1,673 results match your criteria Anaerobe[Journal]


Bezlotoxumab Use as Adjunctive Therapy with the Third Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Refractory Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Colitis; A Case Report and Concise Literature Review.

Anaerobe 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

ABIM Board Certified in Focused Practice in Hospital Medicine (FPHM), Mercy Clinic Hospitalist, Physician Building, 7301 Rogers Ave, Fort Smith, AR, 72903, United States. Electronic address:

Clostridium difficile is the most commonly reported pathogen to cause nosocomial infections in the United States with a high burden affecting morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenditure. The use of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is one of the current standard therapies for recurrent C. difficile infection (CDIr). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A series of three cases of severe Clostridium difficile infection in Australia associated with a binary toxin producing clade 2 ribotype 251 strain.

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Veterinary & Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, 6150, Australia; School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands, WA, Australia; Department of Microbiology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands, WA, 6009, Australia; School of Medical & Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, 6027, Australia.

Three patients with severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) caused by an unusual strain of C. difficile, PCR ribotype (RT) 251, were identified in New South Wales, Australia. All cases presented with severe diarrhoea, two had multiple recurrences and one died following a colectomy. Read More

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November 2018

Honoring Sydney Finegold, founding president of the Anaerobe Society of the Americas (1921-2018).

Authors:
David M Aronoff

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

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November 2018

Environmental pollutant-mediated disruption of gut microbial metabolism of the prebiotic inulin.

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 15;55:96-102. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Superfund Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. Electronic address:

Exposure to environmental pollutants is associated with a greater risk for metabolic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Pollutant exposure can also alter gut microbial populations that may contribute to metabolic effects and progression of inflammatory diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from gut fermentation of dietary carbohydrates, such as inulin, exert numerous effects on host energy metabolism and are linked to a reduced risk of diseases. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

The first reported case of pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Actinobaculum massiliense.

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 12;55:93-95. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Microbiology Laboratory, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves -ibs Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Microbiology, University of Granada-ibs Granada, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

We report the first case of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) caused by Actinobaculum massiliense. A 53-year-old woman attended the emergency department with symptoms compatible with a PID episode, finally resolved by intramuscular antibiotic treatment. Actinobaculum sp. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Effects of sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the morphology and surface hydrophobicity of periodontopathic anaerobes.

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 10;55:107-111. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Oral Microbiology, College of Dentistry, Research Institute of Oral Science, Gangneung- Wonju National University, Gangneung, 210-702, South Korea. Electronic address:

It has been reported that sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antibiotics are capable of altering bacterial surface properties and phenotype. In this study, the effects of sub-MICs of certain antibiotics on surface hydrophobicity, cell morphology, and protein profile were ascertained using Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola strains, which are pathogenic bacterial species in periodontal diseases. The MICs of antibiotics were determined by culturing bacteria in media supplemented with serially diluted antibiotic solutions, and sub-MIC of antibiotics was used. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile ribotypes 078 and 014/5-FLI01 in piglets from Costa Rica.

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 8;55:78-82. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica; Laboratorio de Investigación en Bacteriología Anaerobia, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica. Electronic address:

Though an overlap of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes (RT) in humans and animals has been noted -particularly in piglets-information regarding C. difficile isolates from swine is scarce in Latin America. A characterization of 10 C. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Type C botulism outbreak in feedlot cattle fed contaminated corn silage.

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 6;55:103-106. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Laboratory of Anatomic Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Electronic address:

A large outbreak of botulism in feedlot steers fed corn silage contaminated with Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C) is reported occurring in Midwestern Brazil in August 2017. The onset of the outbreak occurred 15 days after 1700 steers started to be fed the contaminated corn silage. Affected steers were alert and afebrile with varying degrees of flaccid paralysis in various muscle groups. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Identification and characterization of Clostridium botulinum strains associated with an infant botulism case in China.

Anaerobe 2018 Jul 2;55:1-7. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, AMMS, Beijing 100071, China. Electronic address:

Infant botulism was rarely reported in China. The second reported event of the disease including three cases occurred in 2015. In the present study, one (the third case) of the three cases was identified and investigated to trace the sources of transmission. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read
2.480 Impact Factor

Alterations in gut microbiota composition and metabolic parameters after dietary intervention with barley beta glucans in patients with high risk for metabolic syndrome development.

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 3;55:67-77. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Animal Science, Groblje 3, SI-1230, Domžale, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Metabolic syndrome is a complex disease that is exponentially increasing in the western world, and diet is one of the possible ways to improve the metabolic status of patients. Barley beta glucans are dietary fibres that show promise for improvement cholesterol levels and postprandial glucose response, but they have been rarely investigated in human trials with concurrent focus on gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial was conducted with 43 volunteers with high risk for metabolic syndrome development or with diagnosed metabolic syndrome. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Effects of commercial aldehydes from green leaf volatiles (green odour) on rumen microbial population and fermentation profile in an artificial rumen (Rusitec).

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 3;55:83-92. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, 06110, Diskapi, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

The effects of plant metabolites on rumen metabolism vary greatly depending on their antimicrobial spectrum and applied doses. In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of commercial aldehydes, trans-2-hexenal (T2H), cis-3-hexenal (C3H), trans-2-nonenal (T2N), and trans-2-decenal (T2D) from green leaf volatiles, were tested on rumen bacteria. These compounds were found more effective on Gram-positive rumen bacteria than the Gram-negatives, and C3H was the most effective compound. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

A systematic review of the use of rifaximin for Clostridium difficile infections.

Anaerobe 2018 Nov 2;55:35-39. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

National University Hospital, National University Health System, 119074, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 117597, Singapore.

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an increasingly common occurrence in the hospital setting, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In vitro studies have found that rifaximin, a nonabsorbable rifamycin antibiotic, displays potent antimicrobial activity against C. difficile. Read More

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November 2018

The gut microbiome of Mexican children affected by obesity.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 24;55:11-23. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Cinvestav Unidad Zacatenco, Av IPN 2508, Ciudad de México 07360, Mexico. Electronic address:

Obesity is a metabolic disorder and global health issue. In Mexico 34.4% of children between 5 and 11 years-old are overweight or obese. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Contamination of hospital food with Clostridium difficile in Central Italy.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 23;55:8-10. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Umbria e delle Marche "Togo Rosati", via Salvemini 1, 06126, Perugia, Italy.

This study investigates the contamination of foods with Clostridium difficile in 3 hospitals of Central Italy. We used real-time PCR for tpi gene to analyse 350 food samples, including 296 cooked meals and 54 foods to be eaten raw. The molecular screening test was positive for 3 samples, but toxigenic C. Read More

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October 2018

Parvimonas micra stimulates expression of gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis in multi-species communities.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 22;55:54-60. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Dept of Oral Biology, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Dental biofilms are complex ecosystems containing many bacterial species that live in mutualistic relationships. These interactions can profoundly affect the virulence properties of the community. In this study we investigated how the production of gingipains, virulence factors from Porphyromonas gingivalis important in periodontal disease, was affected by other commonly found members of the sub-gingival microbiome. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Metronidazole resistance and nim genes in anaerobes: A review.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 11;55:40-53. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Hydrosciences Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Univ Montpellier, Département de Microbiologie, CHU Nîmes, France. Electronic address:

Acquired resistance to metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole drug largely used worldwide in the empirical treatment of infections caused by anaerobes, is worrisome, especially since such resistance has been described in multidrug-resistant anaerobic bacteria. In anaerobes, acquired resistance to metronidazole may be due to a combination of various and complex mechanisms. Among them, nim genes, possibly located on mobile genetic elements, encode nitro-imidazole-reductases responsible for drug inactivation. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Laboratory plasticware - Use at your own risk: Suitability of microcentrifuge tubes for spores' analysis of Clostridium difficile.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 11;55:61-66. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Public Health Ontario Laboratories, Toronto, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore forming rod-shaped bacterium which causes mild to severe diarrhea. Spores play a key role in transmission of C. difficile in hospital environment. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

A sequence database analysis of 5-nitroimidazole reductase and related proteins to expand knowledge on enzymes responsible for metronidazole inactivation.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 10;55:29-34. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

HydroSciences Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Univ Montpellier, Département de Microbiologie, CHU Nîmes, Nîmes, France. Electronic address:

nim genes are associated, in combination with other factors, with acquired resistance to metronidazole (MTZ) in anaerobes. These genes encode 5-nitroimidazole reductase enzymes (Nim proteins) that reduce MTZ into an inactive compound. Eleven variants (nimA to nimK) are currently described in anaerobes with either a chromosomal or a plasmidic location. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

The non-toxigenic strain of Clostridioides difficile Z31 can prevent infection by C. difficile in experimental model piglets.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 4;55:24-28. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Veterinary School. Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Antônio Carlos Avenue, 6627, 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

One of the main challenges associated with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in humans and domestic animals is the lack of an effective preventive strategy. One strategy with promising results is the oral administration of non-toxigenic strains of C. difficile (NTCD). Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Biofilm-derived spores of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile exhibit increased thermotolerance compared to planktonic spores.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 5;54:169-171. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Healthcare Associated Infections Research Group, Leeds Institute for Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK.

Biofilm-derived spores of strains of four ribotypes (001, 020, 027 & 078) of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile were found to exhibit increased thermotolerance compared to spores produced in planktonic culture. In addition, 'thick' and 'thin' exosporium morphotypes described previously were visualised by electron microscopy in both biofilm and planktonic spores. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Characterization of the vaginal microbiota of Japanese women.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 3;54:172-177. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yazakokarimata, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan; Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University, 1-1, Yazakokarimata, Nagakute-shi, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan. Electronic address:

The composition of vaginal microbiota changes throughout life in response to health status, sexual activity, and pregnancy. Here the constitution of the vaginal microbiota among non-pregnant women, pregnant woman, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Japan were compared. Vaginal samples were obtained from 54 women between January 2014 and February 2015 and the microbiota of each was analyzed by 16S metagenomics as well as cluster and diversity analyses to identify differences. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Atopobium vaginae intrapartum bacteremia: A case report with a literature review.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Atopobium vaginae is an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium recognized as a causative agent of bacterial vaginosis and associated with preterm delivery. Invasive infection and bacteremia have been rarely reported. We describe the case of a woman expecting her firstborn child who presented with a A. Read More

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October 2018
14 Reads

Prospective evaluation of the adaptive immune response to SlpA in Clostridium difficile infection.

Anaerobe 2018 Oct 2;54:164-168. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

EA 4043 "Unité Bactéries Pathogènes et Santé" (UBaPS), Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 92290, Châtenay-Malabry, France; Service de Microbiologie clinique, Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph, 75014 Paris, France.

Clostridium difficile is a major cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. SlpA is the precursor of the S-layer of C. difficile. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Co-infection of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile GMU1 and Bacillus cereus GMU2 in one patient in Guizhou, China.

Anaerobe 2018 Sep 28;54:159-163. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Key Laboratory of Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Guizhou Medical University, Ministry of Education, Guiyang, 550004, China; Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, 550004, China. Electronic address:

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile and Bacillus cereus infections are frequently reported in human individually. However, co-infection of both pathogens in human is extremely rare. In the present study, we reported a case of human enteric disease caused by co-infection of C. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

Identification and diversity of Actinomyces species in a clinical microbiology laboratory in the MALDI-TOF MS era.

Anaerobe 2018 Sep 24;54:151-158. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; Monash Infectious Diseases, Monash University, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a reliable tool for bacterial identification. This study compared the Bruker MALDI-TOF BioTyper MS (MBT) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the identification of Actinomyces and Actinotignum spp. The MBT identified 68/77 (88. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of toxigenic clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile causing infections in the south of Spain.

Anaerobe 2018 Sep 25;54:146-150. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

UGC Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, Spain; Departamento de Biomedicina, Biotecnología y Salud Pública, Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.

Antimicrobial susceptibility to 6 antimicrobial agents, PCR-ribotyping and molecular genetics of fluoroquinolone resistance was assessed in 70 toxigenic clinical isolates of C. difficile recovered from patients attended in a hospital in southern Spain with suspected Clostridium difficile infection. Moxifloxacin was the least active drug, mainly driven by the aminoacid substitution Thr82Ile in GyrA, while PCR-ribotype 078 was the most prevalent lineage identified and grouped several of the fluoroquinolone resistant isolates. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Development and evaluation of isothermal amplification assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of Clostridium perfringens from chevon.

Anaerobe 2018 Sep 22;54:178-187. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a promising, simple, rapid and sensitive molecular detection method. In the present study, LAMP assay was developed for detecting Clostridium perfringens in chevon. Primers were designed to detect the cpa gene of C. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

A rare case of pleural effusion due to Prevotella dentalis.

Anaerobe 2018 Sep 19;54:144-145. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Microbiology, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.

Prevotella dentalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic rod involved in various human diseases, especially oral infections. We report a rare case of a pleural effusion due to this microorganism in an elderly patient. An 88-year-old man with chronic respiratory disease presented with a left pleural effusion for more than 1 month. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Parvimonas micra bacteremia following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: A new route of infection.

Anaerobe 2018 Sep 11;54:136-139. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Microbiology and Virology Unit, University Hospital Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy.

Parvimonas micra is an anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus belonging to oral, gastrointestinal and genital flora, rarely causing infections in humans. It was mainly deemed to cause bacteremia, septic bone and cerebral infections in patients which have undergone dental procedures or with suboptimal dental hygiene. We report the first case of Parvimonas micra bacteremia following endoscopic retrograde colangiopancreatography performed due to choledocholithiasis in a patient with good oral health. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

Association between Clostridioides difficile ribotypes, restriction endonuclease analysis types, and toxin gene expression.

Anaerobe 2018 Sep 7;54:140-143. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University Hospital, 1-1, Yazako-karimata, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan; Department of Infection Control and Prevention, Aichi Medical University Hospital, 1-1, Yazako-karimata, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan; Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1, Yazako-karimata, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: Clostridioides difficile strains cause severe infection. Previous studies suggested that the virulence of C. difficile is dependent on ribotype; however, this hypothesis is still controversial. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Quorum sensing molecules regulate epithelial cytokine response and biofilm-related virulence of three Prevotella species.

Anaerobe 2018 Sep 3;54:128-135. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Periodontology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, FI-20520, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Quorum sensing (QS) signaling regulates the motility, adhesion, and biofilm formation of bacteria, and at the same time activates immune response in eukaryotic organisms. We recently demonstrated that the QS molecule, dihydroxy-2, 3-pentanedione (DPD), and its analogs significantly inhibit estradiol-regulated virulence of Prevotella aurantiaca, one of the four species in the Prevotella intermedia group. Here, we examined the combined effects of estradiol and QS signaling on 1) cytokine response of human gingival keratinocytes (HMK) against whole cell extract (WCE) of P. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Butyricimonas virosa: A rare cause of bacteremia.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 30;54:121-123. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Avdeling for medisinsk mikrobiologi, Helse Møre og Romsdal, Molde sykehus, Norway.

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August 2018
1 Read

Characterization of toxin genes and quantitative analysis of netB in necrotic enteritis (NE)-producing and non-NE-producing Clostridium perfringens isolated from chickens.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 28;54:115-120. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi, Mississippi State, USA. Electronic address:

Necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, a Clostridium perfringens infection, has re-emerged due to the removal of antibiotic growth promoters in feeds in recent years, thus contributing to significant economic losses for the industry. Toxins produced by C. perfringens in conjunction with predisposing factors are responsible for the onset and development of NE. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads

Identification of epsilon toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens strains in American retail food.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 28;54:124-127. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Brain and Mind Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Ave, New York, 10065, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Food samples (n = 216) from New York city were tested for the presence of C. perfringens via PCR for specific toxin genes. Thirty-four (16%) samples were positive for C. Read More

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First case report of bacteremia caused by Dysgonomonas mossii.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 27;54:111-114. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Gunma, Japan. Electronic address:

We here report a case of Dysgonomonas mossii bacteremia with cholangitis. An 85-year-old male patient with recurrent hepatitis B surface antigen-negative/anti-hepatitis C virus-negative hepatocellular carcinoma came to our hospital in poor physical condition. Two sets of blood cultures revealed a positive result for D. Read More

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August 2018
11 Reads

Prevalence and characterization of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens and retail chicken meat in central China.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 22;54:100-103. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis, Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo and Molecular Breeding, Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

We report that Clostridium perfringens was present in 23.1% (130/562) of broiler chickens and 15.1% (38/252) of retail chicken meat samples in central China. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

A comparison of methanogens of different regions of the equine hindgut.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 22;54:104-110. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari, Italy.

The diversity of the methanogenic archaea associated with the six segments of the horse and donkey hindgut (caecum, right ventral colon, left ventral colon, left dorsal colon, right dorsal colon, and rectum) was analyzed using 16S rDNA gene clone library. A total of 641 positive clones, 321 from the horse and 320 from the donkey hindgut, were examined by the RFLP, revealing 9 different ribotypes, 8 in the horse and 5 in the donkey hindgut. In both the animals Methanobacteriales (Methanobrevibacter-like sequences) and Methanomicrobiales (Methanocorpusculum-like sequences) were detected as the dominant orders followed by the uncultured Methanomassiliicoccales. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Development of an optimized broth enrichment culture medium for the isolation of Clostridium difficile.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 16;54:92-99. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Microbiology, Belfast Health & Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK.

Clostridium difficile is a spore forming bacterium and the leading cause of colitis and antibiotic associated diarrhoea in the developed world. Effective recovery of spores, particularly in low numbers, is imperative to obtain accurate prevalence data, due to the low number of spores found within non-clinical samples (<20/ml). Through comparison of C. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Type C/D botulism in the waterfowl in an urban park in Italy.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 16;54:72-74. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

National Reference Center for the Botulism, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.

This report describes an outbreak of botulism occurred among a free-living population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and geese (Anser anser) in an urban park. Mortality rate among investigated population was 86,8% (118 dead out of 136). Twenty-seven carcasses were collected for macroscopic examination and screened for microbiological, virological, toxicological investigations. Read More

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August 2018
10 Reads

Fusobacterium nucleatum prosthetic hip infection: Case report and review of the literature of unusual anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 16;54:75-82. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain. Electronic address:

The anaerobic Gram-negative rod Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral commensal and periodontal pathogen that has been associated with a wide variety of infections, yet it is extremely rare to be associated with prosthetic joint infection. After an exhaustive literature review, only two cases of prosthetic joint infection by F. nucleatum have been previously reported. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Clinical epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection among hospitalized patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea in a university hospital of Brazil.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 13;54:65-71. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil.

A cohort of 110 adult individuals was analyzed to compare clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients who received antibiotics and developed Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with those who received antibiotics and did not develop the disease in a university Hospital in Brazil. CDI was diagnosed by toxigenic culture and C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping. Read More

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August 2018
11 Reads

In vitro activity of lascufloxacin, a novel fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, against various clinical isolates of anaerobes and Streptococcus anginosus group.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 13;54:61-64. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University, Japan. Electronic address:

The in vitro activities of lascufloxacin were evaluated by comparison with seven reference compounds using 412 clinical isolates of anaerobes and Streptococcus anginosus group. Lascufloxacin showed potent and broad antibacterial activities greater than those of existing quinolones against the clinical isolates used in this study. Read More

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August 2018
11 Reads

Aging impairs protective host defenses against Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection in mice by suppressing neutrophil and IL-22 mediated immunity.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 9;54:83-91. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Galveston, TX, USA; Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Morbidity and mortality associated with Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) rises progressively with advanced age (≥65 years) due in part to perturbations of the gut microbiota and immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data of community-acquired CDI suggests increased susceptibility may begin earlier during middle-age (45-64 years) but the causation remains unknown.

Methods: Middle-aged (12-14 months) and young (2-4 months) adult mice were infected with C. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

In vitro activity of DS-2969b and comparator antimicrobial agents against Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and other anaerobic bacteria.

Anaerobe 2018 Apr 13;54:39-41. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

R. M. Alden Research Laboratory, Culver City, CA, USA.

The in vitro activity of DS-2969b, a novel GyrB inhibitor, and six comparator agents was studied against 101 recent North American Clostridioides difficile isolates, 46 other intestinal anaerobes and 51 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC ranges (MIC) of DS-2969b against C. difficile and S. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Bacterial communities related to 3-nitro-1-propionic acid degradation in the rumen of grazing ruminants in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 3;54:42-54. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

USDA/ARS, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, 2881 F&B Road, College Station, TX 77845, USA.

The objectives of this current study were to characterize the overall rumen bacterial community in grazing yak and two sheep species (Tibetan and Small Tail Han sheep) reared in the unique environmental conditions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, as well as the bacterial community associated with the detoxification of a phytotoxin, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA), during in vitro culture with 4.2 mM NPA. Using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, it was found that the yak rumen harbored populations showing a higher bacterial diversity compared to Tibetan sheep. Read More

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August 2018
10 Reads

The impact of Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 on the murine gut microbiome and colonic tissue.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 1;54:8-18. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 (CBM 588) is a probiotic bacterium that is used as an anti-diarrheal medicine in Japan. However, the impact of this probiotic on the gut microbiome has not been fully elucidated, especially, when used with antimicrobials.

Material And Methods: In an in vivo study, CBM 588 monotherapy, clindamycin monotherapy, CBM 588 and clindamycin (combination therapy), or normal saline (control) was orally administered to mice for 4 days, and fecal samples were collected for 18 days to enumerate C. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Comparison of humoral neutralizing antibody response in rabbits, guinea pigs, and cattle vaccinated with epsilon and beta toxoids from Clostridium perfringens and C. botulinum types C and D toxoids.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 1;54:19-22. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Veterinary School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, CEP 31.270-901, Brazil.

Rabbits and guinea pigs are used in the official control and validation of clostridial vaccines, but it is unknown whether the antitoxin titers obtained in these animals corroborate with the humoral response in bovine. The objective of the study was to compare the humoral antibody response of guinea pig and rabbits to those obtained in cattle vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing Clostridium perfringens epsilon and beta, and Clostridium botulinum types C and D toxoids. This study revealed the same level of humoral response in rabbits and cattle for all four toxoids tested, including C. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Direct identification of Ruminococcus gnavus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) on a positive anaerobic blood culture bottle.

Anaerobe 2018 Aug 1. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Laboratori de Microbiologia, Parc Taulí Hospital Universitari, Institut d'Investigació i Innovació_Parc Taulí I3PT, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Sabadell, Spain.

We report a case of bloodstream infection with the anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus (R. gnavus), associated with intestinal perforation in a patient undergoing chemotherapy for multiple myeloma and cancer of the sigmoid colon. Gram staining of positive anaerobic blood cultures revealed both diplococci and short chains of gram-positive cocci. Read More

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August 2018
8 Reads

Sharpea and Kandleria are lactic acid producing rumen bacteria that do not change their fermentation products when co-cultured with a methanogen.

Anaerobe 2018 Jul 25;54:31-38. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, 4442, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Sharpea and Kandleria are associated with rumen samples from low-methane-emitting sheep. Four strains of each genus were studied in culture, and the genomes of nine strains were analysed, to understand the physiology of these bacteria. All eight cultures grew equally well with d-glucose, d-fructose, d-galactose, cellobiose, and sucrose supplementation. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read
2.480 Impact Factor

Antimicrobial resistance in large clostridial toxin-negative, binary toxin-positive Clostridium difficile ribotypes.

Anaerobe 2018 Jul 25;54:55-60. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia; PathWest Laboratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Western Australia, Australia; School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Western Australia, Australia; School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is commonly found in Clostridium difficile strains and plays a major role in strain evolution. We have previously reported the isolation of large clostridial toxin-negative, binary toxin-producing (ABCDT) C. difficile strains from colonised (and in some instances diarrhoeic) food animals, as well as from patients with diarrhoea. Read More

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July 2018
10 Reads