7,234 results match your criteria Anatomy of Olfactory System


Parkinson's Disease Affects Functional Connectivity within the Olfactory-Trigeminal Network.

J Parkinsons Dis 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Anatomy, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada.

Background: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is a frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that appears years prior to diagnosis. Previous studies suggest that PD-related OD is different from non-parkinsonian forms of olfactory dysfunction (NPOD) as PD patients maintain trigeminal sensitivity as opposed to patients with NPOD who typically exhibit reduced trigeminal sensitivity. We hypothesize the presence of a specific alteration of functional connectivity between trigeminal and olfactory processing areas in PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-202062DOI Listing

Dopaminergic Modulation of Glomerular Circuits in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb.

Authors:
Shaolin Liu

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 12;14:172. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Anatomy, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, United States.

Dopaminergic neurons are located in several brain areas including the olfactory bulb (OB) and involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. In the OB, dopamine (DA) is released exclusively by a population of interneurons termed short axon cells (SACs) in the glomerular layer, the initial synaptic integration site of the whole olfactory system. SACs corelease GABA and extend their processes to many glomeruli forming the interglomerular circuit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304284PMC

The vomeronasal organ of wild canids: the fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a model.

J Anat 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Anatomy, Animal Production and Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain.

The vomeronasal system (VNS) has been extensively studied within specific animal families, such as Rodentia. However, the study of the VNS in other families, such as Canidae, has long been neglected. Among canids, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) has only been studied in detail in the dog, and no studies have examined the morphofunctional or immunohistochemical characteristics of the VNS in wild canids, which is surprising, given the well-known importance of chemical senses for the dog and fox and the likelihood that the VNS plays roles in the socio-reproductive physiology and behaviours of these species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13254DOI Listing

Gestational Exposure to Sodium Valproate Disrupts Fasciculation of the Mesotelencephalic Dopaminergic Tract, With a Selective Reduction of Dopaminergic Output From the Ventral Tegmental Area.

Front Neuroanat 2020 5;14:29. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Gestational exposure to valproic acid (VPA) is known to cause behavioral deficits of sociability, matching similar alterations in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Available data are scarce on the neuromorphological changes in VPA-exposed animals. Here, we focused on alterations of the dopaminergic system, which is implicated in motivation and reward, with relevance to social cohesion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2020.00029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290005PMC

Effect of interglomerular inhibitory networks on olfactory bulb odor representations.

J Neurosci 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA.

Lateral inhibition is a fundamental feature of circuits that process sensory information. In the mammalian olfactory system, inhibitory interneurons called short axon cells comprise the first network mediating lateral inhibition between glomeruli, the functional units of early olfactory coding and processing. The connectivity of this network and its impact on odor representations is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0233-20.2020DOI Listing

Ciliary melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is widely distributed in the murine CNS in a sex-independent manner.

J Neurosci Res 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a ubiquitous vertebrate neuropeptide predominantly synthesized by neurons of the diencephalon that can act through two G protein-coupled receptors, called MCHR1 and MCHR2. The expression of Mchr1 has been investigated in both rats and mice, but its synthesis remains poorly described. After identifying an antibody that detects MCHR1 with high specificity, we employed immunohistochemistry to map the distribution of MCHR1 in the CNS of rats and mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24651DOI Listing

Urban air particulate matter induces mitochondrial dysfunction in human olfactory mucosal cells.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2020 06 1;17(1):18. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: The adverse effects of air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) on the central nervous system is increasingly reported by epidemiological, animal and post-mortem studies in the last decade. Oxidative stress and inflammation are key consequences of exposure to PM although little is known of the exact mechanism. The association of PM exposure with deteriorating brain health is speculated to be driven by PM entry via the olfactory system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-020-00352-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268298PMC

Oxytocin Signaling Pathway: From Cell Biology To Clinical Implications.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine-Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology and Rare Diseases. University of Bari "Aldo Moro", School of Medicine, Policlinico, Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari. Italy.

Background: In addition to the well known role played on lactation and parturition, Oxytocin (OT) and OT receptor (OTR) are involved in many other aspects such as the control of maternal and social behavior, the regulation of the growth of the neocortex, the maintenance of blood supply to the cortex, the stimulation of limbic olfactory area to mother-infant recognition bond, and the modulation of the autonomic nervous system via vagal pathway. Moreover, OT and OTR show anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-pain, antidiabetic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic effects.

Objective: The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the main data coming from the literature dealing with the role of OT and OTR in physiology and pathologic conditions focusing on the most relevant aspects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530320666200520093730DOI Listing

BAHD1 haploinsufficiency results in anxiety-like phenotypes in male mice.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(5):e0232789. Epub 2020 May 14.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

BAHD1 is a heterochomatinization factor recently described as a component of a multiprotein complex associated with histone deacetylases HDAC1/2. The physiological and patho-physiological functions of BAHD1 are not yet well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of BAHD1 deficiency in the brains of male mice. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232789PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224496PMC
May 2020
3.234 Impact Factor

Valence and State-Dependent Population Coding in Dopaminergic Neurons in the Fly Mushroom Body.

Curr Biol 2020 Jun 7;30(11):2104-2115.e4. Epub 2020 May 7.

TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany; ZIEL-Institute of Food and Health, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

Neuromodulation permits flexibility of synapses, neural circuits, and ultimately behavior. One neuromodulator, dopamine, has been studied extensively in its role as a reward signal during learning and memory across animal species. Newer evidence suggests that dopaminergic neurons (DANs) can modulate sensory perception acutely, thereby allowing an animal to adapt its behavior and decision making to its internal and behavioral state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.037DOI Listing

Sustentacular Cell Enwrapment of Olfactory Receptor Neuronal Dendrites: An Update.

Authors:
Fengyi Liang

Genes (Basel) 2020 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 4 Medical Drive, Singapore 117594, Singapore.

The pseudostratified olfactory epithelium (OE) may histologically appear relatively simple, but the cytological relations among its cell types, especially those between olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and olfactory sustentacular cells (OSCs), prove more complex and variable than previously believed. Adding to the complexity is the short lifespan, persistent neurogenesis, and continuous rewiring of the ORNs. Contrary to the common belief that ORN dendrites are mostly positioned between OSCs, recent findings indicate a sustentacular cell enwrapped configuration for a majority of mature ORN dendrites at the superficial layer of the OE. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11050493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291085PMC

Endocannabinoid-Mediated Neuromodulation in the Olfactory Bulb: Functional and Therapeutic Significance.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 19;21(8). Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Anatomy, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059, USA.

Endocannabinoid synthesis in the human body is naturally occurring and on-demand. It occurs in response to physiological and environmental stimuli, such as stress, anxiety, hunger, other factors negatively disrupting homeostasis, as well as the therapeutic use of the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol and recreational use of exogenous cannabis, which can lead to cannabis use disorder. Together with their specific receptors CB1R and CB2R, endocannabinoids are major components of endocannabinoid-mediated neuromodulation in a rapid and sustained manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216281PMC

Anchoring the human olfactory system within a functional gradient.

Neuroimage 2020 Aug 20;216:116863. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Brain Connectivity and Behaviour Laboratory, Sorbonne Universities, Paris, France; Groupe d'Imagerie Neurofonctionnelle, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives-UMR 5293, CNRS, CEA University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Margulies et al. (2016) demonstrated the existence of at least five independent functional connectivity gradients in the human brain. However, it is unclear how these functional gradients might link to anatomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116863DOI Listing

Comparative growth in the olfactory system of the developing chick with considerations for evolutionary studies.

J Anat 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Center for Functional Anatomy and Evolution, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Despite the long-held assumption that olfaction plays a relatively minor role in the behavioral ecology of birds, crown-group avians exhibit marked phylogenetic variation in the size and form of the olfactory apparatus. As part of a larger effort to better understand the role of olfaction and olfactory tissues in the evolution and development of the avian skull, we present the first quantitative analysis of ontogenetic scaling between olfactory features [olfactory bulbs (OBs) and olfactory turbinates] and neighboring structures (cerebrum, total brain, respiratory turbinates) based on the model organism Gallus gallus. The OB develops under the predictions of a concerted evolutionary model with rapid early growth that is quickly overcome by the longer, sustained growth of the larger cerebrum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13197DOI Listing

An agent-based model to investigate microbial initiation of Alzheimer's via the olfactory system.

Theor Biol Med Model 2020 04 15;17(1). Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease. A novel agent-based modelling framework was developed in NetLogo 3D to provide fundamental insights into the potential mechanisms by which a microbe (eg. Chlamydia pneumoniae) may play a role in late-onset AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12976-020-00123-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158140PMC

SARS-CoV-2: Olfaction, Brain Infection, and the Urgent Need for Clinical Samples Allowing Earlier Virus Detection.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 05 13;11(9):1200-1203. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Ul. CurieSklodowskiej 9, 85-94 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has very high infectivity, which allows it to spread rapidly around the world. Attempts at slowing the pandemic at this stage depend on the number and quality of diagnostic tests performed. We propose that the olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity may be a more appropriate tissue for detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus at the earliest stages, prior to onset of symptoms or even in asymptomatic people, as compared to commonly used sputum or nasopharyngeal swabs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160911PMC

Widespread receptor-driven modulation in peripheral olfactory coding.

Science 2020 04;368(6487)

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University in the City of New York, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

Olfactory responses to single odors have been well characterized but in reality we are continually presented with complex mixtures of odors. We performed high-throughput analysis of single-cell responses to odor blends using Swept Confocally Aligned Planar Excitation (SCAPE) microscopy of intact mouse olfactory epithelium, imaging ~10,000 olfactory sensory neurons in parallel. In large numbers of responding cells, mixtures of odors did not elicit a simple sum of the responses to individual components of the blend. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz5390DOI Listing

Chemosensory Event-Related Potentials and Power Spectrum could be A Possible Biomarker in 3M Syndrome Infants?

Brain Sci 2020 Mar 30;10(4). Epub 2020 Mar 30.

A2VI-Lab c/o Department of Life, Health & Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila,67100 L'Aquila, Italy.

3M syndrome is a rare disorder that involves the gene cullin-7 (. CUL7 modulates odour detection, conditions the olfactory response (OR) and plays a role in the development of the olfactory system. Despite this involvement, there are no direct studies on olfactory functional effects in 3M syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10040201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226335PMC

An improved animal model for herpesvirus encephalitis in humans.

PLoS Pathog 2020 03 30;16(3):e1008445. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Herpesviral encephalitis caused by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most devastating diseases in humans. Patients present with fever, mental status changes or seizures and when untreated, sequelae can be fatal. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is characterized by mainly unilateral necrotizing inflammation effacing the frontal and mesiotemporal lobes with rare involvement of the brainstem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145201PMC

Differential Effects of Nasal Inflammation and Odor Deprivation on Layer-Specific Degeneration of the Mouse Olfactory Bulb.

eNeuro 2020 Mar/Apr;7(2). Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Pathology Research Team, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8612, Japan.

Harmful environmental agents cause nasal inflammation, and chronic nasal inflammation induces a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and reversible atrophy of the olfactory bulb (OB). Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying this inflammation-induced OB atrophy by histologically and biochemically comparing the OB changes in mouse models of nasal inflammation and odor deprivation. In addition, we examined whether odor stimulation is necessary for OB recovery from atrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0403-19.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168263PMC

Neural Isolation of the Olfactory Bulbs Severely Impairs Taste-Guided Behavior to Normally Preferred, But Not Avoided, Stimuli.

eNeuro 2020 Mar/Apr;7(2). Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306

Here we systematically tested the hypothesis that motivated behavioral responsiveness to preferred and avoided taste compounds is relatively independent of the olfactory system in mice whose olfactory bulbs (main and accessory) were surgically disconnected from the rest of the brain [bulbotomy (BULBx)]. BULBx was confirmed histologically as well as functionally with the buried food test. In brief access taste tests, animals received 10-s trials of various concentrations of a taste compound delivered quasirandomly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0026-20.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142272PMC

Olfactory receptor and circuit evolution promote host specialization.

Nature 2020 03 4;579(7799):402-408. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Center for Integrative Genomics, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The evolution of animal behaviour is poorly understood. Despite numerous correlations between interspecific divergence in behaviour and nervous system structure and function, demonstrations of the genetic basis of these behavioural differences remain rare. Here we develop a neurogenetic model, Drosophila sechellia, a species that displays marked differences in behaviour compared to its close cousin Drosophila melanogaster, which are linked to its extreme specialization on noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2073-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7100913PMC

The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 25;21(5). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA.

Essential oils have been used in multiple ways, i.e., inhaling, topically applying on the skin, and drinking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084246PMC
February 2020

Multiple network properties overcome random connectivity to enable stereotypic sensory responses.

Nat Commun 2020 02 24;11(1):1023. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208016, India.

Connections between neuronal populations may be genetically hardwired or random. In the insect olfactory system, projection neurons of the antennal lobe connect randomly to Kenyon cells of the mushroom body. Consequently, while the odor responses of the projection neurons are stereotyped across individuals, the responses of the Kenyon cells are variable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14836-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039968PMC
February 2020

Impact of Targeted Deletion of the Circadian Clock Gene Bmal1 in Excitatory Forebrain Neurons on Adult Neurogenesis and Olfactory Function.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 19;21(4). Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Institute of Anatomy II, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Merowinger Platz 1a, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

The circadian system is an endogenous timekeeping system that synchronizes physiology and behavior with the 24 h solar day. Mice with total deletion of the core circadian clock gene Bmal1 show circadian arrhythmicity, cognitive deficits, and accelerated age-dependent decline in adult neurogenesis as a consequence of increased oxidative stress. However, it is not yet known if the impaired adult neurogenesis is due to circadian disruption or to loss of the Bmal1 gene function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073072PMC
February 2020

Somatosensorimotor and Odor Modification, Along with Serotonergic Processes Underlying the Social Deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3/J and BALB/cJ Mouse Models of Autism.

Authors:
Hiroyuki Arakawa

Neuroscience 2020 Feb 13. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Rodent Behavioral Core Department of Research Administration, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Autism is a complex spectrum of disorders characterized by core behavioral deficits in social communicative behavior, which are also required for comprehensive analysis of preclinical mouse models. As animal models of the core behavioral deficits in autism, two inbred mouse strains, BTBR T+ Itpr3/J (BTBR) and BALB/cJ (BALB), were compared with the standard social strain, C57BL/6J (B6), regarding a variety of behavioral factors underlying social communicative interactions, including olfactory and tactile sensory processes, social recognition abilities and behavioral expression strategies. Although both female BTBR and BALB mice can express social recognition and approach behavior depending on the stimuli they encounter, the available sensory modalities, along with modulation of the serotonergic system, differ between the two strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.02.002DOI Listing
February 2020

NCAM2 Regulates Dendritic and Axonal Differentiation through the Cytoskeletal Proteins MAP2 and 14-3-3.

Cereb Cortex 2020 May;30(6):3781-3799

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, and Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

Neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2) is involved in the development and plasticity of the olfactory system. Genetic data have implicated the NCAM2 gene in neurodevelopmental disorders including Down syndrome and autism, although its role in cortical development is unknown. Here, we show that while overexpression of NCAM2 in hippocampal neurons leads to minor alterations, its downregulation severely compromises dendritic architecture, leading to an aberrant phenotype including shorter dendritic trees, retraction of dendrites, and emergence of numerous somatic neurites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233011PMC

The Impact of Ovariectomy on Olfactory Neuron Regeneration in Mice.

Chem Senses 2020 Apr;45(3):203-209

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kanazawa Medical University, Daigaku, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan.

Estrogen has been shown to affect differentiation and proliferation as a mitogen in various neural systems. Olfactory receptor cells are unique within the nervous system, and have the ability to regenerate even after an individual has reached maturity. Olfactory receptor cells also regenerate after experimentally induced degeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa005DOI Listing

Neuropeptide S Displays as a Key Neuromodulator in Olfactory Spatial Memory.

Chem Senses 2020 Apr;45(3):195-202

Departments of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology, Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, PR China.

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an endogenous peptide recently recognized to be presented in the brainstem and believed to play an important role in maintaining memory. The deletion of NPS or NPS receptor (NPSR) in mice shows a deficit in memory formation. Our recent studies have demonstrated that central administration of NPS facilitates olfactory function and ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa003DOI Listing

Serotonergic afferents from the dorsal raphe decrease the excitability of pyramidal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 02 28;117(6):3239-3247. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Brain Disease and Bioinformation, Research Center for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Xuzhou Medical University, 221004 Xuzhou, China;

The olfactory system receives extensive serotonergic inputs from the dorsal raphe, a nucleus involved in control of behavior, regulation of mood, and modulation of sensory processing. Although many studies have investigated how serotonin modulates the olfactory bulb, few have focused on the anterior piriform cortex (aPC), a region important for olfactory learning and encoding of odor identity and intensity. Specifically, the mechanism and functional significance of serotonergic modulation of the aPC remain largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1913922117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022159PMC
February 2020

Burkholderia pseudomallei invades the olfactory nerve and bulb after epithelial injury in mice and causes the formation of multinucleated giant glial cells in vitro.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 01 24;14(1):e0008017. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, Australia.

The infectious disease melioidosis is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is characterised by high mortality and morbidity and can involve the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously discovered that B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7002012PMC
January 2020

Direct Comparison of Odor Responses of Homologous Glomeruli in the Medial and Lateral Maps of the Mouse Olfactory Bulb.

eNeuro 2020 Mar/Apr;7(2). Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030

Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing same-type odorant receptors typically project to a pair of glomeruli in the medial and lateral sides of the olfactory bulbs (OBs) in rodents. This multiple glomerular representation of homologous inputs is considered to have more important functional roles for odor information processing than the redundant backup system. However, a consensus idea is lacking and this hinders interpretation of the phenomenon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0449-19.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073388PMC

Neurosensory and Sinus Evolution as Tyrannosauroid Dinosaurs Developed Giant Size: Insight from the Endocranial Anatomy of Bistahieversor sealeyi.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2020 Apr 22;303(4):1043-1059. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico.

Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid dinosaurs were apex predators during the latest Cretaceous, which combined giant size and advanced neurosensory systems. Computed tomography (CT) data have shown that tyrannosaurids had a trademark system of a large brain, large olfactory bulbs, elongate cochlear ducts, and expansive endocranial sinuses surrounding the brain and sense organs. Older, smaller tyrannosauroid relatives of tyrannosaurids developed some, but not all, of these features, raising the hypothesis that tyrannosaurid-style brains evolved before the enlarged tyrannosaurid-style sinuses, which might have developed only with large body size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24374DOI Listing

ChABC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: A comprehensive study on biocompatibility, functional recovery, and axonal regeneration in animal model of spinal cord injury.

Int J Pharm 2020 Mar 15;577:119037. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, USA.

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is one of the leading causes of physical disability. In this study, spherical PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) containing ChABC enzyme were manufactured and fully characterized for SCI therapy. The NPs were used in the rat's contused spinal cord to assess the functional improvement and scar digestion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119037DOI Listing

Japanese encephalitis virus-induced neuropathology in mouse model infected through the conjunctival route.

Indian J Med Res 2019 11;150(5):498-503

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background & Objectives: Mouse is a preferred animal model for studying pathogenesis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infections, and different routes of inoculation have been tried. Some neurotropic viruses can reach the brain following infection through ocular route. This study was undertaken to establish JEV-induced clinical disease in mouse model through conjunctival route and document the neuropathological effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2078_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977363PMC
November 2019

A Prism Method for Optical Glomerular Mapping of the Medial Olfactory Bulb in Mice.

Front Neural Circuits 2019 20;13:79. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States.

The processing of odor input in the brain begins in the olfactory bulb (OB), where odor information is represented by combinations of active glomeruli. Each glomerulus is associated with a specific odorant receptor type, of which there are ~1,000 in mice; thus different odors activate different subsets of glomeruli. Most receptor types have duplicate lateral and medial glomeruli in each of the left and right OBs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2019.00079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933389PMC

Olfactory-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: A Genetic-Acquired Factors Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 25;21(1). Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", 00133 Rome, Italy.

Genetic polymorphisms as well as environmental exposures to chemical compounds, iatrogenic, psychological, and physical trauma may play a pathophysiological role in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) olfactory complaints, given that xenobiotic metabolism is influenced by sequence variations in genes of metabolizing enzymes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to depict-by means of multiple regression analysis-how different genetic conditions, grouped according to their function as well as clinical background and environmental exposure may interfere with those olfactory complaints referred by MCS patients. Therefore, MCS patients after gene polymorphism sequencing, the olfactory-related quality of life score-calculated by means of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorder in forty-six MCS patients-have been found to significantly rely on the phase I and II enzymes score and exposure to previous compounds and surgical treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981591PMC
December 2019

Distribution and classification of the extracellular matrix in the olfactory bulb.

Brain Struct Funct 2020 Jan 19;225(1):321-344. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98., Debrecen, 4032, Hungary.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) became an important player over the last few decades when studying the plasticity and regeneration of the central nervous system. In spite of the established role of ECM in these processes throughout the central nervous system (CNS), only few papers were published on the ECM of the olfactory system, which shows a lifelong plasticity, synaptic remodeling and postnatal neurogenesis. In the present study, we have described the localization and organization of major ECM molecules, the hyaluronan, the lecticans, tenascin-R and HAPLN1 link protein in the olfactory bulb (OB) of the rat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-019-02010-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957564PMC
January 2020

Altered Features of Vimentin-containing Cells in Cerebrum of Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur Mice: A Preliminary Study on Cerebrum Endogenous Neural Precursor Cells in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Int J Biol Sci 2019 1;15(13):2830-2843. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Neurology, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated People's Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi, china.

Vimentin-containing cells (VCCs) are potential neural precursor cells in central nervous systems, Thus, we studied the alteration of VCCs proliferation, differentiation and migration in the cerebrum during different stages of Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice. It aims to search potential ways regulating the proliferation, differentiation and migration of endogenous VCCs, to enhance their neural repair function and to cure or prevent from the development of ALS. We observed and analyzed the proliferation, differentiation and migration of VCCs in different anatomic regions and cell types of cerebrum at different stages including the pre-onset (60-70 days), onset (90-100 days) and progression (120-130 days) of wild-type (WT) and Tg(SOD1*G93A)1Gur mice using the fluorescent immunohistochemical technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.33461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6909959PMC

TAAR Agonists.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2020 Mar 17;40(2):257-272. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The first discovered TAAR1 is mainly expressed in the brain, and is able to detect low abundant trace amines. TAAR1 is also activated by several synthetic compounds and psychostimulant drugs like amphetamine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-019-00774-5DOI Listing
March 2020
2.506 Impact Factor

Kisspeptin as a Behavioral Hormone.

Semin Reprod Med 2019 03 17;37(2):56-63. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Section of Endocrinology and Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Successful reproduction is dependent not only on hormonal endocrine responses but also on suitable partner selection, copulatory acts, as well as associated emotional, behavioral, and cognitive processes many of which are supported by the limbic system. The reproductive hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the / gene) is now recognized as the key orchestrator of the reproductive axis. In addition to the hypothalamus, prominent kisspeptin neuronal populations have been identified throughout limbic and paralimbic brain regions across an assortment of species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3400239DOI Listing

Localization of phosphotyrosine adaptor protein ShcD/SHC4 in the adult rat central nervous system.

BMC Neurosci 2019 12 10;20(1):57. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Background: Mammalian Shc (Src homology and collagen) proteins comprise a family of four phosphotyrosine adaptor molecules which exhibit varied spatiotemporal expression and signaling functions. ShcD is the most recently discovered homologue and it is highly expressed in the developing central nervous system (CNS) and adult brain. Presently however, its localization within specific cell types of mature neural structures has yet to be characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12868-019-0541-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6902498PMC
December 2019

Dual exposure to stress in different stages of development affects eating behavior of male Wistar rats.

Physiol Behav 2020 02 6;214:112769. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Programa de pós-graduação em neuropsiquiatria e ciências do comportamento, Posneuro, Brazil; Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, 1235 - Cidade Universitária, Recife, PE CEP: 50670-901, Brazil. Electronic address:

Maternal separation stress is a model of early life stress performed by the separation between dam and pups in the first days of life. The consequences of this early stress have been demonstrated on various behaviors, including feeding behavior. The results, however, are still controversial and it seems that a second exposure to stress later in life exacerbates the adverse outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112769DOI Listing
February 2020

Respiratory syncytial virus tropism for olfactory sensory neurons in mice.

J Neurochem 2019 Dec 7:e14936. Epub 2019 Dec 7.

NBO, INRA, Univ Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

The olfactory mucosa, where the first step of odor detection occurs, is a privileged pathway for environmental toxicants and pathogens toward the central nervous system. Indeed, some pathogens can infect olfactory sensory neurons including their axons projecting to the olfactory bulb allowing them to bypass the blood-brain barrier and reach the central nervous system (CNS) through the so-called olfactory pathway. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major respiratory tract pathogen but there is growing evidence that RSV may lead to CNS impairments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14936DOI Listing
December 2019

Structural, morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the rabbit accessory olfactory bulb.

Brain Struct Funct 2020 Jan 4;225(1):203-226. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Anatomy, Animal Production and Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av Carballo Calero s/n, 27002, Lugo, Spain.

The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) is the first neural integrative centre of the vomeronasal system (VNS), which is associated primarily with the detection of semiochemicals. Although the rabbit is used as a model for the study of chemocommunication, these studies are hampered by the lack of knowledge regarding the topography, lamination, and neurochemical properties of the rabbit AOB. To fill this gap, we have employed histological stainings: lectin labelling with Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BSI-B4), and Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA) agglutinins, and a range of immunohistochemical markers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-019-01997-4DOI Listing
January 2020

Olig2 regulates terminal differentiation and maturation of peripheral olfactory sensory neurons.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2019 Nov 22. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine of Shriners Hospitals for Children, University of California at Davis, School of Medicine, 2425 Stockton Blvd., Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is required for sequential cell fate determination of both motor neurons and oligodendrocytes and for progenitor proliferation in the central nervous system. However, the role of Olig2 in peripheral sensory neurogenesis remains unknown. We report that Olig2 is transiently expressed in the newly differentiated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is down-regulated in the mature OSNs in mice from early gestation to adulthood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03385-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242138PMC
November 2019
5.808 Impact Factor

Intranasal pregnenolone increases acetylcholine in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala-Preferentially in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the injected nostril.

J Neurochem 2020 Apr 12;153(2):189-202. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

M et P Pharma AG, Emetten, Switzerland.

This study determined the effects of intranasal pregnenolone (IN-PREG) on acetylcholine (ACh) levels in selected areas of the rat brain, using in vivo microdialysis. Previous studies showed that PREG rapidly reaches the rodent brain after intranasal administration and that direct infusion of PREG and PREG-S into the basal forebrain modulates ACh release in frontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of IN-PREG on the cholinergic system in the rat brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14923DOI Listing

Human Olfaction without Apparent Olfactory Bulbs.

Neuron 2020 01 6;105(1):35-45.e5. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

The Azrieli National Institute for Human Brain Imaging and Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel; Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. Electronic address:

The olfactory bulbs (OBs) are the first site of odor representation in the mammalian brain, and their unique ultrastructure is considered a necessary substrate for spatiotemporal coding of smell. Given this, we were struck by the serendipitous observation at MRI of two otherwise healthy young left-handed women, yet with no apparent OBs. Standardized tests revealed normal odor awareness, detection, discrimination, identification, and representation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953431PMC
January 2020

Comparative analysis of the antennae of three amphipod species with different lifestyles.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2019 Nov 30;53:100886. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Biologie/Vergleichende Zoologie, Philippstr. 13, 10115 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Crustaceans detect chemical stimuli in the environment with aesthetasc sensilla, which are located on their 1 antennae. With the transition to other environments, chemoreception faces physical challenges. To provide a deeper understanding of the relation between the morphology of olfactory organs and different lifestyles, we studied the peripheral olfactory system of three amphipod species, the marine Gammarus salinus, the blind subterranean freshwater species Niphargus puteanus, and the terrestrial Cryptorchestia garbinii. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asd.2019.100886DOI Listing
November 2019
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Microbiota and the social brain.

Science 2019 11;366(6465)

APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Sociability can facilitate mutually beneficial outcomes such as division of labor, cooperative care, and increased immunity, but sociability can also promote negative outcomes, including aggression and coercion. Accumulating evidence suggests that symbiotic microorganisms, specifically the microbiota that reside within the gastrointestinal system, may influence neurodevelopment and programming of social behaviors across diverse animal species. This relationship between host and microbes hints that host-microbiota interactions may have influenced the evolution of social behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aar2016DOI Listing
November 2019
2 Reads