2,898 results match your criteria Anatomy And Embryology[Journal]


The postnatal development of the optic nerve of a reptile (Vipera aspis): A quantitative ultrastructural study.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 3;211(6):691-705. Epub 2006 Nov 3.

Equipe de Neurobiologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.

The number of axons in the optic nerve of the ovoviviparous reptile Vipera aspis was estimated from electron micrographs taken during the first 5 weeks of postnatal life. One to two days after birth, the optic nerve contains about 170,000 fibres, of which about 9% are myelinated. At the end of the fifth postnatal week, the number of optic fibres has fallen to about 100,000, of which about 42% are myelinated. Read More

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November 2006

Immunophenotyping and spatio-temporal distribution of aortic cell clusters in the bovine embryo.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 3;211(6):739-55. Epub 2006 Nov 3.

Institute of Anatomy, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany.

In the present study the temporal and spatial appearance of aortic cell clusters in bovine embryos is described. Aorta-associated c-kit-positive cell clusters can be observed first in 23 days post inseminationem (dpi) bovine embryos and disappear after 34 dpi. For the first time, it was shown that the immunophenotype of these aortic cluster cells changes during embryonic development. Read More

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November 2006

Nitric oxide synthase-containing neurons in the amygdaloid nuclear complex of the rat.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 27;211(6):721-37. Epub 2006 Oct 27.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Histology, Medical University, Sofia 1431, Bulgaria.

The nitric oxide-producing neurons in the rat amygdala (Am) were studied, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry. Almost all nuclei of the Am contained NADPHd-positive neurons and fibers, but the somatodendritic morphology and the intensity of staining of different subpopulations varied. The strongly stained neurons displayed labeling of the perikaryon and the dendritic tree with Golgi impregnation-like quality, whilst the dendrites of the lightly stained neurons were less successfully followed. Read More

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November 2006

Development of cerebral sulci and gyri in fetuses of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 28;211(6):757-64. Epub 2006 Oct 28.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Neurobiology, University of Tokushima Graduate School Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima 770-8503, Japan.

This study aimed to clarify the development of sulci and gyri on the external surface of the cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys. Sulcus formation began with the appearance of the lateral fissure on embryonic day (ED) 70, followed by delineations of four cerebral lobes by the emergence of the parietooccipital sulcus, central sulcus, and preoccipital notch on EDs 80-90. The following primary sulci were then visible until ED 120: the superior temporal sulcus on ED 90; the intraparietal sulcus, lunate sulcus, inferior occipital sulcus, and arcuate sulcus on ED 100; and the principle sulcus on ED 110; the occipitotemporal sulcus, anterior middle temporal sulcus, and superior postcentral dimple on ED 120. Read More

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November 2006

Two endothelial cell lines derived from the somite.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 19;211 Suppl 1:57-63. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

Zentrum für Kinderheilkunde und Jugendmedizin, Pädiatrie I, Georg-August-Universität Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075, Goettingen, Germany.

Somites are sequentially formed, metameric units of the paraxial mesoderm of vertebrate embryos. They are the most obvious correlative of the segmental patterning along the cranio-caudal axis and transfer segmentation to other tissues such as the spinal nerves and dorsal aortic branches. Furthermore, somites are the source of numerous mesodermal cell types such as smooth and striated muscle, cartilage and tendon cells, and soft connective tissue. Read More

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December 2006

Promoter of the heat shock testis-specific Hsp70.2/Hst70 gene is active in nervous system during embryonic development of mice.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 18;211(6):631-8. Epub 2006 Oct 18.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Silesian University, 9 Bankowa Str., 40-007, Katowice, Poland.

The Hsp70.2/Hst70 gene is a unique member of the 70 kDa heat shock proteins multigene family whose activity is regulated developmentally; in adult mice and rats its expression is restricted mostly to meiotic and postmeiotic male germ cells. In aim to analyze activity of the Hsp70. Read More

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November 2006

Distribution of calbindin-D28k, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) in the lateral nucleus of the sheep amygdaloid complex.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 18;211(6):707-20. Epub 2006 Oct 18.

Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra, 50, 40064, Ozzano dell'Emilia (BO), Italy.

This study describes calbindin-D28k (CB), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) expression in the lateral nucleus of the sheep amygdaloid complex. Double immunofluorescence protocol was used in order to determine whether there is colocalization of CB and nNOS. The CB-immunoreactive (IR) neuronal population was composed especially of non-pyramidal neurons, but a few pyramidal cells were also present. Read More

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November 2006

Skeletal muscle translocation in vertebrates.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 19;211 Suppl 1:43-50. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

It is now over 30 years since Bodo Christ first demonstrated that the musculature of the limb originated from the somites and overturned the then prevailing view that limb muscle develops from a local source. Subsequently, using electron microscopy and histological procedures, Bodo Christ identified that cells of the somites undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition which enabled them to move from their paraxial point of origin to distal locations. These studies defined this translocation as one of the major mechanisms allowing myogenic cells to translocate around the body. Read More

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December 2006

Myogenic progenitor cells in the mouse embryo are marked by the expression of Pax3/7 genes that regulate their survival and myogenic potential.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 13;211 Suppl 1:51-6. Epub 2006 Oct 13.

Department of Developmental Biology, CNRS URA2578, Pasteur Institute, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015, Paris, France.

The transcription factors Pax3 and Pax7 are important regulators of myogenic cell fate, as demonstrated by genetic manipulations in the mouse embryo. Pax3 lies genetically upstream of MyoD and has also been shown recently to directly control Myf5 transcription in derivatives of the hypaxial somite, where it also plays an important role in ensuring cell survival. Both Pax3 and Pax7 are expressed in myogenic progenitor cells derived from the central dermomyotome that make a major contribution to skeletal muscle growth. Read More

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December 2006

The eventful somite: patterning, fate determination and cell division in the somite.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 26;211 Suppl 1:21-30. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, University of Freiburg, Albertstrasse 17, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

The segmental somites not only determine the vertebrate body plan, but also represent turntables of cell fates. The somite is initially naive in terms of its fate restriction as shown by grafting and rotation experiments whereby ectopically grafted or rotated tissue of newly formed somites yielded the same pattern of normal derivatives. Somitic derivatives are determined by local signalling between adjacent embryonic tissues, in particular the neural tube, notochord, surface ectoderm and the somitic compartments themselves. Read More

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December 2006

Effects of age on sympathetic innervation of the myenteric plexus and gastrointestinal smooth muscle of Fischer 344 rats.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 21;211(6):673-83. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2081, USA.

Loss of myenteric neurons with age is well documented, however little is known about age-related changes of the sympathetic innervation of the myenteric plexus and gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The goal of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate the influence of age on the sympathetic innervation of the myenteric plexus throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Ad libitum fed virgin male Fischer 344 rats at 3, 15-16, 24, and 27-28 months of age were sampled. Read More

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November 2006

On periodicity and directionality of somitogenesis.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 21;211 Suppl 1:3-8. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA.

It is currently thought that the mechanism underlying somitogenesis is linked to a molecular oscillator, the segmentation clock, and to gradients of signaling molecules within the paraxial mesoderm. Here, we review the current picture of this segmentation clock and gradients, and use this knowledge to critically ask: What is the basis for periodicity and directionality of somitogenesis? Read More

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December 2006

The zebrafish mutation m865 affects formation of dopaminergic neurons and neuronal survival, and maps to a genetic interval containing the sepiapterin reductase locus.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 6;211 Suppl 1:73-86. Epub 2006 Oct 6.

Department of Developmental Biology, Institute Biology 1, University of Freiburg, Hauptstrasse 1, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

The zebrafish mutation m865 was isolated during a large-scale mutagenesis screen aimed at identifying genes involved in the development and maintenance of subgroups of neurons in the zebrafish central nervous system. The phenotype of m865 mutant embryos shows defects in the development of dopaminergic neurons in the pretectum and of retinal amacrine cells, as well as abnormal caudal dopaminergic cluster in the diencephalon. The effects of the mutation appear not to be restricted to dopaminergic neurons, as development of other neurotransmitter systems (serotonergic and cholinergic) is impaired as well. Read More

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December 2006

Expression pattern of BMPs during chick limb development.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 26;211 Suppl 1:87-93. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Freiburg, Albertstrasse 17, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

In vertebrates, BMPs (bone morphogenic proteins) play critical roles in establishing the basic embryonic body plan and are involved in the development of a large variety of organs and tissues. Here, we analyzed the expression pattern of various BMPs (2, 4, 5 and 7) by whole mount in situ hybridization during chick limb development. In limb, expression of BMPs suggests evolutionary conserved mechanisms of BMP-dependent differentiation between lower and higher vertebrates. Read More

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December 2006

Non-neuronal acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase in oviductal epithelial cells of cyclic and pregnant pigs.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 6;211(6):685-90. Epub 2006 Oct 6.

Department of Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstrasse 35, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany.

Certain female reproductive tissues are known to express the non-neuronal cholinergic system. Using different experimental approaches, we tested the hypothesis that acetylcholine (ACh) in the porcine oviduct may also be derived from non-neuronal structures. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in different segments of the oviduct of cyclic and pregnant sows. Read More

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November 2006

Expression of the avian gene cNOC2 encoding nucleolar complex associated protein 2 during embryonic development.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 30;211(6):649-57. Epub 2006 Sep 30.

School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, 730000 Lanzhou, China.

Genetic information that directs a cell during different phases of embryogenesis is locked up in the genome. Therein is contained the road map for growth, proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis. The cellular transportation machinery plays a major role to ensure that all the components for transcription and translation are available at the right place at the right time. Read More

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November 2006

Size and number of binucleate and mononucleate superior cervical ganglion neurons in young capybaras.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 28;211(6):607-17. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK.

The total number of neurons in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of adult capybaras is known from a previous study, where a marked occurrence of binucleate neurons (13%) was also noted. Here, distribution, number and fate of binucleate neurons were examined in younger, developing capybaras, aged 3 months. The mean neuronal cross-sectional area was 575. Read More

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November 2006

Regulation of scapula development.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 28;211 Suppl 1:65-71. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Albert-Ludwig-University Freiburg, Albertstr 17, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

The scapula is a component of the shoulder girdle. Its structure has changed greatly during evolution. For example, in humans it is a large quite flat triangular bone whereas in chicks it is a long blade like structure. Read More

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December 2006

Somite compartments in anamniotes.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 28;211 Suppl 1:9-19. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, University of Freiburg, Albertstrasse 17, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

Somites are a common feature of the phylotypic stage of embryos of all higher chordates. In amniote species like mouse and chick, somite development has been the subject of intense research over many decades, giving insight into the morphological and molecular processes leading to somite compartmentalization and subsequent differentiation. In anamniotes, somite development is much less understood. Read More

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December 2006

Fos immunoreactivity in some locomotor neural centres of 6OHDA-lesioned rats.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 28;211(6):659-71. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

Department Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

In this study, we explore Fos expression (a measure of cell activity) in three nuclei associated with locomotion, namely the zona incerta, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and cuneiform nucleus (the latter two form the mesencephalic locomotor region) in hemiparkinsonian rats. Sprague-Dawley rats had small volumes of either saline (control) or 6 hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) injected into the medial forebrain bundle, the major tract carrying dopaminergic nigrostriatal axons. After various post-lesion survival periods, ranging from 2 h to 28 days, rats were perfused with formaldehyde and their brains processed for routine tyrosine hydroxylase and Fos immunocytochemistry. Read More

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November 2006

Myogenin (Myf4) upregulation in trans-differentiating fibroblasts from a congenital myopathy with arrest of myogenesis and defects of myotube formation.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 15;211(6):639-48. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

Department of Molecular Embryology, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Albertstrasse 17, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

Congenital myopathies often have an unclear aetiology. Here, we studied a novel case of a severe congenital myopathy with a failure of myotube formation. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis was performed to characterize the expression patterns of the Desmin, p21, p57, and muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) MyoD, Myf4, Myf5 and Myf6 in differentiating skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs), normal human fibroblasts and patient-derived fibroblasts during trans-differentiation. Read More

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November 2006

The development of migrating muscle precursor cells.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 15;211 Suppl 1:37-41. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Str 10, 13125, Berlin, Germany.

A major subclass of hypaxial muscle groups is derived from long-range migrating precursor cells that delaminate from the dermomyotome. Migrating precursors are generated on particular axial levels only, i.e. Read More

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December 2006

Mechanisms of lineage segregation in the avian dermomyotome.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Dec 12;211 Suppl 1:31-6. Epub 2006 Sep 12.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.

The somite and its intermediate derivatives, sclerotome and dermomyotome (DM), are composed of distinct subdomains based on lineage analysis and gene expression patterns. This sets the grounds for elucidating the mechanisms underlying differential cell specification and morphogenesis. By examining the in vivo roles of N-cadherin on discrete domains of the somitic epithelium at various times, our recent studies highlight the existence of a regional and temporal heterogeneity in cellular responsiveness. Read More

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December 2006

Sperm binding glycoprotein is differentially present surrounding the lumen of isthmus and ampulla of the pig's oviduct.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 1;211(6):619-24. Epub 2006 Sep 1.

Cátedra de Histología y Embriología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas (UNR), Rosario, Argentina.

In several mammals a sperm reservoir is formed at the isthmus of the Fallopian tube, providing viable, potentially fertile sperm for an extensive period. In pig (Sus scrofa) the spermadhesin AQN-1 seems to be involved in the establishment of the sperm reservoir. The pig oviductal protein, sperm binding glycoprotein (SBG), binds to sperm and exposes carbohydrate groups that can be recognized by AQN-1. Read More

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November 2006

Changes in the number and distribution of myoepithelial cells in the rat parotid gland during postnatal development.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Oct 26;211(5):567-74. Epub 2006 Aug 26.

Department of Histology, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, The Nippon Dental University, 1-9-20 Fujimi, Tokyo 102-8159, Japan.

The mature rat parotid gland shows hardly any cell bodies of myoepithelial cells around the acini, only a few cell processes being visible. However, in the early postnatal period, the rat parotid gland shows many myoepithelial cell bodies around the acini, including the intercalated ducts. In order to clarify the reason for the disappearance of myoepithelial cells from the area around the acinus during postnatal development, changes in the number and distribution of myoepithelial cells in the rat parotid gland were examined histochemically and chronologically, with particular reference to cell proliferation and cell death. Read More

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October 2006

Developmental change of alpha-gustducin expression in the mouse fungiform papilla.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 25;211(6):625-30. Epub 2006 Aug 25.

Sensory Science Lab, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Gongshang University, 149, Jiaogong Road, Hangzhou 310035, People's Republic of China.

Developmental changes in the distribution pattern of taste buds in newborn mouse have not been previously elucidated, and little work has been done to examine the postnatal alteration of the expression of alpha-gustducin in the mouse taste buds. In the present paper, we delineated the development and frequency distribution of the taste buds as well as the immunohistochemical expression of alpha-gustducin, a G protein closely related to the transduction of taste stimuli in the fungiform papilla from the birthday till the age of week 9. At birth, more than 45 taste buds (with or without pores) were observed on the fungiform papilla, then the number of mature taste buds increased rapidly, and resulted in 66% (80. Read More

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November 2006

Spatial growth and pattern formation in the small intestine microvascular bed from larval to adult Xenopus laevis: a scanning electron microscope study of microvascular corrosion casts.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Oct 8;211(5):535-47. Epub 2006 Aug 8.

Department of Organismic Biology, Division of Zoology and Functional Anatomy, Vascular and Muscle Research Unit, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.

The microvascular anatomy of the small intestine of metamorphosing tadpoles of the South African Clawed Toad, Xenopus laevis (Daudin) is studied from developmental stages 55 to 65 and in adults by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of vascular corrosion casts (VCCs) and light microscopy. Up to stage 62, VCCs reveal a dense two-dimensional vascular network ensheating the intestinal tube, whose proximal portion forms a clockwise spiralling outer and its distal portion an anti-clockwise spiralling inner coil. Vessels of the intestinal network impose flat and run circularly to slightly obliquely. Read More

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October 2006

WITHDRAWN: Immunohistochemical localization of Ih channel HCN3 in the rat brain.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Aug 8. Epub 2006 Aug 8.

Institute of Brain Research C. and O. Vogt, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher Read More

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Location and variability of epicardiac ganglia in human fetuses.

Anat Embryol (Berl) 2006 Nov 2;211(6):585-94. Epub 2006 Aug 2.

Institute for Anatomy, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus Street 9, Kaunas 44307, Lithuania.

The aim of the study was to determine the morphology of epicardiac ganglia in human fetuses at different stages of their development as these ganglia are considered to be of a pivotal clinical importance. Twenty-one fetal hearts were investigated applying a technique of histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase to visualize the epicardiac neural ganglionated plexus with its subsequent stereoscopic examination on total organs. In all of the examined fetuses, epicardiac neural plexus with numerous ganglia was well recognizable and could be clearly differentiated into seven ganglionated subplexuses, topography and structural organization of which were typical for hearts of adult human. Read More

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November 2006