7,624 results match your criteria Anatomy of Olfactory System

Inhalation of Silver Silicate Nanoparticles Leads to Transient and Differential Microglial Activation in the Rodent Olfactory Bulb.

Toxicol Pathol 2022 Jun 29:1926233221107607. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), including silver silicate nanoparticles (Ag-SiO NPs), are used in a wide variety of medical and consumer applications. Inhaled AgNPs have been found to translocate to the olfactory bulb (OB) after inhalation and intranasal instillation. However, the biological effects of Ag-SiO NPs and their potential nose-to-brain transport have not been evaluated. Read More

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Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Alleviate Facial Pain in Rats with Trigeminal Neuralgia by Inhibiting the Expression of P2X7 Receptor.

Brain Sci 2022 May 30;12(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Anatomy, Basic Medical School, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, China.

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a common facial neuropathic pain that is mainly characterized by spontaneous or induced needling or electric shock pain in the innervation area of the trigeminal nerve. It is also referred to as "the cancer that never dies". The olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) is a special glial cell in the nervous system that has a strong supportive function in nerve regeneration. Read More

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Performance of αSynuclein RT-QuIC in relation to neuropathological staging of Lewy body disease.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022 Jun 22;10(1):90. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Currently, there is a need for diagnostic markers in Lewy body disorders (LBD). α-synuclein (αSyn) RT-QuIC has emerged as a promising assay to detect misfolded αSyn in clinically or neuropathologically established patients with various synucleinopathies. In this study, αSyn RT-QuIC was used to analyze lumbar CSF in a clinical cohort from the Swedish BioFINDER study and postmortem ventricular CSF in a neuropathological cohort from the Arizona Study of Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders/Brain and Body Donation Program (AZSAND/BBDP). Read More

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Targeting the Subventricular Zone to Promote Myelin Repair in the Aging Brain.

Cells 2022 05 31;11(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest and most active germinal zone in the adult forebrain. Neural stem cells (NSCs) of the SVZ generate olfactory interneurons throughout life and retain the intrinsic ability to generate oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelinating cells of the central nervous system. OLs and myelin are targets in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Read More

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Simulating the restoration of normal gene expression from different thyroid cancer stages using deep learning.

BMC Cancer 2022 Jun 4;22(1):612. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Department of Genetics & Biochemistry, Clemson University, Biosystems Research Complex, 302C, 19 105 Collings St,., SC, 29634, Clemson, USA.

Background: Thyroid cancer (THCA) is the most common endocrine malignancy and incidence is increasing. There is an urgent need to better understand the molecular differences between THCA tumors at different pathologic stages so appropriate diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies can be applied. Transcriptome State Perturbation Generator (TSPG) is a tool created to identify the changes in gene expression necessary to transform the transcriptional state of a source sample to mimic that of a target. Read More

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CT anatomy of the head in the Ile de France sheep.

Vet Med Sci 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: CT scan images provide accurate anatomical data from different areas of the body that can be used to diagnose diseases.

Objectives: The present work aimed to describe the normal anatomical structures of the Ile de France sheep head and its morphometric and volumetric properties using computed tomography (CT) and stereological methods.

Methods: Five adult Ile de France sheep heads, which were of mature age (above 10 months), were included in this study. Read More

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Olfactory Evaluation in Alzheimer's Disease Model Mice.

Brain Sci 2022 May 6;12(5). Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Basic Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou 310015, China.

Olfactory dysfunction is considered a pre-cognitive biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because the olfactory system is highly conserved across species, mouse models corresponding to various AD etiologies have been bred and used in numerous studies on olfactory disorders. The olfactory behavior test is a method required for early olfactory dysfunction detection in AD model mice. Read More

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High-dose IgG suppresses local inflammation and facilitates functional recovery after olfactory system injury.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2022 06 19;9(6):770-777. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan.

Objective: Head trauma can be a cause of refractory olfactory dysfunction due to olfactory nervous system injury. Anti-inflammatory treatment using steroids or anti-cytokine agents is known to contribute to functional recovery of the central and peripheral nervous systems in injury models, while there is a concern that they can induce adverse reactions. The present study examines if high-dose immunoglobulin G (IgG) can facilitate olfactory functional recovery following injury. Read More

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Requirements for translation in clinical trials of aromatherapy: the case of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) for the management of agitation in severe dementia.

Curr Pharm Des 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Health Sciences, University \'Magna Graecia\' of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Due to the tight link between undertreated pain and agitation in dementia patients, aromatherapy can be a useful approach if an essential oil (EO) with powerful analgesic activity is used. The methodological difficulties of most aromatherapy trials have not allowed any definitive conclusion about the effectiveness of aromatherapy in dementia. The objective of the present perspective is to illustrate the long rigorous process leading from preclinical research to clinical translation of the EO of bergamot (BEO) for the management of agitation in dementia. Read More

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Comparative Neuroanatomical Study of the Main Olfactory Bulb in Domestic and Wild Canids: Dog, Wolf and Red Fox.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Apr 21;12(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Anatomy, Animal Production and Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av. Carballo Calero s/n, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

The sense of smell plays a fundamental role in mammalian survival. There is a considerable amount of information available on the vomeronasal system of both domestic and wild canids. However, much less information is available on the canid main olfactory system, particularly at the level of the main olfactory bulb. Read More

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Eastern equine encephalitis virus rapidly infects and disseminates in the brain and spinal cord of cynomolgus macaques following aerosol challenge.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 9;16(5):e0010081. Epub 2022 May 9.

Virology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is mosquito-borne virus that produces fatal encephalitis in humans. We recently conducted a first of its kind study to investigate EEEV clinical disease course following aerosol challenge in a cynomolgus macaque model utilizing the state-of-the-art telemetry to measure critical physiological parameters. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive pathology study of NHP tissues collected at euthanasia to gain insights into EEEV pathogenesis. Read More

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Transcription Factor Expression in Sinonasal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Olfactory Neuroblastoma (ONB): Hyams' Grades 1-3 ONBs Expand the Spectrum of SATB2 and GATA3-Positive Neoplasms.

Endocr Pathol 2022 Jun 6;33(2):264-273. Epub 2022 May 6.

Unit of Pathology, Dept. of Medicine and Surgery, University of Insubria, via O. Rossi 9, 21100, Varese, Italy.

Sinonasal neuroendocrine neoplasms (SN-NENs) are rare and mostly include neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), whereas neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is exceptional in this site. Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a malignant neuroectodermal neoplasm arising in the nasal cavity. Albeit crucial for correct patients' management, the distinction of high grade ONB from NEC is challenging and requires additional diagnostic markers. Read More

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Highlights of neuroanatomical discoveries of the mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone system.

J Neuroendocrinol 2022 May 3;34(5):e13115. Epub 2022 May 3.

Laboratory of Reproductive Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.

The anatomy and morphology of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons makes them both a joy and a challenge to investigate. They are a highly unique population of neurons given their developmental migration into the brain from the olfactory placode, their relatively small number, their largely scattered distribution within the rostral forebrain, and, in some species, their highly varied individual anatomical characteristics. These unique features have posed technological hurdles to overcome and promoted fertile ground for the establishment and use of creative approaches. Read More

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The Developmental Toxicity of Essential Oil in Rat Embryos and Fetuses.

J Toxicol 2022 11;2022:4091839. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the aerial parts of are widely used to treat diseases such as gonorrhea, cough, liver disease, kidney disease, hypertension, stomach pain, and fungal skin infections. In addition, they have been used as vegetables to flavor a broad variety of food products. However, there is an insufficient investigation of the toxic effect of essential oil. Read More

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Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics of the olfactory organ cardinal tetra, Paracheirodon axelrodi (Characiformes: Characidae).

J Morphol 2022 Jun 14;283(6):815-826. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Laboratorio de Neuroendocrinología y Comportamiento en Peces y Anfibios, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Instituto de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental y Aplicada-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi belongs to the family Characidae, an economically important and morphologically diverse family of fishes. Information on the olfactory system of this species is scattered and scarce. Among teleost fishes, differences exist in the shape, number, and arrangement of the olfactory lamellae, in the distribution of the sensory and nonsensory epithelium, as well as in the abundance of various receptor cell types. Read More

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Comparative distribution of Arcadlin/Protocadherin-8 mRNA in the intact and ischemic brains of adult mice.

J Comp Neurol 2022 Aug 3;530(11):2033-2055. Epub 2022 Apr 3.

Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan.

The structural plasticity of dendritic spines serves as the adaptive capabilities of the central nervous system to various stimuli. Among these stimuli, cerebral ischemia induces dynamic alterations in neuronal network activity. Arcadlin/Paraxial protocadherin/Protocadherin-8 (Acad), a regulator of dendritic spine density, is strongly induced by activating stimuli to the neurons. Read More

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Evaluation of the Keros Classification of Olfactory Fossa by CT Scan in Qassim Region.

Cureus 2022 Feb 19;14(2):e22378. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, SAU.

Objective Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is now the most often utilized surgical procedure for treating chronic sinonasal disorders. Therefore, anatomical knowledge of its variations is required to avoid serious postoperative complications. Thus, careful preoperative examination for patients with a paranasal sinus CT scan is necessary. Read More

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February 2022

Differential vulnerability of adult neurogenic niches to dosage of the neurodevelopmental-disorder linked gene Foxg1.

Mol Psychiatry 2022 Mar 22. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Institute of Biochemistry, Emil Fischer Center, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

The transcription factor FOXG1 serves pleiotropic functions in brain development ranging from the regulation of precursor proliferation to the control of cortical circuit formation. Loss-of-function mutations and duplications of FOXG1 are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in humans illustrating the importance of FOXG1 dosage for brain development. Aberrant FOXG1 dosage has been found to disrupt the balanced activity of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Read More

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Comparative lectin histochemistry on the murine respiratory tract and primary olfactory pathway using a fully automated staining procedure.

Acta Histochem 2022 Apr 15;124(3):151877. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Preclinical Safety, AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG, Knollstrasse, 67061 Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Lectins are naturally occurring molecules which bind to specific carbohydrates of glycoconjugates. The binding specificity of lectins can therefore be used to specifically elucidate the glycosylation pattern in various tissues. While lectin histochemistry is usually carried out manually on single slides, a fully automated immunostaining system offers an easy, standardized, and high throughput system. Read More

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The Arrangement of the Peripheral Olfactory System of : A Well-Exploited Small Sensor, an Aided Water Flow, and a Prominent Effort in Primary Signal Elaboration.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Mar 6;12(5). Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Laboratory of Comparative Anatomy, Department of Earth, Environmental, and Life Sciences (DISTAV), University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

The olfactory system is constituted in a consistent way across vertebrates. Nasal structures allow water/air to enter an olfactory cavity, conveying the odorants to a sensory surface. There, the olfactory neurons form, with their axons, a sensory nerve projecting to the telencephalic zone-named the olfactory bulb. Read More

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Biomaterial and tissue-engineering strategies for the treatment of brain neurodegeneration.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Oct;17(10):2108-2116

Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is increasing due to changing age demographics and the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injury is tending to increase over time. Currently approved medicines for neurodegenerative diseases only temporarily reduce the symptoms but cannot cure or delay disease progression. Cell transplantation strategies offer an alternative approach to facilitating central nervous system repair, but efficacy is limited by low in vivo survival rates of cells that are injected in suspension. Read More

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October 2022

Sustained glymphatic transport and impaired drainage to the nasal cavity observed in multiciliated cell ciliopathies with hydrocephalus.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2022 Mar 5;19(1):20. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Hydrocephalus (increased ventricular size due to CSF accumulation) is a common finding in human ciliopathies and in mouse models with genetic depletion of the multiciliated cell (MCC) cilia machinery. However, the contribution of MCC to CSF dynamics and, the mechanism by which impaired MCC function leads to hydrocephalus remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to examine if defects in MCC ciliogenesis and cilia-generated CSF flow impact central nervous system (CNS) fluid homeostasis including glymphatic transport and solute waste drainage. Read More

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Olfactory nerve: from ugly duckling to swan.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2022 01;80(1):75-83

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Neurologia Deolindo Couto, Departamento de Neurologia, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil.

Background: The olfactory nerve has never been the shining star of neurological examination. Quite the contrary, examining the first cranial nerve is often an overlooked step. As cases of anosmia secondary to COVID-19 infection continue to rise, the 2020 pandemic has shed new light on this much-forgotten nerve, its value as an aid to diagnosis of several diseases and its central role in our daily lives. Read More

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January 2022

Correlation between olfactory function, age, sex, and cognitive reserve index in the Italian population.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2022 Feb 24. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Smell and Taste Clinic, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Purpose: Loss of smell decreases the quality of life and contributes to the failure in recognizing hazardous substances. Given the relevance of olfaction in daily life, it is important to recognize an undiagnosed olfactory dysfunction to prevent these possible complications. Up to now, the prevalence of smell disorders in Italy is unknown due to a lack of epidemiological studies. Read More

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February 2022

The Shape of the Nasal Cavity and Adaptations to Sniffing in the Dog () Compared to Other Domesticated Mammals: A Review Article.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Feb 19;12(4). Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 33, 60-637 Poznań, Poland.

Dogs are a good starting point for the description and anatomical analysis of turbinates of the nose. This work aimed at summing up the state of knowledge on the shape of the nasal cavity and airflow in these domestic animals and dealt with the brachycephalic syndrome (BOAS) and anatomical changes in the initial airway area in dogs with a short and widened skull. As a result of artificial selection and breeding concepts, the dog population grew very quickly. Read More

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February 2022

Unique Lewy pathology in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

Neuropathology 2022 Apr 23;42(2):104-116. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

Lewy body-related α-synucleinopathy (Lewy pathology) has been reported in patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM) type 1 (DM1), but no detailed report has described the prevalence and extent of its occurrence. We studied consecutive full autopsy cases of DM1 at the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP) Brain Bank for intractable psychiatric and neurological disorders. Thirty-two cases, genetically determined to be DM1 (59. Read More

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Nasal polyp load determines the recovery of olfaction after surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis.

Rhinology 2022 Apr;60(2):102-108

Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is typically accompanied by impairment of olfaction. Despite of this, until today the efficacy of endonasal sinus surgery (ESS) in terms of olfactory function is still unclear. So far it is known that patients with nasal polyps are most likely to experience post-operative recovery. Read More

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Voltage imaging in the olfactory bulb using transgenic mouse lines expressing the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight.

Sci Rep 2022 02 3;12(1):1875. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) allow optical recordings of membrane potential changes in defined cell populations. Transgenic reporter animals that facilitate precise and repeatable targeting with high expression levels would further the use of GEVIs in the in vivo mammalian brain. However, the literature on developing and applying transgenic mouse lines as vehicles for GEVI expression is limited. Read More

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February 2022

Comparative pathology of the nasal epithelium in K18-hACE2 Tg mice, hACE2 Tg mice, and hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Vet Pathol 2022 Jul 29;59(4):602-612. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Institute of Laboratory Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) & Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC); Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes severe viral pneumonia and is associated with a high fatality rate. A substantial proportion of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 suffer from mild hyposmia to complete loss of olfactory function, resulting in anosmia. However, the pathogenesis of the olfactory dysfunction and comparative pathology of upper respiratory infections with SARS-CoV-2 are unknown. Read More

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Endogenous pH 6.0 β-Galactosidase Activity Is Linked to Neuronal Differentiation in the Olfactory Epithelium.

Cells 2022 01 16;11(2). Epub 2022 Jan 16.

Área de Biología Celular, Departamento de Anatomía, Biología Celular y Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06006 Badajoz, Spain.

The histochemical detection of β-galactosidase enzymatic activity at pH 6.0 (β-gal-pH6) is a widely used biomarker of cellular senescence in aging tissues. This histochemical assay also detects the presence of programmed cell senescence during specific time windows in degenerating structures of vertebrate embryos. Read More

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January 2022