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    1328 results match your criteria Anabolic Steroid Use and Abuse

    1 OF 27

    Long-term treatment with Nandrolone Decanoate impairs mesenteric vascular relaxation in both sedentary and exercised female rats.
    Steroids 2017 Feb 10;120:7-18. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo, Brazil.
    Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) is an Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) that under abusive regimen can lead to multiple physiological adverse effects. Studies of AAS-mediated cardiovascular (CV) alterations were mostly taken from male subjects, even though women are also susceptible to the effects of AAS and gender-specific differences in susceptibility to vascular diseases exist. Here we investigate ND-induced vascular reactivity alterations in both sedentary and exercised female rats and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors. Read More

    Strategies that athletes use to avoid detection of androgenic-anabolic steroid doping and sanctions.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:
    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are potent and widely used performance-enhancing substances (PES). Since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began testing athletes for AAS in the 1970s, athletes and their teams have endeavored to beat the system to avoid doping violations and/or sanctions derived from positive test results. This review will discuss the strategies used to avoid detection based on the pharmacology, biochemistry, and genetics of AAS metabolism and testing principles. Read More

    Detection of stanozolol in the urine of athletes at a pg level: The possibility of passive exposure.
    Biomed Rep 2016 Dec 27;5(6):665-666. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. Read More

    Drug Test Anal 2017 Jan 14. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Doping Control Laboratory of Athens, Olympic Athletic Center of Athens "Spyros Louis", Maroussi, Greece.
    The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well-known in racing and in other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries do make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. Read More

    Effectiveness and implementation of a community-based prevention programme targeting anabolic androgenic steroid use in gyms: study protocol of a quasi-experimental control group study.
    BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2016 17;8:36. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, STAD, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: During the past decades, concerns about increased anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among recreational sportspeople have been raised, yet there is a paucity of AAS prevention efforts targeting this group. Accordingly, doping prevention efforts aimed at gyms have been recommended. The overall objective of the present project is to examine a prevention programme named 100% Pure Hard Training (100% PHT), which targets AAS use among recreational sportspeople training in gyms. Read More

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function.
    Pharmacol Res 2017 Jan 24;115:209-217. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Centre of Excellence "Neurobiology of Dependence", University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, SS 554 Km 4,500, 09042 Monserrato, CA, Italy; CNR Institute of Neuroscience-Cagliari, National Research Council, Italy. Electronic address:
    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12. Read More

    Effect of supraphysiological doses of Nandrolone Decanoate upon Aldosterone concentration and serum Na+/K+ levels in albino mice.
    Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2016 Nov 21. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India.
    Background: This article is a study of adverse effects associated with the abuse of recreational drugs such as Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Nandrolone Decanoate is one such drug often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking enhanced physical strength or appearance. The use of such steroids has increased dramatically over the years. Read More

    The Prevalence and Characteristics of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use Among Bodybuilding Athletes in the South of Iran, Bushehr.
    Asian J Sports Med 2016 Sep 16;7(3):e35018. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
    Department of Pharmacology, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran.
    Background: Several reports have implied progressive increase of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use among Iranian athletes. More importantly, most of the previous research in the Iranian population had mainly focused on the anabolic steroid abuse, and ignored other agents.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PED use among bodybuilding athletes in Bushehr, south of Iran. Read More

    Non-allowed pharmacologically active substances in physical and sexual performance enhancing products.
    Curr Neuropharmacol 2016 Oct 28. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Drug Abuse and Doping Unit, Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.
    Recently, a large amount of physical and sexual performance enhancing products have started to be freely sold mainly on internet web sites as dietary supplements. However, there a high suspicion that pharmacologically active substance, prohibited in these products, can be present to provide the expected effect. A simple and rapid systematic toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1 v/v). Read More

    A review of designer anabolic steroids in equine sports.
    Drug Test Anal 2016 Oct 12. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
    Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    In recent years, the potential for anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports has increased due to the growing availability of designer steroids. These compounds are readily accessible online in 'dietary' or 'nutritional' supplements and contain steroidal compounds which have never been tested or approved as veterinary agents. They typically have unusual structures or substitution and as a result may pass undetected through current anti-doping screening protocols, making them a significant concern for the integrity of the industry. Read More

    Selective androgen receptor modulators: comparative excretion study of bicalutamide in bovine urine and faeces.
    Drug Test Anal 2016 Oct 11. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d'Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Nantes, France.
    Besides their development for therapeutic purposes, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (non-steroidal SARMs) are also known to impact growth-associated pathways as ligands of androgenic receptors (AR). They present a potential for abuse in sports and food-producing animals as an interesting alternative to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). These compounds are easily available and could therefore be (mis)used in livestock production as growth promoters. Read More

    Structural Brain Imaging of Long-Term Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users and Nonusing Weightlifters.
    Biol Psychiatry 2016 Jun 30. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Prolonged high-dose anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits, yet we have almost no knowledge of the long-term consequences of AAS use on the brain. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between long-term AAS exposure and brain morphometry, including subcortical neuroanatomical volumes and regional cortical thickness.

    Methods: Male AAS users and weightlifters with no experience with AASs or any other equivalent doping substances underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain. Read More

    Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.
    PLoS One 2016 17;11(8):e0161208. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.
    Aims: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers.

    Methods: This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2. Read More

    C-H Acetoxylation-Based Chemical Synthesis of 17 β-Hydroxymethyl-17 α-methyl-18-norandrost-13-ene Steroids.
    Chemistry 2016 Sep 17;22(40):14171-4. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Kuprevich str., 5/2, 220141, Minsk, Belarus.
    Palladium-catalyzed C-H acetoxylation has been proposed as a key transformation in the first chemical synthesis of steroids bearing a unique 17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-nor-13-ene D-fragment. This C-H functionalization step was crucial for inverting the configuration at the quaternary stereocenter of a readily available synthetic intermediate. The developed approach was applied to prepare the metandienone metabolite needed as a reference substance in anti-doping analysis to control the abuse of this androgenic anabolic steroid. Read More

    A screening and determinative method for the analysis of natural and synthetic steroids, stilbenes and resorcyclic acid lactones in bovine urine.
    Drug Test Anal 2016 May;8(5-6):448-57
    Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Saskatoon Laboratory, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Our laboratory has four separate methods for the analysis of trenbolone, stilbenes, resorcyclic acid lactones, and estradiol in bovine urine. The method described in this paper was in response to a client request to consolidate the methods preferably into one method. A multiresidue semi-quantitative method was developed and any suspect positive samples detected by the method were subjected to the method of standard addition to accurately quantify the concentration of the positive analyte. Read More

    Analysis of sulfate metabolites of the doping agents oxandrolone and danazol using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2016 Sep 17;1029-1030:1-9. Epub 2016 Jun 17.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory, Oslo, Norway; University of Münster, Institute of Food Chemistry, Münster, Germany.
    The direct detection of sulfate conjugates of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can be a powerful tool in doping control analysis. By skipping the solvolysis step analysis time can be reduced, and due to long term sulfate metabolites the detection time can be significantly extended as demonstrated for some AAS. This study presents the successful identification of sulfate metabolites of the doping agents oxandrolone and danazol in excretion urines by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Read More

    Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity.
    Med Hypotheses 2016 Aug 5;93:150-3. Epub 2016 Jun 5.
    Muscle and Sports Science, Kairostraat 22, 8400 Oostende, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused for decades by both professional and amateur athletes in order to improve physical performance or muscle mass. AAS abuse can cause adverse effects, among which are hepatotoxic effects. These effects include cholestatic icterus and possibly peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular carcinoma or adenoma. Read More

    Pulmonary hemorrhage following anabolic agent abuse: Two cases.
    Respir Med Case Rep 2016 13;18:45-7. Epub 2016 Apr 13.
    Department of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Aarhus University Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Numerous adverse effects follow anabolic agent abuse. Pulmonary hemorrhage is not considered one of them. We present two cases of young male bodybuilders who developed diffuse alveolar bleeding as a result of anabolic steroid abuse. Read More

    Chronic administration of nandrolone increases susceptibility to morphine dependence without correlation with LVV-hemorphin 7 in rats.
    Neuropeptides 2016 Oct 26;59:63-69. Epub 2016 May 26.
    Department of Anesthesiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:
    LVV-hemorphin 7 (LVVYPWTQRF; LVV-H7), an N-terminal fragment of the β-chain of hemoglobin cleaved by cathepsin D/pepsin, is an atypical endogenous opioid peptide that is found in high concentration in blood. LVV-H7 acts as a μ-opioid agonist and an inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. Subchronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been clinically proven to induce the synthesis of erythrocytes and increase hemoglobin concentrations. Read More

    Understanding alterations on blood and biochemical parameters in athletes that use dietary supplements, steroids and illicit drugs.
    Toxicology 2017 Feb 24;376:75-82. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    In recent years it was verified there are an alarming growing number of teenagers and young adults using a combination of dietary supplements (DS) anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and drugs of abuse. This practice is used to improve physical fitness and appearance, may cause serious side effects. This article shows the alterations in the hematological and renal function parameters associate with these substances in 40 athletes. Read More

    Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.
    J Chromatogr A 2016 Jun 3;1451:145-55. Epub 2016 May 3.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Boulevard d'Yvoy 20, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Read More

    Acute myocardial infarction in a young bodybuilder taking anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and critical review of the literature.
    Eur J Prev Cardiol 2016 Nov 16;23(16):1785-1796. Epub 2016 May 16.
    First Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece.
    We describe a case report of a 30-year-old bodybuilder suffering acute myocardial infarction (AMI). He had been taking stanozolol and testosterone for two months. The coronary angiogram showed high thrombotic burden in the left anterior descending artery without underlying atherosclerosis. Read More

    The use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry to demonstrate progesterone treatment in bovines.
    J Chromatogr A 2016 Jun 29;1449:129-40. Epub 2016 Apr 29.
    LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d'Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), F-44307 Nantes, France.
    Currently, no analytical method is available to demonstrate progesterone administration in biological samples collected in rearing animals, and therefore, tracking the abuse of this popular growth promoter is arduous. In this study, a method is presented to reveal progesterone (PG) treatment on the basis of carbon isotope measurement of 5β-pregnane-3α, 20α-diol (BAA-PD), a major PG metabolite excreted in bovine urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS). 5-Androstene-3β,17α-diol (AEdiol) is used as endogenous reference compound. Read More

    The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.
    Brain Res Bull 2016 Sep 5;126(Pt 1):127-137. Epub 2016 May 5.
    The Beijer Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Biological Research on Drug Dependence, BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. Read More

    Effect of supraphysiological dose of Nandrolone Decanoate on the testis and testosterone concentration in mature and immature male rats: A time course study.
    Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 2015 Dec;13(12):779-86
    Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
    Background: Most studies on anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse have been done in adult rats, but few data are available to immature.

    Objective: This study was conducted to assay the effect of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) on the testis and testosterone concentration in male immature rats compare with mature ones in short and long time.

    Materials And Methods: 40 mature rats were divided into 4 groups: group A (short term) and group B (long-term) received 10 mg/kg/day ND interaperitoneally for 35 and 70 days, respectively. Read More

    Emerging trends in consuming behaviours for non-controlled substances by Italian urban youth: a cross sectional study.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2016 ;52(1):104-13
    Dipartimento del Farmaco, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Introduction: We investigated emerging trends in consuming behaviours for non-controlled substances in a cross sectional study on urban Italian adolescents and young adults, the reasons for consumption and risk perception as function of age, the relation with lifestyles and finally risk factors associated.

    Methods: The survey methodology involved the administration of an anonymous questionnaire. It consisted of 68 questions, divided into five sections: personal details, socioeconomic characteristics, family and peer group, free time and lifestyles, and substances use. Read More

    Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.
    PLoS One 2016 21;11(3):e0151860. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Read More

    In vivo and in vitro metabolism of the designer anabolic steroid furazadrol in thoroughbred racehorses.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 May 26;124:198-206. Epub 2016 Feb 26.
    Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia. Electronic address:
    Furazadrol ([1',2']isoxazolo[4',5':2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol) is a designer anabolic androgenic steroid that is readily available via the internet. It contains an isoxazole fused to the steroid A-ring which offers metabolic stability and noteworthy anabolic activity raising concerns over the potential for abuse of this compound in equine sports. The metabolism of furazadrol was studied by in vivo and in vitro methods for the first time. Read More

    Recruitment to doping and help-seeking behavior of eight female AAS users.
    Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2016 Mar 5;11:11. Epub 2016 Mar 5.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids in sports has now developed to a widespread use of these agents among young people outside the sport. This is of major concern to the society. The purpose of the use is mainly for aesthetic reasons and is seen as a male phenomenon. Read More

    Acute myocardial infarction in a young male wrestler: A case report.
    ARYA Atheroscler 2015 Nov;11(6):366-9
    Cardiologist, Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center AND Department of Cardiovascular, School of Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background: Anabolic steroids have been widely used in recent years. It could adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Non-traditional risk factors for coronary heart diseases (CHDs) have raised great concern. Read More

    Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.
    Basic Clin Androl 2016 6;26. Epub 2016 Feb 6.
    Urology Department of Brabois University Hospital, CHU de Nancy, Allée du Morvan, 54511 Vandœuvre les Nancy, France.
    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Read More

    The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors.
    Iran J Public Health 2015 Dec;44(12):1662-9
    Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Dept. of Sports and Exercise Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Read More

    Heavy Testosterone Use Among Bodybuilders: An Uncommon Cohort of Illicit Substance Users.
    Mayo Clin Proc 2016 Feb 5;91(2):175-82. Epub 2016 Jan 5.
    Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
    Objective: To identify and characterize patterns of use among a contemporary cohort of current anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users.

    Patients And Methods: An anonymous, self-administered, 49-item questionnaire was posted on message boards of Internet websites popular among AAS users and administered via SurveyMonkey from February 1, 2015, to June 1, 2015. Thirty-seven questions were analyzed for this study. Read More

    Mad men, women and steroid cocktails: a review of the impact of sex and other factors on anabolic androgenic steroids effects on affective behaviors.
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2016 Feb 12;233(4):549-69. Epub 2016 Jan 12.
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, HB 7701, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA.
    Rationale: For several decades, elite athletes and a growing number of recreational consumers have used anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as performance enhancing drugs. Despite mounting evidence that illicit use of these synthetic steroids has detrimental effects on affective states, information available on sex-specific actions of these drugs is lacking.

    Objectives: The focus of this review is to assess information to date on the importance of sex and its interaction with other environmental factors on affective behaviors, with an emphasis on data derived from non-human studies. Read More

    Longitudinal monitoring of endogenous steroids in human serum by UHPLC-MS/MS as a tool to detect testosterone abuse in sports.
    Anal Bioanal Chem 2016 Jan 16;408(3):705-19. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
    Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses, University Center of Legal Medicine Geneva and Lausanne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Chemin des Croisettes 22, 1066, Epalinges, Switzerland.
    The detection of testosterone abuse in sports is routinely achieved through the 'steroidal module' of the Athlete Biological Passport by GC-MS(/MS) quantification of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) from athletes' urines. To overcome some limitations of the "urinary steroid profile" such as the presence of confounding factors (ethnicity, enzyme polymorphism, bacterial contamination, and ethanol), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) measurements of blood concentrations of testosterone, its major metabolites, and precursors could represent an interesting and complementary strategy. In this work, two UHPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the quantification of testosterone and related compounds in human serum, including major progestogens, corticoids, and estrogens. Read More

    Targeted Metabolomics Approach To Detect the Misuse of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors in Equine Sports by Biomarker Profiling.
    Anal Chem 2016 Jan 15;88(1):764-72. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse , Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong, China.
    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prohibited in both human and equine sports. The conventional approach in doping control testing for AAS (as well as other prohibited substances) is accomplished by the direct detection of target AAS or their characteristic metabolites in biological samples using hyphenated techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Such an approach, however, falls short when dealing with unknown designer steroids where reference materials and their pharmacokinetics are not available. Read More

    Development and validation of a GC-C-IRMS method for the confirmation analysis of pseudo-endogenous glucocorticoids in doping control.
    Drug Test Anal 2015 Nov-Dec;7(11-12):1071-8. Epub 2015 Nov 25.
    Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197, Rome, Italy.
    Glucocorticoids are included in the S9 section of the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list international standard. Some among them are pseudo-endogenous steroids, like cortisol and cortisone, which present the same chemical structure as endogenously produced steroids. We are proposing an analytical method based on gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) which allows discrimination between endogenous and synthetic origin of the urinary metabolites of the pseudo-endogenous glucocorticoids. Read More

    Black market products confiscated in Norway 2011-2014 compared to analytical findings in urine samples.
    Drug Test Anal 2015 Nov-Dec;7(11-12):1025-9. Epub 2015 Nov 26.
    Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory, Oslo University Hospital, Aker Hospital, P.O. Box 4959 Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.
    Doping agents are widely and illicitly distributed through the Internet. Analysis of these preparations is useful in order to monitor the availability of prohibited substances on the market, and more importantly to predict which substances are expected to be found in urine samples collected from athletes and to aid clinical and forensic investigations. Based on a close collaboration with the Norwegian police and the Norwegian custom authorities, the Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory has performed analyses of confiscated material suspected of containing doping agents. Read More

    Cardiotoxicity in rabbits after long-term nandrolone decanoate administration.
    Toxicol Lett 2016 Jan 2;241:143-51. Epub 2015 Nov 2.
    Center of Toxicology Science & Research, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Electronic address:
    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids is linked to a variety of cardiovascular complications. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible cardiovascular effects of nandrolone decanoate on young rabbits using echocardiography, histology and monitoring of telomerase activity, oxidative stress and biochemical markers. Fourteen rabbits were divided into three administration groups and the control group. Read More

    Complementing the characterization of in vivo generated N-glucuronic acid conjugates of stanozolol by collision cross section computation and analysis.
    Drug Test Anal 2015 Nov-Dec;7(11-12):1050-6. Epub 2015 Oct 30.
    Center for Preventive Doping Research - Institute of Biochemistry, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933, Cologne, Germany.
    Detailed structural information on metabolites serving as target analytes in clinical, forensic, and sports drug testing programmes is of paramount importance to ensure unequivocal test results. In the present study, the utility of collision cross section (CCS) analysis by travelling wave ion mobility measurements to support drug metabolite characterization efforts was tested concerning recently identified glucuronic acid conjugates of the anabolic-androgenic steroid stanozolol. Employing travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, drift times of five synthetically derived and fully characterized steroid glucuronides were measured and subsequently correlated to respective CCSs as obtained in silico to form an analyte-tailored calibration curve. Read More

    Multiple Intussusceptions Associated with Polycythemia in an Anabolic Steroid Abuser, A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Ann Med Health Sci Res 2015 Sep-Oct;5(5):368-72
    Department of Gastroenterology, St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, USA.
    Intussusceptions are generally associated with mechanical lead points or localized inflammation that function as foci for intestinal telescoping. We present the case of a patient whose abuse of anabolic steroids resulted in the development of multiple simultaneous intussusceptions. Our patient had no additional identifiable risk factors for intussusception. Read More

    Sensitivity of GC-EI/MS, GC-EI/MS/MS, LC-ESI/MS/MS, LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS, and GC-ESI/MS/MS for analysis of anabolic steroids in doping control.
    Drug Test Anal 2015 Nov-Dec;7(11-12):1040-9. Epub 2015 Oct 21.
    Doping Control Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791, Korea.
    This study compared the sensitivity of various separation and ionization methods, including gas chromatography with an electron ionization source (GC-EI), liquid chromatography with an electrospray ionization source (LC-ESI), and liquid chromatography with a silver ion coordination ion spray source (LC-Ag(+) CIS), coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS) for steroid analysis. Chromatographic conditions, mass spectrometric transitions, and ion source parameters were optimized. The majority of steroids in GC-EI/MS/MS and LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS analysis showed higher sensitivities than those obtained with other analytical methods. Read More

    Analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids as sulfate conjugates using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.
    Drug Test Anal 2015 Nov-Dec;7(11-12):1030-9. Epub 2015 Oct 16.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory, Oslo, Norway.
    Improvements in doping analysis can be effected by speeding up analysis time and extending the detection time. Therefore, direct detection of phase II conjugates of doping agents, especially anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), is proposed. Besides direct detection of conjugates with glucuronic acid, the analysis of sulfate conjugates, which are usually not part of the routine doping control analysis, can be of high interest. Read More

    Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.
    AIDS Care 2016 30;28(3):294-9. Epub 2015 Sep 30.
    c Department of Emergency Medicine , Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medical Center , Santa Clara , CA , USA.
    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. Read More

    Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function.
    Front Neurosci 2015 26;9:295. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia Foggia, Italy.
    Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming androgen anabolic steroids (AAS). These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Read More

    Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2015 Sep;16(3):199-211
    Centre of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Rheumatology, Dortmund, Germany.
    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Read More

    Ruptured Tendons in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study.
    Am J Sports Med 2015 Nov 11;43(11):2638-44. Epub 2015 Sep 11.
    Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts, and Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Background: Accumulating case reports have described tendon rupture in men who use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However, no controlled study has assessed the history of tendon rupture in a large cohort of AAS users and comparison nonusers.

    Hypothesis: Men reporting long-term AAS abuse would report an elevated lifetime incidence of tendon rupture compared with non-AAS-using bodybuilders. Read More

    Success, Failure, and Unfinished Business of Education, Prevention, Policy, and Intervention Programs on Substance Misuse in Brazilian Sport.
    Subst Use Misuse 2015 ;50(8-9):1139-43
    a Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths , University of London , London , UK.
    The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Read More

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