Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histiocytosis X, is a rare disease. It is characterized by the accumulation and proliferation of histiocytes, eosinophils and Langerhans' cells with Birbeck granules detected by electron microscopy. It involves single organs or systems or can present as a multisystem disease. Read More
Ventricular assist devices have demonstrated their utility in patients with intractable cardiac failure, both as support until complete myocardial recovery and as a bridge to transplantation. Specific pediatric pneumatic paracorporeal systems can be applied even in infants. Long-term survival has been reported although experience is limited. Read More
Objectives: To study the epidemiological characteristics of neural tube defects (NTD) classified according to the theory of multi-site closure of the neural tube and to correlate several factors with the failure of different closure sites.
Material And Methods: We used the data from the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC), collected from April 1976 to April 1995. During this time, 757 NTD of non-syndromic origin were diagnosed. Read More
Background: Malassezia spp. is a lipophilic yeast considered to be a normal component of the human skin flora. It has been associated with sepsis in patients receiving intravenous infusion of lipid emulsions through central venous catheters (CVC). Read More
Objectives: To evaluate the immediate results obtained with balloon aortic valvuloplasty in neonates and long-term echocardiographic outcome as well as to identify variables predictive for outcome. To identify the degree of agreement between hemodynamic and echocardiographic study.
Patients And Methods: We analyzed the results obtained in 26 procedures performed in 18 boys and 8 girls (2. Read More
Headaches are common during childhood and become more frequent in adolescence. The rational, cost-effective evaluation of children with headache begins with a careful history. The first step is to identify the temporal pattern of the headache -acute, acute-recurrent, chronic-progressive, chronic-nonprogressive, or mixed. Read More
Background: Mastoiditis used to be the most common complication of acute otitis media. However, once antibiotics became widely available, it was rarely reported. Recently, this complication has become more frequent. Read More
Background: Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs constitutes a considerable problem in clinical practice. Overprescribing of these drugs contributes to bacterial resistance and current literature shows a growing interest in the rationalization of antibiotic use.
Objectives: To observe the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions to children in an outpatient primary care setting, before and after a critical analysis of prescribing habits was performed. Read More
Background: Studies carried out in other countries show that drugs are used in children outside the approved conditions, in a context in which investigation, information and authorization of medications in the pediatric population are scarce.
Objectives: To evaluate the conditions of drug use recommended in children and variability in sources of drug information.
Methods: We performed a descriptive, retrospective study. Read More
Background: Streptococcus pneumonia is the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. The reference standard for etiological diagnosis is isolation of S. pneumoniae from blood Since the advent of conjugate vaccines, disease caused by this organism can now be prevented. Read More
Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children in Gipuzkoa (Spain) as well as the serotype distribution among these episodes and to analyze the potential impact of new conjugate vaccines.
Methods: We performed a retrospective study of cases of IPD in the pediatric population (< 15 years) between 1981 and 2001. Patients were included if blood, cerebrospinal, joint or peritoneal fluid isolates were culture-positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Read More
Primary cutaneous involvement in B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma is rare in childhood. We present the case of an eleven and a half year old girl who, five months prior to being referred to our center, had undergone surgery to remove a small gluteal tumor diagnosed histopathologically as lymphoid proliferation suggestive of large cell lymphoma. On examination the presence of small nodes close to the scar where the tumor had previously been removed was observed. Read More
Nijmegen breakage syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a peculiar dysmorphic syndrome (microcephaly, "bird-like" facies, short stature), combined immunodeficiency with recurrent infections, X-ray hypersensitivity and predisposition to malignancy, mainly lymphomas, as a consequence of chromosome instability due to anomalies in the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks.We present a 6-year-old boy with Nijmegen breakage syndrome, who developed a large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, localized in the lung without nodal involvement. Read More
Isolated non-compaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare disorder of endomyocardial morphogenesis characterized by numerous, excessively prominent ventricular trabeculations, probably due to arrest of normal endomyocardial embryogenesis. We report two cases of isolated non-compaction of the ventricular myocardium.The first patient had a brother who died in the first year of life after heart transplantation due to refractory heart failure caused by restrictive biventricular cardiomyopathy associated with a right ventricular diverticulum. Read More
Objectives To describe the causes of neonatal mortality in the Community of Valencia (VC) and to compare two registration systems for causes of death: that of the Spanish Society of Neonatology and that of the Word Health Organization's "Statistical Bulletin of Deaths (SBD)".MethodsData related to death from the SSN's mortality form, which orders all the diagnoses according to their severity, and data from the SBD, which uses sequential criteria (basic, intermediate or immediate cause of death) were obtained. Both systems were joined in a single form. Read More
Background The prone sleeping position for sleeping has been identified as the principal risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different sleeping positions and other risk factors for SIDS and to identify the advice given to parents in several maternity units in Latin America and the Caribbean through a specially-designed questionnaire.MethodsDescriptive cross-sectional study based in hospitals. Read More
Background It has been known for many years that the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is reduced by the supine sleeping position. Campaigns are required to increase awareness of this finding among all those involved in childcare (parents, relatives, kindergarten staff, health professionals etc.). Read More
Backgrounds Some patients with a poor prognosis cause serious doubts about the real benefit of life-sustaining treatment. In some cases the possibility of limiting those treatments is raised. Such end-of-life decisions provoke ethical dilemmas and questions about procedure. Read More
Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is a frequent and potentially serious respiratory disorder, it has a reliable diagnosis and treatment is highly effective. OSAS is a respiratory sleep-related disorder that forms part of sleep apnea-hypoapnea syndrome. The syndrome affects between 1 % and 3 % of children. Read More
Background Breastfeeding duration in Spanish neonates does not fulfill the recommendations of the World Health Organization.ObjectiveTo report the results of a policy of breastfeeding support in a primary care center.Material and methodsWe performed a before-and-after intervention study of all mothers of children born in Ulldecona who decided to breast feed in 1992, 1993, 1996 and 1997 (control group: 125 infants), and from August 1999-August 2001 (72 infants). Read More
To determine whether Gilbert's syndrome increases the risk of gallstone formation in children with chronic hemolytic disease, we studied 44 children with this diagnosis. Gallstones were detected by abdominal ultrasonography. This took place annually in scheduled examinations or in the context of acute abdominal pain. Read More
Background Epidemiological pattern of tuberculosis in Galicia is closer to that in developing countries than to that in Europe.ObjectivesThe aim of the present study was to determine the incidence and development of childhood tuberculosis, to analyze its clinical presentation and to quantify accurate diagnoses of pulmonary tuberculosis.MethodsObservational descriptive retrospective study in children aged 0-14 years old admitted to the Tuberculosis Unit of Vigo from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 1999. Read More
Objective To evaluate the clinical course in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy admitted to our department who received corticosteroid treatment and to compare their course with that in patients who did not receive corticosteroid treatment.Patients and methodsWe performed a retrospective study of 20 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy who were offered corticosteroid treatment: 10 patients received deflazacort and 10 refused the treatment. The MRC muscular strength scale and Vignos' functional scale were used to evaluate clinical course, which was compared in both groups. Read More
Introduction Termination of artificial life-support in critically-ill patients without chance of recovery or with severe damage is frequent in the intensive care unit (UCI). Patients and methodsWe studied the present situation concerning the withdrawal of life support in Spain using data collected over 10 years in referral hospitals with pediatric ICUs. Forty-nine patients were included, of which 43 had chronic diseases. Read More