May 2018
21 Reads

Utility of intraoperative computed tomography for cochlear implantation in patients with difficult anatomy.

Cochlear Implants Int 2018 05 30;19(3):170-179. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

c Department of Medical Imaging (RJR) , St. Peter's Hospital , 315 South Manning Blvd, Albany , NY , USA.

Objective And Importance: To describe cases that illustrate the utility of intraoperative computed tomography (CT) in cochlear implantation of patients with difficult temporal bone anatomy.

Clinical Presentation: A 2-year-old male with congenital X-linked stapes gusher syndrome and a 2-year-old female with enlarged vestibular aqueduct underwent successful cochlear implantation with the help of intraoperative CT. In the latter case, the initial intraoperative C-arm fluoroscopy suggested malposition of the electrode, however, was not able to provide details for adjustments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14670100.2017.1403146DOI Listing
May 2018
10 Reads

Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

J Anat 2017 Dec;231(6):990-1018

Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, UK.

The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12726DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads

The anatomy of the pediatric airway: Has our knowledge changed in 120 years? A review of historic and recent investigations of the anatomy of the pediatric larynx.

Paediatr Anaesth 2018 Jan 17;28(1):13-22. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Harvard Medical School, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, The Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: There is disagreement regarding the anatomy of the pediatric airway, particularly regarding the shape of the cricoid cartilage and the location of the narrowest portion of the larynx.

Aims: The aim of this review is to clarify the origin and the science behind these differing views.

Methods: We undertook a review of published literature, University Libraries, and authoritative textbooks with key search words and phrases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13281DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Identification and characterization of a novel chemically induced allele at the planar cell polarity gene Vangl2.

Mamm Genome 2018 04 24;29(3-4):229-244. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls a number of morphogenetic processes including convergent extension during gastrulation and neural tube formation. Defects in this pathway cause neural tube defects (NTD), the most common malformations of the central nervous system. The Looptail (Lp) mutant mouse was the first mammalian mutant implicating a PCP gene (Vangl2) in the pathogenesis of NTD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-017-9721-8DOI Listing
April 2018
7 Reads

Cervical Vertigo: Historical Reviews and Advances.

Authors:
Baogan Peng

World Neurosurg 2018 Jan 20;109:347-350. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Spinal Surgery, General Hospital of Armed Police Force, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Vertigo is one of the most common presentations in adult patients. Among the various causes of vertigo, so-called cervical vertigo is still a controversial entity. Cervical vertigo was first thought to be due to abnormal input from cervical sympathetic nerves based on the work of Barré and Liéou in 1928. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18788750173179
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.10.063DOI Listing
January 2018
6 Reads

A high jugular bulb and poor development of perivestibular aqueductal air cells are not the cause of endolymphatic hydrops in patients with Ménière's disease.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2018 Aug 19;45(4):693-701. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Objective: The presence of endolymphatic hydrops in the inner ear, which can be detected with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI), is widely recognized as the main pathological cause of Ménière's disease (MD). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the development of endolymphatic hydrops remains unclear. One hypothesis proposes a relationship between the presence of a high jugular bulb (HJB) and MD, which disrupts the vestibular aqueduct leading to the development of endolymphatic hydrops. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2017.09.014DOI Listing
August 2018
18 Reads

Antisense oligonucleotide therapy rescues disruptions in organization of exploratory movements associated with Usher syndrome type 1C in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 02 14;338:76-87. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Northern Illinois University, Department of Psychology, DeKalb, IL 60115, United States. Electronic address:

Usher syndrome, Type 1C (USH1C) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder in which a mutation in the gene encoding harmonin is associated with multi-sensory deficits (i.e., auditory, vestibular, and visual). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5683898PMC
February 2018
10 Reads

Sensing External and Self-Motion with Hair Cells: A Comparison of the Lateral Line and Vestibular Systems from a Developmental and Evolutionary Perspective.

Brain Behav Evol 2017 9;90(2):98-116. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Department Biology II, Division of Neurobiology, Martinsried-Planegg, Germany.

Detection of motion is a feature essential to any living animal. In vertebrates, mechanosensory hair cells organized into the lateral line and vestibular systems are used to detect external water or head/body motion, respectively. While the neuronal components to detect these physical attributes are similar between the two sensory systems, the organizational pattern of the receptors in the periphery and the distribution of hindbrain afferent and efferent projections are adapted to the specific functions of the respective system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000456646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5653922PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

Gaze-Stabilizing Central Vestibular Neurons Project Asymmetrically to Extraocular Motoneuron Pools.

J Neurosci 2017 Nov 29;37(47):11353-11365. Epub 2017 Sep 29.

Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, and.

Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations, such as asymmetric connectivity, to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1711-17.2017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700419PMC
November 2017
20 Reads

The role of jab1, a putative downstream effector of the neurotrophic cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in zebrafish inner ear hair cell development.

Exp Neurol 2018 03 18;301(Pt B):100-109. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Medical School, 3728 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200, USA; Cellular and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0619, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2099, USA. Electronic address:

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a neurotrophic cytokine essential for inner ear hair cell (HC) development and statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) neurite outgrowth, and SAG survival in mouse, chick and zebrafish. Another neurotrophic cytokine, Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) is known to synergize with MIF; but MCP1 alone is insufficient to support mouse/chick SAG neurite outgrowth or neuronal survival. Because of the relatively short time over which the zebrafish inner ear develops (~30hpf), the living zebrafish embryo is an ideal system to examine mif and mcp1 cytokine pathways and interactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.09.009DOI Listing
March 2018
5 Reads

A multi-joint model of quiet, upright stance accounts for the "uncontrolled manifold" structure of joint variance.

Biol Cybern 2017 Dec 18;111(5-6):389-403. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Institute for Neural Computation, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.

The upright body in quiet stance is usually modeled as a single-link inverted pendulum. This agrees with most of the relevant sensory organs being at the far end of the pendulum, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00422-017-0733-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688224PMC
December 2017
8 Reads

Is hippocampal neurogenesis modulated by the sensation of self-motion encoded by the vestibular system?

Authors:
Paul F Smith

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Dec 12;83:489-495. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand Centre of Research Excellence, and the Eisdell Moore Centre for Hearing and Balance Research, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

It is now well accepted that physical exercise stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and may promote cognitive ability. Less clear are the mechanisms by which this process occurs. One potential contributing influence, that is usually neglected, is the vestibular system, which by its very nature must be activated during physical exercise and which essentially cannot be turned off without complete bilateral vestibular lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.09.013DOI Listing
December 2017
5 Reads

Role of the medullary lateral tegmental field in sympathetic control.

J Integr Neurosci 2017 ;16(2):189-208

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, 2900 Queen Lane, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA. Tel.: +1 703 577 4848; Fax: +1 703 933

The sympathetic nervous system maintains and regulates arterial pressure and tissue perfusion, via control of cardiac output and vasomotor tone. Sympatho-vascular-mediated increases in blood pressure are effected by arterioloconstriction, which causes an increase in afterload, and/or venoconstriction, which increases venous return, left ventricular preload, and consequently, the force of cardiac contraction via Frank-Starling mechanisms; withdrawal of sympathetic drive elicits reciprocal effects. Spinalization reduces mammalian arterial pressure to 40-50 mm Hg consequent to the elimination of descending medullary pre-sympathetic bulbospinal drive to preganglionic sympathetic fibers in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JIN-170010DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read