7,414 results match your criteria Anatomy of Olfactory System

A physicochemical model of odor sampling.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jun 11;17(6):e1009054. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

We present a general physicochemical sampling model for olfaction, based on established pharmacological laws, in which arbitrary combinations of odorant ligands and receptors can be generated and their individual and collective effects on odor representations and olfactory performance measured. Individual odor ligands exhibit receptor-specific affinities and efficacies; that is, they may bind strongly or weakly to a given receptor, and can act as strong agonists, weak agonists, partial agonists, or antagonists. Ligands interacting with common receptors compete with one another for dwell time; these competitive interactions appropriately simulate the degeneracy that fundamentally defines the capacities and limitations of odorant sampling. Read More

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Developmental Toxicity of Ethanolic Extracts of Leaves of , Amaranthaceae in Rat Embryos and Fetuses.

J Exp Pharmacol 2021 2;13:555-563. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Debre Tabor University, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia.

Introduction: is one of the medicinal plants widely used for fertility control in the local health system of Ethiopia.

Objective: Assessment of developmental toxicity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of .

Methods: Fresh leaves were extracted by mixing the grinded powder with 70% ethanol. Read More

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Involvement of the Protein Ras Homolog Enriched in the Striatum, Rhes, in Dopaminergic Neurons' Degeneration: Link to Parkinson's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 18;22(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Ceinge Biotecnologie Avanzate, 80145 Naples, Italy.

is one of the most interesting genes regulated by thyroid hormones that, through the inhibition of the striatal cAMP/PKA pathway, acts as a modulator of dopamine neurotransmission. is expressed at high levels in the dorsal striatum, with a medial-to-lateral expression gradient reflecting that of both dopamine D and adenosine A receptors. transcript is also present in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, olfactory tubercle and bulb, substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area of the rodent brain. Read More

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Therapeutic Effect and Mechanisms of Essential Oils in Mood Disorders: Interaction between the Nervous and Respiratory Systems.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 3;22(9). Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077, China.

Essential oils (EOs) are extracted from plants and contain active components with therapeutic effects. Evidence shows that various types of EOs have a wide range of health benefits. In our previous studies, the potential of lavender EO for prevention and even treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms was demonstrated. Read More

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Comprehensive expression pattern of kin of irregular chiasm-like 3 in the adult mouse brain.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 29;563:66-72. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-8509, Japan. Electronic address:

Kin of irregular chiasm-like 3 (Kirrel3), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in the central nervous system during development and in adulthood. It has been reported that Kirrel3 is involved in the axonal fasciculation in the olfactory bulb, the neuronal migration in the pontine nucleus, and the synapse formation in the hippocampal neurons in mice. Although KIRREL3 mutations have been implicated in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability in humans, the comprehensive expression pattern of Kirrel3 in the adult brain is not fully understood. Read More

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Biological basis of child health 11: anatomy, physiology and development of the senses.

Kate Davies

Nurs Child Young People 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

London South Bank University, and honorary research fellow in paediatric endocrinology, Queen Mary University of London, London, England.

This article, the 11th in the Biological basis of child health series, focuses on the senses. There are five basic senses in humans: hearing, sight, touch, smell and taste. Several congenital and acquired conditions can affect the senses and may have significant negative effects on a child's development and ability to communicate with others. Read More

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Widespread Doublecortin Expression in the Cerebral Cortex of the .

Front Neuroanat 2021 29;15:656882. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

It has been demonstrated that in adulthood rodents show newly born neurons in the subgranular layer (SGL) of the dentate gyrus (DG), and in the subventricular zone (SVZ). The neurons generated in the SVZ migrate through the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb. One of the markers of newly generated neurons is doublecortin (DCX). Read More

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Braincase anatomy of the Paleocene crocodyliform revealed through high resolution computed tomography.

PeerJ 2021 4;9:e11253. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States of America.

Dyrosaurids were highly specialized, largely marine, relatives of living crocodylians, and one of the few archosaur lineages to survive the K-Pg extinction. Dyrosaurids lived during the Cretaceous to the Eocene and represent a unique combination of morphology and ecology not seen in living crocodylians. Little is known about their endocranial anatomy, leaving many questions about their neurosensory adaptations unaddressed. Read More

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Lactoferrin-like Immunoreactivity in Distinct Neuronal Populations in the Mouse Central Nervous System.

Acta Med Okayama 2021 Apr;75(2):153-167

Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein mainly found in exocrine secretions and the secondary granules of neutrophils. In the central nervous system (CNS), expression of the Lf protein has been reported in the lesions of some neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as in the aged brain. Lf is primarily considered an iron chelator, protecting cells from potentially toxic iron or iron-requiring microorganisms. Read More

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The olfactory route is a potential way for SARS-CoV-2 to invade the central nervous system of rhesus monkeys.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 04 24;6(1):169. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

National Kunming High-Level Biosafety Primate Research Center, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Neurological manifestations are frequently reported in the COVID-19 patients. Neuromechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism via our established non-human primate model of COVID-19. Read More

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A comprehensive structural, lectin and immunohistochemical characterization of the zebrafish olfactory system.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 23;11(1):8865. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Zoology, Genetics and Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain.

Fish chemosensory olfactory receptors allow them to detect a wide range of water-soluble chemicals, that mediate fundamental behaviours. Zebrafish possess a well-developed sense of smell which governs reproduction, appetite, and fear responses. The spatial organization of functional properties within the olfactory epithelium and bulb are comparable to those of mammals, making this species suitable for studies of olfactory differentiation and regeneration and neuronal representation of olfactory information. Read More

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Gangliformis Intumescentia and Beyond: Antonio Scarpa and His Core Contribution to Neuroanatomy, Neurosurgery, and Otoneurosurgery.

World Neurosurg 2021 Apr 21;151:39-43. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Nearly 250 years ago, Antonio Scarpa became a professor of anatomy and surgery only 2 years after he graduated from the University of Padua. The young lecturer soon became one of the most renowned anatomists in Italy and a director of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Pavia. He worked in the fields of general surgery and ophthalmology. Read More

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Confronting COVID-19-associated cough and the post-COVID syndrome: role of viral neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmune responses.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 05 12;9(5):533-544. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London, UK; Experimental Studies Unit, National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK. Electronic address:

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. Read More

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Alpha-synuclein seeds in olfactory mucosa of patients with isolated REM sleep behaviour disorder.

Brain 2021 May;144(4):1118-1126

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Isolated REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is an early-stage α-synucleinopathy in most, if not all, affected subjects. Detection of pathological α-synuclein in peripheral tissues of patients with isolated RBD may identify those progressing to Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or multiple system atrophy, with the ultimate goal of testing preventive therapies. Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) provided evidence of α-synuclein seeding activity in CSF and olfactory mucosa of patients with α-synucleinopathies. Read More

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Olfactory-trigeminal interactions in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Chem Senses 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Anatomy, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Boul. des Forges, Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada.

Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is a highly frequent early non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). An important step to potentially use OD for the development of early diagnostic tools of PD is to differentiate PD-related OD from other forms of non-parkinsonian OD (NPOD: post-viral, sinunasal, post-traumatic and idiopathic OD). Measuring non-olfactory chemosensory modalities, especially the trigeminal system, may allow to characterize a PD-specific olfactory profile. Read More

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Olfactory encoding within the insect antennal lobe: The emergence and role of higher order temporal correlations in the dynamics of antennal lobe spiking activity.

J Theor Biol 2021 Aug 2;522:110700. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 251 Mercer Street, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA.

In this review, we focus on the antennal lobe (AL) of three insect species - the fruit fly, sphinx moth, and locust. We first review the experimentally elucidated anatomy and physiology of the early olfactory system of each species; empirical studies of AL activity, however, often focus on assessing firing rates (averaged over time scales of about 100 ms), and hence the AL odor code is often analyzed in terms of a temporally evolving vector of firing rates. However, such a perspective necessarily misses the possibility of higher order temporal correlations in spiking activity within a single cell and across multiple cells over shorter time scales (of about 10 ms). Read More

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Development and Translation of NanoBEO, a Nanotechnology-Based Delivery System of Bergamot Essential Oil Deprived of Furocumarins, in the Control of Agitation in Severe Dementia.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 12;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Pharmacotechnology Documentation and Transfer Unit, Preclinical and Translational Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy.

Dementia is one of the most common causes of disability worldwide characterized by memory loss, cognitive impairment, and behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD), including agitation. Treatment of the latter consists of the off-label use of harmful atypical antipsychotics, though a significant reduction is afforded by pain control. The use of an essential oil endowed with analgesic properties and devoid of toxicity would represent an important option for the management of agitation in dementia. Read More

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The Intestinal Fatty Acid-Enteroendocrine Interplay, Emerging Roles for Olfactory Signaling and Serotonin Conjugates.

Molecules 2021 Mar 5;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Chair Nutritional Biology, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EECs) respond to fatty acids from dietary and microbial origin by releasing neurotransmitters and hormones with various paracrine and endocrine functions. Much has become known about the underlying signaling mechanisms, including the involvement of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), like free fatty acids receptors (FFARs). This review focusses on two more recently emerging research lines: the roles of odorant receptors (ORs), and those of fatty acid conjugates in gut. Read More

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A1 Segment Unruptured Aneurysm of Persistent Primitive Olfactory Artery Coexisted with Accessory Middle Cerebral Artery.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 27;30(6):105758. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center, 2-1001-1 Kubara Omura-city, Nagasaki 856-8562, Japan.

A persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) is a rare anomaly of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), which generally arises from the internal carotid artery (ICA), runs along the olfactory tract, and makes a hairpin bend to supply the territory of the distal ACA. PPOA is also associated with cerebral aneurysms. An accessory MCA is a variant of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) that arises from either the proximal or distal portion of the A1 segment of the ACA, which runs parallel to the course of the MCA and supplies some of the MCA territory. Read More

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Endocannabinoid-mediated neuromodulation in the main olfactory bulb at the interface of environmental stimuli and central neural processing.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Biological Sciences Department, Fisher College of Science and Mathematics, Towson University, Towson, MD, USA.

The olfactory system has become an important functional gateway to understand and analyze neuromodulation since olfactory dysfunction and deficits have emerged as prodromal and, at other times, as first symptoms of many of neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric and communication disorders. Considering olfactory dysfunction as outcome of altered, damaged and/or inefficient olfactory processing, in the current review, we analyze how olfactory processing interacts with the endocannabinoid signaling system. In the human body, endocannabinoid synthesis is a natural and on-demand response to a wide range of physiological and environmental stimuli. Read More

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What can cerebrospinal fluid testing and brain autopsies tell us about viral neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2.

J Med Virol 2021 Jul 25;93(7):4247-4257. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Laboratory Teaching Center of Basic Medicine, Norman Bethune Health Science Center of Jilin University, Jilin Province, China.

To provide instructive clues for clinical practice and further research of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we analyzed the existing literature on viral neuroinvasion of SARS-CoV-2 in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To date, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain parenchyma in quite a few patients, which provide undeniable evidence for the neuroinvasive potential of this novel coronavirus. In contrast with the cerebrum and cerebellum, the detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 was higher in the olfactory system and the brainstem, both of which also showed severe microgliosis and lymphocytic infiltrations. Read More

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Experimental tracking and numerical mapping of novel coronavirus micro-droplet deposition through nasal inhalation in the human respiratory system.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Jun 1;20(3):1087-1100. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran.

It is essential to study the viral droplet's uptake in the human respiratory system to better control, prevent, and treat diseases. Micro-droplets can easily pass through ordinary respiratory masks. Therefore, the SARS-COV-2 transmit easily in conversation with a regular mask with 'silent spreaders' in the most physiological way of breathing through the nose, indoor and at rest condition. Read More

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Pain, Smell, and Taste in Adults: A Narrative Review of Multisensory Perception and Interaction.

Pain Ther 2021 Jun 26;10(1):245-268. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Every day our sensory systems perceive and integrate a variety of stimuli containing information vital for our survival. Pain acts as a protective warning system, eliciting a response to remove harmful stimuli; it may also be a symptom of an illness or present as a disease itself. There is a growing need for additional pain-relieving therapies involving the multisensory integration of smell and taste in pain modulation, an approach that may provide new strategies for the treatment and management of pain. Read More

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Toxicity of Methanolic Extracts of Seeds of , in Rat Embryos and Fetuses.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:5291083. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia.

is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and stomach pain. The study is aimed at assessing the toxicity of the methanol extracts of the seeds of on the developing embryo and fetuses of rats. The seeds of were extracted by maceration using 80% methanol. Read More

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A Refined Protocol for Coronary Artery Ligation in the Neonatal Mouse.

Curr Protoc 2021 Feb;1(2):e66

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

The neonatal mouse heart can regenerate following myocardial infarction (MI), a capacity that is lost after 7 days, providing a model system to study tissue regeneration and the transition to adult wound healing. MI can be induced in neonatal mice surgically by coronary artery ligation. In this protocol, neonates are anesthetized using a combination of inhaled isoflurane anesthesia and induced hypothermia, a significant ethical refinement over previous protocols. Read More

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February 2021

Topical tretinoin in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps: a randomized clinical trial.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology, University of Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is usually treated with corticosteroids, given their anti-inflammatory effects. Unlike the nasal administration, the oral and ocular use of tretinoin, an immunoregulatory drug, is well established. Therefore, tretinoin was thought to act on nasal polyps, and possible adverse and/or therapeutic effects were investigated. Read More

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February 2021

Hydroelectrolytic Disorder in COVID-19 patients: Evidence Supporting the Involvement of Subfornical Organ and Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 05 10;124:216-223. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological Sciences and Health, Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, Brazil. Electronic address:

Multiple neurological problems have been reported in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) likely spreads to the central nervous system (CNS) via olfactory nerves or through the subarachnoid space along olfactory nerves into the brain's cerebrospinal fluid and then into the brain's interstitial space. We hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 enters the subfornical organ (SFO) through the above routes and the circulating blood since circumventricular organs (CVOs) such as the SFO lack the blood-brain barrier, and infection of the SFO causes dysfunction of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON), leading to hydroelectrolytic disorder. SARS-CoV-2 can readily enter SFO-PVN-SON neurons because these neurons express angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors and proteolytic viral activators, which likely leads to neurodegeneration or neuroinflammation in these regions. Read More

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The Clinical, Philosophical, Evolutionary and Mathematical Machinery of Consciousness: An Analytic Dissection of the Field Theories and a Consilience of Ideas.

Cureus 2020 Dec 18;12(12):e12139. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Neurology, Flowers Medical Group, Dothan, USA.

The Cartesian model of mind-body dualism concurs with religious traditions. However, science has supplanted this idea with an energy-matter theory of consciousness, where matter is equivalent to the body and energy replaces the mind or soul. This equivalency is analogous to the concept of the interchange of mass and energy as expressed by Einstein's famous equation [Formula: see text]. Read More

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December 2020

Evidence of SARS-CoV2 Entry Protein ACE2 in the Human Nose and Olfactory Bulb.

Cells Tissues Organs 2020 22;209(4-6):155-164. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Institute of Neuroanatomy and Developmental Biology, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Usually, pandemic COVID-19 disease, caused by SARS-CoV2, presents with mild respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, but frequently also with anosmia and neurological symptoms. Virus-cell fusion is mediated by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) with their organ expression pattern determining viral tropism. Clinical presentation suggests rapid viral dissemination to the central nervous system leading frequently to severe symptoms including viral meningitis. Read More

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Neuroinvasion and Encephalitis Following Intranasal Inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 Mice.

Viruses 2021 Jan 19;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause neurological disease in humans, but little is known about the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, using K18-hACE2 mice, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and encephalitis is associated with mortality in these mice. Intranasal infection of K18-hACE2 mice with 10 plaque-forming units of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in 100% mortality by day 6 after infection. Read More

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January 2021