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Gene expression profiles of ischemic stroke clots retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy are associated with disease etiology.

J Neurointerv Surg 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Canon Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Background: Determining stroke etiology is crucial for secondary prevention, but intensive workups fail to classify ~30% of strokes that are cryptogenic.

Objective: To examine the hypothesis that the transcriptomic profiles of clots retrieved during mechanical thrombectomy are unique to strokes of different subtypes.

Methods: We isolated RNA from the clots of 73 patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. Read More

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Activation of NOTCH signaling via DLL1 is mediated by APE1-redox-dependent NF-κB activation in oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Gut 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA

Objective: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) arises in the setting of Barrett's oesophagus, an intestinal metaplastic precursor lesion that can develop in patients with chronic GERD. Here, we investigated the role of acidic bile salts, the mimicry of reflux, in activation of NOTCH signaling in EAC.

Design: This study used public databases, EAC cell line models, L2-IL1β transgenic mouse model and human EAC tissue samples to identify mechanisms of NOTCH activation under reflux conditions. Read More

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Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein in Iba1-positive macrophages in the skin of patients with Parkinson's disease.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Sendai Nishitaga Hospital, Sendai, Japan.

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that alpha-synuclein (αSyn) accumulation in cholinergic and adrenergic fibers in the skin is a useful biomarker to diagnose idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). It has been widely reported that phosphorylated αSyn (p-αSyn) deposits in autonomic fibers in IPD are a biomarker in the skin, but other tissue localizations have not been fully investigated.

Objective: It has been previously suggested that αSyn aggregates activate peripheral macrophages and that peripheral macrophages ingest pathological αsyn aggregates in aged rats or IPD patients. Read More

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Effects of a multicomponent resistance-based exercise program with protein, vitamin D and calcium supplementation on cognition in men with prostate cancer treated with ADT: secondary analysis of a 12-month randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 24;12(6):e060189. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: The aim of this preplanned secondary analysis of a 12-month randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a multicomponent exercise programme combined with daily whey protein, calcium and vitamin D supplementation on cognition in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).

Design: 12-month, two-arm, randomised controlled trial.

Setting: University clinical exercise centre. Read More

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eaberry in the treatment of acute uncoplcated cystitis (BRUMI): protocol of a multicentre, randomised double-blind clinical trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 24;12(6):e057982. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

Background: Bearberry () leaf is available as a treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in several European countries. The antimicrobial activity of its extracts and some of its individual constituents has been observed ; however, the efficacy of bearberry compared with standard antimicrobial therapy has not been assessed yet.

Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the safety and non-inferiority of bearberry as an alternative therapy in the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in comparison with standard antibiotic therapy (fosfomycin). Read More

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Shorter versus longer durations of antibiotic treatment for patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 24;12(6):e062428. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), frequently encountered in both outpatient and inpatient settings, is the leading cause of infectious disease-related mortality. While equipoise regarding the optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy to treat CAP remains, recent studies suggest shorter durations of therapy may achieve optimal outcomes. We have therefore planned a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the impact of shorter versus longer durations of antibiotic therapy for patients with CAP. Read More

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Efficacy of contralateral acupuncture in women with migraine without aura: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 24;12(6):e061287. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

School of Second Clinical Medicine/The Second Affiliated Hospital, Yunnan University of Chinese Medicine, Kunming, Yunnan, China

Introduction: Migraine is a common neurological disorder with a higher prevalence occurring in women. Migraine without aura (MwoA) is the most common type of migraine. In recent years, the safety and effectiveness of acupuncture for migraines have been internationally recognised. Read More

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Analysis of the Activities of a Physician-Staffed Helicopter in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic Phase.

Air Med J 2022 Jul-Aug;41(4):376-379. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Acute Critical Care Medicine, Shizuoka Hospital, Juntendo University, Shizuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the duration of activity of a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in Eastern Shizuoka Prefecture before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated the duration of dispatch activities from February 2020 to June 2021 (pandemic group, n = 1,032) and from April 2016 to January 2020 (control group, n = 3,054).

Results: There were no significant differences in the average age, percentage of male patients, interval from the request of HEMS dispatch to arrival, interval from arrival at the scene to leaving the scene, interval from leaving the scene to arrival at the hospital, or the ratio of requests for HEMS dispatch from the local fire department between the control and pandemic groups. Read More

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A Statistical Overview of Fixed Wing Air Medical Transportation Operations in the United States (2019-2020).

Air Med J 2022 Jul-Aug;41(4):359-369. Epub 2022 May 24.

Center for Air Transportation Systems Research at George Mason University, Fairfax, VA.

Air medical transportation (AMT) services provide the transportation of patients, medical teams, and organs for the US health care system. Interfacility transfers account for 54% of air medical transports, and delivering specialty care and organs accounts for 13% of air medical transports. Interfacility transfer, specialty care, and organ delivery are predominantly conducted using fixed wing aircraft. Read More

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Rationale and Design for the LOnger-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 INfection on blood Vessels And blood pRessure (LOCHINVAR): an observational phenotyping study.

Open Heart 2022 Jun;9(1)

BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

Introduction: COVID-19 may lead to long-term endothelial consequences including hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction. A pilot study 'COVID-19 blood pressure endothelium interaction study', which found that patients with normal blood pressure (BP) at the time of hospital admission with COVID-19 showed an 8.6 mm Hg higher BP ≥12 weeks after recovery, compared with a group without COVID-19. Read More

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Nivolumab in patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma: modest activity and cases of hyperprogression.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 Jun;10(6)

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), a heterogeneous group of mature aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, carry a worse prognosis for most subtypes when compared with their B-cell counterparts. Despite recent approval of newer therapies, the outlook for patients with relapsed/refractory (RR) PTCL remains poor and new treatment strategies are clearly needed. Targeting the profoundly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in PTCL is one such approach. Read More

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Dermatology Drugs for Children-U.S. Food and Drug Administration Perspective.

Authors:
Roselyn E Epps

Dermatol Clin 2022 Jul 1;40(3):289-296. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Division of Dermatology and Dentistry, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20903, USA. Electronic address:

Drug development regulation needs of the pediatric population were not addressed until later in the twentieth century. Because of legislation including the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) and Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA), clinical trials and data analysis targeting the pediatric population have resulted in drug product labeling. Drug products with pediatric dermatology indications benefit from BPCA, PREA, exclusivity incentives, newer analytical methods, and Food and Drug Administration team review. Read More

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Combining the strengths of radiologists and AI for breast cancer screening: a retrospective analysis.

Lancet Digit Health 2022 Jul;4(7):e507-e519

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University-Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: We propose a decision-referral approach for integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into the breast-cancer screening pathway, whereby the algorithm makes predictions on the basis of its quantification of uncertainty. Algorithmic assessments with high certainty are done automatically, whereas assessments with lower certainty are referred to the radiologist. This two-part AI system can triage normal mammography exams and provide post-hoc cancer detection to maintain a high degree of sensitivity. Read More

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Dendrobium nobile protects against ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis by regulating intestinal flora and suppressing lung inflammation.

Chin J Nat Med 2022 Jun;20(6):443-457

Institute of Otolaryngology, Institute of Hearing and Speech of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen Me-morial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510520, China. Electronic address:

Antibiotic exposure-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal flora increases the risk of developing allergic rhinitis. Hence, regulating the balance of intestinal flora may be useful for preventing and treating allergic rhinitis. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Read More

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Qi-Tai-Suan, an oleanolic acid derivative, ameliorates ischemic heart failure via suppression of cardiac apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis.

Chin J Nat Med 2022 Jun;20(6):432-442

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Disease, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Although anti-thrombotic therapy has been successful for prevention of deaths from acute myocardial infarction (MI), by far, there are few preventive and therapeutic options for ischemic heart failure (IHF) after MI. Qi-Tai-Suan (QTS) is an oleanolic acid (OA) derivative which once underwent a clinical trial for treating hepatitis. In this study, we investigated the potential cardioprotective effect of QTS on IHF. Read More

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Retrospective analysis of comorbidities in stroke patients with a history of obstructive sleep apnea treated with thrombolytic therapy.

J Vasc Nurs 2022 Jun 15;40(2):74-85. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

University of South Carolina School of Medicine-Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The eligibility criteria for thrombolytic therapy may differ between acute ischemic stroke patients (AIS) patients with and without incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In this study, we determine the effect of specific comorbidities in the exclusion and inclusion for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) administration in the AIS population with OSA.

Methods: Retrospective data from a stroke registry were analyzed for baseline clinical and demographic factors in AIS patients with OSA for rtPA therapy from January 2010 to June 2016. Read More

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A phenomenological study to explore patient experience of fluid and dietary restrictions imposed by hemodialysis.

J Vasc Nurs 2022 Jun 31;40(2):105-111. Epub 2022 May 31.

Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Background: Noncompliance with fluid restrictions and diet is a major problem among hemodialysis patients. This can lead to fluid overload in the interdialytic phase and the accumulation of metabolic waste. This study aims to explore the life experience of patients undergoing hemodialysis and their compliance with fluid restrictions and diet. Read More

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Does essential tremor increase risk of cognitive impairment and dementia? Yes.

Int Rev Neurobiol 2022 9;163:195-231. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States; Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. Electronic address:

Essential Tremor (ET), by definition, is a disorder of movement. Yet over the years, epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and neuroimaging studies have converged to reveal a cognitive side of ET. The cognitive symptoms in ET are heterogeneous and are likely to reflect heterogeneous underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Retreatment with progestin for recurrence after complete response with fertility-sparing treatment in patients with endometrial cancer.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Hosan Women's Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To assess the outcomes of retreatment using progestin for recurrence after a complete response with fertility-sparing treatment in patients with early endometrial cancer.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of patients with presumed stage IA, grade 1 endometrioid endometrial cancer who developed intra-uterine recurrence after a complete response with fertility-sparing treatment using progestin. Oncological and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed after repeated fertility-sparing treatment. Read More

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Improved nonparametric penalized maximum likelihood estimation for arbitrarily censored survival data.

Stat Med 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China.

Nonparametric maximum likelihood estimation encompasses a group of classic methods to estimate distribution-associated functions from potentially censored and truncated data, with extensive applications in survival analysis. These methods, including the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Turnbull's method, often result in overfitting, especially when the sample size is small. We propose an improvement to these methods by applying kernel smoothing to their raw estimates, based on a BIC-type loss function that balances the trade-off between optimizing model fit and controlling model complexity. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence in Meta-optics.

Chem Rev 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Electrical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong 999077.

Recent years have witnessed promising artificial intelligence (AI) applications in many disciplines, including optics, engineering, medicine, economics, and education. In particular, the synergy of AI and meta-optics has greatly benefited both fields. Meta-optics are advanced flat optics with novel functions and light-manipulation abilities. Read More

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Plant pan-genomics: recent advances, new challenges, and roads ahead.

J Genet Genomics 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

School of Life Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences and Green Development, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China. Electronic address:

Pan-genomics can encompass most of the genetic diversity of a species or population and has proved to be a powerful tool for studying genomic evolution and the origin and domestication of species, and for providing information for plant improvement. Plant genomics has greatly progressed because of improvements in sequencing technologies and the rapid reduction of sequencing costs. Nevertheless, pan-genomics still presents many challenges, including computationally intensive assembly methods, high costs with large numbers of samples, ineffective integration of big data, and difficulty in applying it to downstream multi-omics analysis and breeding research. Read More

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Structural mass spectrometry of membrane proteins.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2022 Jun 21:140813. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (IPBS), Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

The analysis of proteins and protein complexes by mass spectrometry (MS) has come a long way since the invention of electrospray ionization (ESI) in the mid 80s. Originally used to characterize small soluble polypeptide chains, MS has progressively evolved over the past 3 decades towards the analysis of samples of ever increasing heterogeneity and complexity, while the instruments have become more and more sensitive and resolutive. The proofs of concepts and first examples of most structural MS methods appeared in the early 90s. Read More

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Long-Term Outcomes of Ross Procedure versus Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement: Meta-Analysis of Reconstructed Time-To-Event Data.

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Lankenau Heart Institute, Lankenau Medical Center, Main Line Health, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery Research, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, USA.

In the era of lifetime management of aortic valve disease, the Ross procedure emerged as an alternative to prosthetic heart valves for young adults; however, more long-term data are warranted. We performed a meta-analysis of reconstructed time-to-event data to compare long-term outcomes between the Ross procedure and mechanical aortic valve replacement (mAVR) in young adults. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and GoogleScholar were searched for studies comparing Ross procedure with mAVR that reported mortality/survival rates and/or reoperation rates accompanied by at least one Kaplan-Meier curve for any of the outcomes. Read More

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Translating the measurement of hERG kinetics and drug block for CiPA to a high throughput platform.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2022 Jun 21:107192. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Molecular Cardiology and Biophysics Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, 405 Liverpool Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia; St. Vincent's Clinical School, UNSW Sydney, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.

The Comprehensive in vitro Proarrhythmic Assay (CiPA) has promoted use of in silico models of drug effects on cardiac repolarization to improve proarrhythmic risk prediction. These models contain a pharmacodynamic component describing drug binding to hERG channels that required in vitro data for kinetics of block, in addition to potency, to constrain them. To date, development and validation has been undertaken using data from manual patch-clamp. Read More

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Influence of bacterial community diversity, functionality, and soil factors on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under various vegetation types in mangrove wetlands.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jun 21:119622. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Northeast Forestry University, China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are prevalent organic pollutants in coastal ecosystems, particularly in mangrove wetlands. However, it is still largely unclear how PAHs affect the soil bacterial community under various vegetation types in the Greater Bay Area. Here, we selected soil samples from four sites with different vegetation types (native mangrove forest dominated by Kandelia candel, invasive mangrove forest dominated by Sonneratia apetala, unvegetated mudflat, and riverine runoff outlet) in the Qi'ao and Futian Nature Reserves. Read More

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The effects of weathering-induced degradation of polymers in the microplastic study involving reduction of organic matter.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jun 21:119669. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, PO Box 589, FI-33014, Finland. Electronic address:

The analysis of microplastics in complex environmental samples requires the use of chemicals to reduce the organic matrix. This procedure should be evaluated in terms of the preservation of the microplastic's integrity, typically done with pristine reference microplastics. However, real microplastics are most likely degraded due to weathering, so pristine reference microplastics might not depict the appropriateness of the process. Read More

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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) retention by colloidal activated carbon (CAC) using dynamic column experiments.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jun 21:119667. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 256, SE-751 05, Uppsala, Sweden.

Developing effective remediation methods for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS)-contaminated soils is a substantial step towards counteracting their widespread occurrence and protecting our ecosystems and drinking water sources. Stabilisation of PFAS in the subsurface using colloidal activated carbon (CAC) is an innovative, yet promising technique, requiring better understanding. In this study, dynamic soil column tests were used to assess the retardation of 10 classical perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) (C-C perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C, C, C perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs)) as well as two alternative PFAS (6:2 and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonates) using CAC at 0. Read More

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High-throughput strategy for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane protein expression conditions using folding reporter GFP.

Protein Expr Purif 2022 Jun 21:106132. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University. Svante Arrhenius väg 16C, SE-10691, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane protein biochemistry and structural biology studies are often hampered by challenges in protein expression and selection for well-expressing protein candidates, suitable for further investigation. Here we present a folding reporter GFP (frGFP) assay, adapted for M. tuberculosis membrane protein screening in Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 (DE3) and Mycobacterium smegmatis mc [2]4517. Read More

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Phenylpropanoid metabolism in relation to peel browning development of cold-stored 'Nanguo' pears.

Plant Sci 2022 Jun 21:111363. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

College of Food, Shenyang Agricultural University, No.120 Dongling Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang City 110866, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Cold-stored 'Nanguo' pears are susceptible to peel browning during subsequent shelf life. In this study, 'Nanguo' pears were cold-stored for different periods to elucidate the metabolism of phenylpropanoid accompanying browning. Changes in phenolics and flavonoids and the crucial enzyme activity and related gene expression involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were monitored. Read More

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