901 results match your criteria Anatomical Science International[Journal]


Guidelines for cadaver dissection in education and research of clinical medicine (The Japan Surgical Society and The Japanese Association of Anatomists).

Anat Sci Int 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

The Japan Surgical Society, Guidelines Review Committee and CST Promotion Committee, World Trade Center Building South Tower 11F, 2-4-1, Hamamatsu-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-5111, Japan.

This article translates the guidelines for cadaver surgical training (CST) published in 2012 by Japan Surgical Society (JSS) and Japanese Association of Anatomists from Japanese to English. These guidelines are based on Japanese laws and enable the usage of donated cadavers for CST and clinical research. The following are the conditions to implement the activities outlined in the guidelines. Read More

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Hic gaudent mortui viventes docere.

Authors:
Sén Takeda

Anat Sci Int 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Anatomy, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1, Kaga, Itabashi, Tokyo, 173-8605, Japan.

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Comparison of the retrosplenial cortex size between the degu (Octodon degus) and the Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus).

Anat Sci Int 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8, Saiwaicho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan.

The degu (Octodon degus) is a rodent that normally constructs burrows for nesting and rearing. To navigate inside these burrows, degus may use idiothetic and/or sensory cues more than visual information, which is less effective in burrows. Spatial information for navigation is processed in several key brain regions including the retrosplenial cortex (RS). Read More

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Ethical perspectives on the Japanese guidelines for cadaver surgical training (CST).

Authors:
Yasuhiro Kadooka

Anat Sci Int 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Bioethics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Honjo 1-1-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 8608556, Japan.

Cadaver surgical training (CST), which aims to maintain patient safety, provided anatomists with new duties and increased their workload. In Japan, with development of relevant guidelines, CST programs have been implemented and promoted mainly by surgical societies. This paper examines ethics of and anatomists' attitude toward the Japanese CST guidelines. Read More

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Updates on cadaver surgical training in Japan: a systematic facility at Chiba University.

Anat Sci Int 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Bioenvironmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Cadaver surgical training (CST), which ensures medical safety by improving the skills of surgeons, is popular overseas. However, training involves ethical issues given the use of cadavers. In 2012, the Japan Surgical Society and the Japanese Association of Anatomists compiled and opened the "Guidelines for Cadaver Dissection in Education and Research of Clinical Medicine (Guideline 2012)" to the public. Read More

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The potential anti-osteoporotic effect of exercise-induced increased preptin level in ovariectomized rats.

Anat Sci Int 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44511, Egypt.

Osteoporosis increases bone fragility and fractures. Preptin hormone is regulated by moderate exercise training and increases bone formation. Therefore, this study was conducted to see how estradiol administration and moderate exercise training affected osteoporotic changes in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Read More

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Training on skin flap elevation in hand surgery using cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution method: effectiveness and usefulness.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Thiel embalmed and fresh-frozen cadavers have been mainly used for hand surgery training. We held a training seminar on skin flap elevation using cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution method. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of such training and to validate the suitability of saturated salt solution-embalmed cadavers for hand surgery training. Read More

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Formalin-free soft embalming of human cadavers using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone: perspectives for cadaver surgical training and medical device development.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Anatomy, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8611, Japan.

The traditional apprenticeship approach to surgical skill education for young surgeons has drastically changed to more systematic surgical training using cadavers. Cadavers fixed with formalin are not suitable for surgical training because of their associated health hazards and overhardening. Recently, we established a formalin-free soft preservation method for human cadavers using N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone. Read More

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Depletion of Ift88 in thymic epithelial cells affects thymic synapse and T-cell differentiation in aged mice.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Apr 18. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi, 409-3898, Japan.

Primary cilia are ubiquitous hair-like organelles, usually projecting from the cell surface. They are essential for the organogenesis and homeostasis of various physiological functions, and their dysfunction leads to a plethora of human diseases. However, there are few reports on the role of primary cilia in the immune system; therefore, we focused on their role in the thymus that nurtures immature lymphocytes to full-fledged T cells. Read More

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Usage of cadavers in surgical training and research in Japan over the past decade.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Apr 5. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

The Japan Surgical Society, CST Promotion Committee, World Trade Center Building South Tower 11F, 2-4-1, Hamamatsu-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-5111, Japan.

The "Guidelines for Cadaver Dissection in Education and Research of Clinical Medicine" drafted by the Japan Surgical Society (JSS) and the Japanese Association of Anatomists in 2012 helped dispel legal concerns over cadaver surgical training (CST) and the usage of donated human bodies for research and development (R&D) in the country. Subsequently, in the fiscal year 2018, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare increased the funding for CST, prompting its wider implementation. This study analyzed data obtained in 2012-2021 through the reporting system of the JSS-CST Promotion Committee to map the usage of cadavers for clinical purposes, specifically education and R&D, in Japan. Read More

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Reappraisal of the types of hypoglossal canal: endocranial approach.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Bahcesehir University, 34714, Istanbul, Turkey.

This study aims to classify the endocranial variations inside the Hypoglossal Canal (HC) and evaluate the elements of the HC region in terms of sizes, diameters, and distances to the nearby surgical landmarks. The present study was done on 18 adult human fixed cadaver heads bilaterally. The internal opening of HC was examined for the presence of dural or osseos septations in the canal and was classified into five types (Type 1-5). Read More

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An anomalous muscle clinging around the inferior belly of omohyoid muscle.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 27. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Department of Mathematics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Madhav Nagar, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Sternohyoid, sternothyroid, omohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles belong to a group of muscles called infrahyoid muscles. A few variations of these muscles and additional muscles in this area have been reported. We report an anomalous muscle in this area. Read More

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Anatomical characteristics of two cases of aberrant right subclavian artery.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 22. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Anatomy, Aichi-Gakuin University School of Dentistry, 1-100 Kusumoto-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8650, Japan.

An aberrant right subclavian artery is a branching variation of the aortic arch. We encountered two female cadavers with an aberrant right subclavian artery during routine student dissection at our school. In both cases, the right subclavian artery was not a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk but originated directly from the distal part of the aortic arch as the last branch and ran between the esophagus and vertebral column, traveling to the upper limb. Read More

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The risk of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease infection in cadaveric surgical training.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 21. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Macroscopic Anatomy, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan.

The usefulness of cadaver surgical training in the clinical field is already well known. In Japan, the number of universities introducing cadaver surgical training is increasing. In addition to formalin fixation, various fixation methods are used, such as the Thiel method, saturated salt solution method, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone method, and fresh-frozen cadavers. Read More

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Relationship between the lumbosacral plexus deviation and 12th rib length in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 18. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Anatomy and Life Structure, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.

The relationship between the lumbosacral plexus (LSP) origin and the 12th rib length was recently determined in humans; cranial and caudal deviations of the plexus origin are related to shortening and elongation of the 12th rib, respectively. However, it remains unclear whether such anatomical correlations are also observed in non-human mammals. To address this issue, in the present study, we evaluated the LSP origin and the 12th rib length in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Read More

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Laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection in cadaver surgical training from the combined perspectives of urologists, gastroenterologists and gynecologists improves overall knowledge and technique: initial experience of multidisciplinary cadaver surgical training at a single institution in Japan.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 8. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-cho, Yonago, 683-8503, Japan.

Surgeons in Japan have recently become more familiar with cadaver surgical training (CST). Extended pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) considering the vesicohypogastric fascia and ureterohypogastric nerve fascia is gradually being performed not only in urology, but also in gynecology and gastroenterology. We performed CST using a 76-year-old female cadaver who was fixed by the Thiel method, with the aim of confirming the differences in the extent of PLND performed by certified laparoscopic specialists in urology, gastroenterology and gynecology. Read More

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Considering respect for the donated body: lessons from the scandal in France.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 5. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Kidney Regenerative Medicine, Industry-Academia Collaborative Department, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan.

Cadaver surgical training (CST) has been developing in Japan in the past 10 years. To perform ethically adequate CST program, sincere respect for the donated body is required. To understand this better, we reviewed the recent scandal at a body donation center in Paris, France. Read More

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Efficacy of urea solution reperfusion to a formalin-embalmed cadaver for surgical skills training.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 3. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Department of Anatomy, Aichi Medical University, 1-1, Yazakokarimata, Nagakute-city, 480-1195, Japan.

Formaldehyde has been traditionally used for embalming human cadavers for gross anatomy education and surgical skills training. However, exposure to formaldehyde negatively affects human health. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of reperfusing urea solution to a formalin-embalmed cadaver for surgical skills training and then investigate the cadaver's tissue elasticity alteration after being soaked into the urea solution. Read More

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Double-layered two-directional somatopleural cell migration during chicken body wall development revealed with local fluorescent tissue labeling.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Feb 20. Epub 2022 Feb 20.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734-8553, Japan.

The thoracic ventral body wall consists of the rib, the sternum, the intercostal muscles, and the connective tissues surrounding them. The ribs and the intercostal muscles are derived from the somite. The connective tissues are derived from the somatic layer of the lateral plate mesoderm, somatopleure. Read More

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February 2022

Tendinous annulus of Zinn for a common origin of the extraocular rectus muscles: a histological study of the orbital apex from donated elderly cadavers.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Feb 14. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Anatomy, Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo, Japan.

The medial, inferior, lateral, and superior rectus muscles (MR, IR, LR, SR), levator palpebrae superioris (LPS), and superior oblique muscle (SO) seem to originate from the tendinous annulus of Zinn, ring-like fibrous tissue crossing the bony orbital fissure. We observed the histological annulus structure using semi-serial histological sections of the orbital apex from 30 elderly donated cadavers. Nearly frontal sections demonstrated a ring-like fibrous structure (a candidate annulus) connecting or embedding four rectus muscles. Read More

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February 2022

10 tips on working with human body donors in medical training and research.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Feb 10. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Human body donors selflessly decided to make the ultimate gift to donate their bodies to education. Being on the receiving end, the health sciences education community owes it to the donors to ensure that they are being treated with utmost respect by promoting and developing high ethical standards and maximizing the benefits from this gift. Working with human body donors for research purposes has increased over the years, while regulations associated with these processes did not change. Read More

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February 2022

Thiel embalming in neonates: methodology and benefits in medical training.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Feb 8. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Bioengineering Institute, University of Miguel Hernández de Elche, CIBER BBN, Elche, Spain.

Current teaching and training methods for surgical techniques in the pediatric population involve artificial models (manikins), animals or adult human cadavers embalmed using various techniques. We found no references in the literature concerning the use of the Thiel method in the pediatric population. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the viability of using pediatric human cadavers embalmed through Thiel's technique and to compare them with standard pediatric manikins. Read More

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February 2022

An in situ hybridization study of syndecan family during the late stages of developing mouse molar tooth germ.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Feb 4. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

Department of Maxillofacial Anatomy, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Expression of syndecan-1, 2, 3, and 4 mRNAs during the late stages of tooth germ formation was investigated by in situ hybridization, using [S]-UTP-labeled cRNA probes. Syndecan-1 mRNA was mainly expressed in the stellate reticulum and stratum intermedium as well as at the cervical region of dental papilla/dental follicle during E18.5-P3. Read More

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February 2022

Excised human larynx in N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-embalmed cadavers can produce voiced sound by pliable vocal fold vibration.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Feb 3. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 1818611, Japan.

Tissue-hardening effect and health-hazard issue of formaldehyde (FA) have long been a great disadvantage of this conventional fixative in anatomical research. We recently developed a FA-free embalming method for cadavers which utilizes N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and enables assessment of motion kinetics by maintaining the softness of embalmed tissue. By assessing the feasibility of NVP-embalmed tissue to mimic vocalization, this study aimed to prove the potential of embalmed cadavers, which have previously been used only for the understanding of anatomical morphology, for the assessment of precise motion physiology in the human body. Read More

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February 2022

Segmental composition of the porcine iliopsoas muscle and influence of the body size and posture on the composition of the iliopsoas muscle.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 22;97(2):221-229. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20, 51000, Rijeka, Croatia.

The iliopsoas muscle (IPM) of the pig consists of the iliacus muscle (IM) and the psoas major muscle (PMM). Due to the differences in posture and size between animal species, the musculoskeletal system is subjected to different functional demands, which affects the morphological characteristics of the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this study was to determine the muscle fiber type composition in pigs IPM, as pigs are large quadrupeds that differ in body size and posture from humans and small mammals, and to determine the influence of body size and posture on the composition of IPM. Read More

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Elucidation of the control mechanism of dynamic tissues using freezing techniques.

Authors:
Yurika Saitoh

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 17;97(2):165-169. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Center for Medical Education, Teikyo University of Science, 2-2-1 Senjusakuragi, Adachi-ku, Tokyo, 120-0045, Japan.

The preparation of histological specimens from animals and humans is a multi-step process comprising tissue collection, fixation, and dehydration, followed by paraffin embedding. Each process can be achieved using different methods and substances. For example, dehydration may not be required depending on the substance used for embedding. Read More

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Transforming anatomy education: then and now.

Authors:
Anjali Singal

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 17;97(2):230-231. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bathinda, 151001, India.

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Calcification and resorption of mouse Meckel's cartilage analyzed by von Kossa and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 2;97(2):213-220. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Division of Craniofacial Development and Tissue Biology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan.

Meckel's cartilage is essential for the normal development of the mandible. The fate of the intermediate portion of Meckel's cartilage is unique as most of it disappears soon after birth except for the part that forms the sphenomandibular ligament. The mechanism of the disappearance of Meckel's cartilage is unknown; therefore, this study was designed to investigate the process of Meckel's cartilage degradation, focusing on cartilage matrix calcification and the appearance of chondroclasts. Read More

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The craniovertebral junction, between osseous variants and abnormalities: insight from a paleo-osteological study.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 29;97(2):197-212. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Medicine, Section of Human Anatomy, University of Udine, P.le Kolbe 3, 33100, Udine, Italy.

The bony components of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) have been investigated in 172 skeletons, dug up from several archaeological sites, to define the frequency of developmental dysmorphisms, and to acquire qualitative and quantitative data about their morphology. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented. Twenty-five individuals (14. Read More

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The morphometric study of the moderator band in Thais.

Anat Sci Int 2022 Mar 26;97(2):188-196. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200, Thailand.

A moderator band, also known as the septomarginal trabecula, is a group of muscle bundles located in the ventricle of almost all human hearts. The morphology of the moderator band has various forms and several studies have focused mostly on its structure. Thus, in the present study, we sought to study the morphology and morphometry of the moderator band and tried to rearrange the criteria based on the previous studies to classify the moderator band in Thais. Read More

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