8,815 results match your criteria Anatomical Record[Journal]


Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;269(6):257-65

Department of Neurology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.

Acupuncture meridians traditionally are believed to constitute channels connecting the surface of the body to internal organs. We hypothesize that the network of acupuncture points and meridians can be viewed as a representation of the network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound images showing connective tissue cleavage planes at acupuncture points in normal human subjects. Read More

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December 2002

The Modular Resource Center: integrated units for the study of the anatomical sciences in a problem-based curriculum.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;269(6):249-56

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithica, New York 14853, USA.

The Modular Resource Center (MRC) at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was created in 1993 as a way to provide visual resources in support of a newly implemented problem-based curriculum in which the anatomical sciences are taught primarily in the first tutorial-based course, The Animal Body. Over two dozen modules have been created specifically in support of this course, whereas additional modules have been created in support of other basic science courses. The basic unit of organization of the MRC is a module presented in a carrel that provides students a way to study, either alone or in groups, a given topic. Read More

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December 2002

Human dissection: an approach to interweaving the traditional and humanistic goals of medical education.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;269(6):242-8

Section of Anatomy, Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven , CT 06520-8062, USA.

Anatomy remains one of the core courses of medical school, but the time devoted to it is decreasing. To accommodate the explosion of medical knowledge, educators search to streamline the curriculum. Because it is time-consuming, dissection comes under increased scrutiny. Read More

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December 2002

Is paleoanthropology science? Naming new fossils and control of access to them.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;269(6):239-41

Division of Anthropology, the American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024, USA.

Progress in paleoanthropology is impeded when new fossil materials are published but unavailable for comparative study, as is too often the case. In this commentary, we review the stages of description and analysis that new fossils must undergo and conclude that it is disingenuous to argue that fossils have not been properly "published" when descriptions and new names formulated in accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature have appeared in leading scientific journals. Once such names and descriptions have been published, it is imperative that the original fossils concerned be available to the scientific community for comparative analysis, for by the very nature of science, no statement about such fossils, however carefully prepared by the original describers (or anyone else), can be regarded as definitive. Read More

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December 2002

Description of a poorly differentiated carcinoma within the brainstem of a white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) from magnetic resonance images and histological analysis.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):441-9

U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program, San Diego, California, USA.

In this study we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate neuroanatomical structure in the brain of a white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) that died from a large tumor within the brainstem. This specimen was also compared with a normal white whale brain using MRI. MRI scans of the white whale specimen show how the tumor deformed surrounding brain structure. Read More

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December 2002

Distribution of the elastic fiber and associated proteins in flexor tendon reflects function.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):430-40

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

The elastic fiber is known to be an important component of skin, lung, and vasculature. Much less is known about the distribution of elastin and elastic fiber-related proteins in connective tissues, yet genetic defects of elastic fiber constituents can lead to deficiencies in these tissues. For the first time, we determine the distribution of elastin, fibrillins 1 and 2, and microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs) 1 and 2 in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon. Read More

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December 2002

Neuroanatomy of the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):411-29

Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology Program, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

In this study, magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain of an adult common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) were acquired in the coronal plane at 66 antero-posterior levels. From these scans a computer-generated set of resectioned virtual images in orthogonal planes was constructed using the programs VoxelView and VoxelMath (Vital Images, Inc., Michigan State Univ. Read More

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December 2002

Urorectal septum malformation sequence: Insights into pathogenesis.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):405-10

Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

We characterize the urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS) in discordant fetal lambs and relate it to the human syndromes with which URSMS is associated. We found abnormal external genitalia, imperforate anus, and fistulous connections between the rectum, bladder, and vagina. Discordance among the dizygous twins eliminated teratogens as a likely etiologic factor. Read More

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December 2002

Qualitative and quantitative morphology of renal nerves in C57BL/6J mice.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):399-404

Department of Surgery and Anatomy, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

The detailed morphology of the renal nerves in mice has not been reported previously. The aims of this study were to describe the general morphology of the extrinsic renal nerve in C57BL/6 mice, and determine its morphometric parameters. The major renal nerve innervating the left kidney was isolated in five mice. Read More

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December 2002

The structure of the conus arteriosus of the sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) heart: II. The myocardium, the subepicardium, and the conus-aorta transition.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):388-98

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.

Sturgeons constitute a family of living "fossil" fish whose heart is related to that of other ancient fish and the elasmobranches. We have undertaken a systematic study of the structure of the sturgeon heart aimed at unraveling the relationship between the heart structure and the adaptive evolutionary changes. In a related paper, data were presented on the conus valves and the subendocardium. Read More

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December 2002

Polarized light microscopic analyses of collagen fibers in the rat incisor periodontal ligament in relation to areas, regions, and ages.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):381-7

Department of Pharmacology, School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi University, Yokohama, Japan.

We prepared decalcified sagittal sections (20 microm thick) from the incisal, middle, and basal regions of the mandibular incisor of male Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12, and 24 months, and examined the sections using polarized light microscopy. Most of the birefringent fibers appeared to run obliquely across the periodontal ligament. Birefringent fibers running parallel to the long axis of the incisor were also found in the intermediate area of the ligament. Read More

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December 2002

Enhanced immunocytochemical expression of antioxidant enzymes in rat submandibular gland after normobaric oxygenation.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):371-80

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Yahata Nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan.

In order to clarify the role of antioxidant enzymes in the male rat submandibular gland against short-term normobaric oxygenation, we performed immunocytochemical staining of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), copper- and zinc-containing SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferases (GST alpha, GST mu, and GST pi) between days 1 and 7 after normobaric oxygenation. Ultrastructural alterations and immunoreactivities for malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation-related molecule, of the acinar and ductal cells after the oxygenation were also investigated. Immunoreactivity for MDA was exhibited in the acinar cells throughout the experiment. Read More

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December 2002

Microvascularization of the hypermineralized calcified fibrocartilage and cortical bone in the sheep proximal femur.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):365-70

Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, VA Salt Lake City Health Care System, Salt Lake City, Utah 84184, USA.

It is well known that the incidence of hip fractures is increasing as the population ages, and that vascularity is one of the most important characteristics for any tissue (the proximal femur being no exception). Additionally, calcified fibrocartilage from tendon and ligament insertions comprises a significant portion of the fractional area of the proximal femur's cortical shell. The goal of the present investigation was to quantify and compare the microvascularity of the cortical bone and calcified fibrocartilage of the proximal femur in a sheep model. Read More

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December 2002

Variation in Langerhans cell number and morphology between the upper and lower regions of the human esophageal epithelium.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):360-4

Instituto de Histología y Embriología, Cuyo Medical School, Mendoza, Argentina.

Langerhans cells (LCs) are dendritic components of stratified epithelia, presenting antigens to other cells of the immune system that play a crucial role in local defense. The paucity of information about their significance in the esophageal mucosa was addressed by studying their distribution and morphology in this particular location. LCs were identified by immunohistochemical detection of CD1a, a cell-specific marker, using a monoclonal antibody, as well as by electron microscopic identification of characteristic Birbeck granules, among other typical morphological features. Read More

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December 2002

Granule changes of human and murine endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal epithelia are characteristic of piecemeal degranulation.

Anat Rec 2002 Dec;268(4):353-9

Anatomy Section, Department of Medical and Morphological Research, University of Udine School of Medicine, Udine, Italy.

Piecemeal degranulation is a unique pattern of cell secretion that consists of a slow release of granule contents from cytoplasmic secretory granules, which leaves empty chambers that do not fuse with each other or with the plasma membrane. To our knowledge, no cell types other than mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils have been reported in the literature to show morphological features of piecemeal degranulation. In the present study we provide evidence for ultrastructural morphologies characteristic of piecemeal degranulation in entero-endocrine cells of the human and murine gastrointestinal epithelia. Read More

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December 2002

Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions: a mesodermal cell strategy for evolutive innovation in Metazoans.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):343-51

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Cardiovascular Developmental Biology Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) are well known processes in which new mesenchyme is locally generated from epithelia. During the development of the vertebrate embryo, EMTs are a source of mesenchyme in diverse places and stages through embryonic morphogenesis, especially in mesodermal domains. In the present work we consider the embryo as a two-state system in which epithelium and mesenchyme represent the stable and unstable states, respectively. Read More

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November 2002

Origin of multicellular organisms as an inevitable consequence of dynamical systems.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):327-42

Center for Developmental Biology, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Kobe, Japan.

The origin of multicellular organisms is studied by considering a cell system that satisfies minimal conditions, that is, a system of interacting cells with intracellular biochemical dynamics, and potentiality in reproduction. Three basic features in multicellular organisms-cellular diversification, robust developmental process, and emergence of germ-line cells-are found to be general properties of such a system. Irrespective of the details of the model, such features appear when there are complex oscillatory dynamics of intracellular chemical concentrations. Read More

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November 2002

Evolution of glycosaminoglycans and their glycosyltransferases: Implications for the extracellular matrices of animals and the capsules of pathogenic bacteria.

Authors:
Paul L DeAngelis

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):317-26

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma Center for Medical Glycobiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City 73104, USA.

Glycosaminoglycans (linear polysaccharides with a repeating disaccharide backbone containing an amino sugar) are essential components of extracellular matrices of animals. These complex molecules play important structural, adhesion, and signaling roles in mammals. Direct detection of glycosaminoglycans has been reported in a variety of organisms, but perhaps more definitive tests for the glycosyltransferase genes should be utilized to clarify the distribution of glycosaminoglycans in metazoans. Read More

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November 2002

Evolution of collagens.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):302-16

Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.

The extracellular matrix is often defined as the substance that gives multicellular organisms (from plants to vertebrates) their structural integrity, and is intimately involved in their development. Although the general functions of extracellular matrices are comparable, their compositions are quite distinct. One of the specific components of metazoan extracellular matrices is collagen, which is present in organisms ranging from sponges to humans. Read More

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November 2002

Motility proteins and the origin of the nucleus.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):290-301

Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Morrill Science Center, Amherst 01003, USA.

Hypotheses on the origin of eukaryotic cells must account for the origin of the microtubular cytoskeletal structures (including the mitotic spindle, undulipodium/cilium (so-called flagellum) and other structures underlain by the 9(2)+2 microtubular axoneme) in addition to the membrane-bounded nucleus. Whereas bacteria with membrane-bounded nucleoids have been described, no precedent for mitotic, cytoskeletal, or axonemal microtubular structures are known in prokaryotes. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that the cells of the earliest-branching lineages of eukaryotes contain the karyomastigont cytoskeletal system. Read More

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November 2002

Myosin superfamily evolutionary history.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):276-89

Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.

The superfamily of myosin proteins found in eukaryotic cells is known to contain at least 18 different classes. Members are classified based on the phylogenetic analysis of the head domains located at the amino terminus of the polypeptide. While phylogenetic relationships provide insights into the functional relatedness of myosins within and between families, the evolutionary history of the myosin superfamily is not revealed by such studies. Read More

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November 2002

Molecular basis of endothelial cell morphogenesis in three-dimensional extracellular matrices.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):252-75

Department of Pathology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, College Station 77843, USA.

Although many studies have focused on blood vessel development and new blood vessel formation associated with disease processes, the question of how endothelial cells (ECs) assemble into tubes in three dimensions (i.e., EC morphogenesis) remains unanswered. Read More

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November 2002

How did cells get their size?

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):239-51

Department of Neuroscience, Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa Hospital, Canada.

Cells exercise size homeostasis, and the origins of their ability to do so is the topic of this essay. Before there were cells, there were protocells. The most basic questions about protocells as objects are: What were they made of, and how big were they? Asking how big they were implies that the answer to the first part includes a boundary. Read More

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November 2002

Models of intracellular transport and evolution of the Golgi complex.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):226-38

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Department of Cell Biology and Oncology, Santa Maria Imbaro (Chieti), Italy.

We have performed a systematic analysis of models explaining the mechanisms of the intracellular biosecretory transport. The models assessed include not only those based on one mechanism (the dissociation model (and its individual case, the vesicular model), the progression model (and its individual cases, the cisterna maturation/progression and the carrier maturation models), and the lateral diffusion model (and its individual case, the bolus model), but also combined models of transport (the percolating-vesicles model and the synthetic model), including several transport mechanisms. Most of these models are not able to explain recent data on the evolution of genes involved in intracellular transport and Golgi evolution. Read More

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November 2002

Shape behavior of lipid vesicles as the basis of some cellular processes.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):215-25

Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, and J. Stefan Institute, Slovenia.

The basic principles that govern the shape behavior of phospholipid vesicle shapes are discussed. The important membrane parameters of the system are defined by presenting the expressions for the relevant contributions to the system's mechanical energy. In the description of the rather unique shape behavior of lipid vesicles, the emphasis is on providing a qualitative understanding of the dependence of vesicle shape on the parameters of the system. Read More

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November 2002

Toward the engineering of minimal living cells.

Authors:
Pier Luigi Luisi

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):208-14

Institute of Polymers, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

The article focuses on the notion of a synthetic or semi-synthetic minimal cell, defined as a system that has the minimal and sufficient structural conditions for cellular life. It is emphasized that two complementary approaches are in principle possible, defined as "bottom-up" and "top-down" approaches. The first one aims at the construction of a minimal cell starting from scratch, and it is argued that a very serious bottle-neck to this pathway lies in the origination of specific macro-molecular sequences, as in nature those were constructed most likely by a particular contingent set of conditions. Read More

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November 2002

Membrane self-assembly processes: steps toward the first cellular life.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):196-207

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California-Santa Cruz, USA.

This review addresses the question of the origin of life, with emphasis on plausible boundary structures that may have initially provided cellular compartmentation. Some form of compartmentation is a necessary prerequisite for maintaining the integrity of interdependent molecular systems that are associated with metabolism, and for permitting variations required for speciation. The fact that lipid-bilayer membranes define boundaries of all contemporary living cells suggests that protocellular compartments were likely to have required similar, self-assembled boundaries. Read More

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November 2002

Molecular indicators (biomarkers) of past life.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):186-95

Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331, USA.

Biomarkers in geological samples on Earth are products derived from biochemical precursors (i.e., natural products) by reductive and oxidative alteration processes (e. Read More

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November 2002

Chemical markers for bacteria in extraterrestrial samples.

Authors:
Alvin Fox

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):180-5

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia 29208, USA.

Interplanetary missions to collect pristine Martian surface samples for analysis of organic molecules, and to search for evidence of life, are in the planning phases. The only extraterrestrial samples currently on Earth are lunar dust and rocks, brought back by the Apollo (U.S. Read More

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November 2002

Genomic potential hypothesis of evolution: a concept of biogenesis in habitable spaces of the universe.

Anat Rec 2002 Nov;268(3):171-9

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA.

The new hypothesis of evolution establishes a contiguity of life sciences with cosmology, physics, and chemistry, and provides a basis for the search for life on other planets. Chemistry is the sole driving force of the assembly of life, under the subtle guidance exerted by bonding orbital geometry. That phenomenon leads to multiple origins that function on the same principles but are different to the extent that their nucleic acid core varies. Read More

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November 2002