In an important sense, support of the respiratory system has been a defining characteristic of intensive care since its inception. The pace of basic and clinical research in this field has escalated over the past two decades, resulting in palpable improvement at the bedside as measured by both efficacy and outcome. As in all medical research, however, novel ideas built upon observations are continually proposed, tested, and either retained or discarded on the basis of the persuasiveness of the evidence. Read More
Purpose: Limited data exist on the correlation between higher flow rates of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and its physiologic effects in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). We assessed the effects of HFNC delivered at increasing flow rate on inspiratory effort, work of breathing, minute ventilation, lung volumes, dynamic compliance and oxygenation in AHRF patients.
Methods: A prospective randomized cross-over study was performed in non-intubated patients with patients AHRF and a PaO2/FiO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio of ≤300 mmHg. Read More
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda. Read More
Introduction: Surgical treatments are offered to more patients than ever before, and increasingly to older patients with chronic disease. High-risk patients frequently require critical care either in the immediate postoperative period or after developing complications. The purpose of this review was to identify and prioritise themes for future research in perioperative intensive care medicine. Read More
Purpose: Mortality prediction in ARDS is important for prognostication and risk stratification. However, no prediction models have been independently validated. A combination of two biomarkers with age and APACHE III was superior in predicting mortality in the NHLBI ARDSNet ALVEOLI trial. Read More
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the intensive care unit is associated with significant mortality and morbidity.
Objectives: To determine and update previous recommendations for the prevention of AKI, specifically the role of fluids, diuretics, inotropes, vasopressors/vasodilators, hormonal and nutritional interventions, sedatives, statins, remote ischaemic preconditioning and care bundles.
Method: A systematic search of the literature was performed for studies published between 1966 and March 2017 using these potential protective strategies in adult patients at risk of AKI. Read More
Intensive Care Med 2017 Jul 8;43(7):1069-1070. Epub 2017 May 8.
Cardiac Surgery and Heart Transplantation Unit, Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation, Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Via Tricomi 5, 90127, Palermo, Italy.
Purpose: Guidelines recommend administering antibiotics within 1 h of sepsis recognition but this recommendation remains untested by randomized trials. This trial was set up to investigate whether survival is improved by reducing the time before initiation of antimicrobial therapy by means of a multifaceted intervention in compliance with guideline recommendations.
Methods: The MEDUSA study, a prospective multicenter cluster-randomized trial, was conducted from July 2011 to July 2013 in 40 German hospitals. Read More
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of critical illness and carries a significant risk of short- and long-term mortality, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular events. The degree of renal recovery from AKI may substantially affect these long-term endpoints. Therefore maximising recovery of renal function should be the goal of any AKI prevention and treatment strategy. Read More
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and associated with grim short- and long-term outcome. Although in the vast majority of cases AKI is multifactorial, with sepsis, shock and nephrotoxicity accounting for most episodes, specific causes of AKI are not uncommon. Despite remaining uncertainties regarding their prevalence in the ICU, prompt recognition of specific aetiologies of AKI is likely to ensure timely management, limit worsening of renal dysfunction, and ultimately limit renal and systemic consequences of AKI. Read More
Purpose: The aim of the INSTINCT trial was to assess the effect of intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) compared with placebo on self-reported physical function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI).
Methods: We randomised 100 patients with NSTI 1:1 to masked infusion of 25 g of IVIG (Privigen, CSL Behring) or an equal volume of 0.9% saline once daily for the first 3 days of ICU admission. Read More
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis carry consensus definitions. The simultaneous presence of both identifies septic AKI. Septic AKI is the most common AKI syndrome in ICU and accounts for approximately half of all such AKI. Read More
Purpose: The administration of chloride-rich intravenous (IV) fluid and hyperchloraemia have been associated with perioperative renal injury. The aim of this study was to determine whether a comprehensive perioperative protocol for the administration of chloride-limited IV fluid would reduce perioperative renal injury in adults undergoing cardiac surgery.
Methods: From February 2014 through to December 2015, all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery within a single academic medical center received IV fluid according to the study protocol. Read More
Purpose: We assessed outcomes in brain-injured patients after implementation of a multi-faceted approach to reduce respiratory complications in intensive care units.
Methods: Prospective nationwide before-after trial. Consecutive adults with acute brain injury requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h in 20 French intensive care units (ICUs) were included. Read More
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the success rate and safety of short-axis versus long-axis approaches to ultrasound-guided subclavian vein cannulation.
Methods: A total of 190 patients requiring central venous cannulation following cardiac surgery were randomized to either short-axis or long-axis ultrasound-guided cannulation of the subclavian vein. Each cannulation was performed by anesthesiologists with at least 3 years' experience of ultrasound-guided central vein cannulation (>150 procedures/year, 50% short-axis and 50% long-axis). Read More
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Outcomes After Critical Illness and Surgery (OACIS) Group, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
We present areas of uncertainty concerning intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) and identify areas for future research. Age, pre-ICU functional and cognitive state, concurrent illness, frailty, and health trajectories impact outcomes and should be assessed to stratify patients. In the ICU, early assessment of limb and diaphragm muscle strength and function using nonvolitional tests may be useful, but comparison with established methods of global and specific muscle strength and physical function and determination of their reliability and normal values would be important to advance these techniques. Read More
Over the last 15 years, treatment of comatose post-cardiac arrest patients has evolved to include therapeutic strategies such as urgent coronary angiography with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), targeted temperature management (TTM)-requiring mechanical ventilation and sedation-and more sophisticated and cautious prognostication. In 2015, collaboration between the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the European Society for Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) resulted in the first European guidelines on post-resuscitation care. This review addresses the major recent advances in the treatment of cardiac arrest, recent trials that have challenged current practice and the remaining areas of uncertainty. Read More
The "very old intensive care patients" (abbreviated to VOPs; greater than 80 years old) are probably the fastest expanding subgroup of all intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Up until recently most ICU physicians have been reluctant to admit these VOPs. The general consensus was that there was little survival to gain and the incremental life expectancy of ICU admission was considered too small. Read More
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in the critically ill. Current standard of care mainly relies on identification of patients at risk, haemodynamic optimization, avoidance of nephrotoxicity and the use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in established AKI. The detection of early biomarkers of renal tissue damage is a recent development that allows amending the late and insensitive diagnosis with current AKI criteria. Read More
Purpose: The optimal strategy of fluid resuscitation in the early hours of severe sepsis and septic shock is controversial, with both an aggressive and conservative approach being recommended.
Methods: We used the 2013 Premier Hospital Discharge database to analyse the administration of fluids on the first ICU day, in 23,513 patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, who were admitted to an ICU from the emergency department. Day 1 fluid was grouped into categories 1 L wide, starting with 1-1. Read More