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    The interaction effects of resistance training and sustanon abuse on liver antioxidant activities and serum enzymes in male rats.
    Interv Med Appl Sci 2017 Sep;9(3):178-183
    Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
    Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone, the uncontrolled usage of which may lead to serious side effects. Previous studies have shown that resistance training (RT) is the main exercise modality practiced by AAS abusers. Thus, this work was carried out to evaluate the hepatotoxic effects of sustanon (Su) as an example of AAS in trained male rats. Read More

    Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats.
    Braz J Med Biol Res 2017 Nov 17;51(1):e6388. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Laboratório de Neuropsicofarmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brasil.
    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Read More

    The role of hormones in muscle hypertrophy.
    Phys Sportsmed 2017 Nov 25:1-6. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    c Graduate Schools of Health and Sport Science , Nippon Sport Science University , Tokyo , Japan.
    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to increase muscle mass in patients suffering from various diseases related to muscle atrophy. Despite known side-effects associated with supraphysiologic doses of such drugs, their anabolic effects have led to their widespread use and abuse by bodybuilders and athletes such as strength athletes seeking to improve performance and muscle mass. On the other hand, resistance training (RT) has also been shown to induce significant endogenous hormonal (testosterone (T), GH, IGF-1) elevations. Read More

    Analysis of Elevated levels of Nandrolone Decanoate Induced Cytochrome-P450 Alterations in Mice.
    Drug Metab Lett 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam. India.
    Background: Frequent non-medicated use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is an instance of substance abuse which mimics the status of a natural hormone and upon prolonged exposure may lead to adverse drug reactions. These adverse drug reactions proceed in a manner so as to alter the normal metabolism of an enzyme mediated pathway such as the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of enzymes.

    Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of overuse of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND), an AAS, upon CYP enzyme activity and a CYP gene, belonging to CYP1 family. Read More

    Urine reference intervals for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) isoforms by immunoextraction-tandem mass spectrometry to detect hCG use.
    Drug Test Anal 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA Health System, Los Angeles, California.
    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulates testosterone production by the testicles and can normalize suppressed testosterone concentrations in males following prolonged anabolic steroid use. Because of the potential for abuse by males, hCG is on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of prohibited substances. The majority of WADA-accredited laboratories measure urinary hCG using an automated immunoassay. Read More

    Applicability of an innovative steroid-profiling method to determine synthetic growth promoter abuse in cattle.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 11 13;174:265-275. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    RIKILT Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 230, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    A robust LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify a large number of phase I and phase II steroids in urine. The decision limit is for most compounds lower than 1ngml-1 with a measurement uncertainty smaller than 30%. The method is fully validated and was applied to assess the influence of administered synthetic steroids and beta-agonists on the steroidogenesis. Read More

    Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in young individuals.
    Nat Rev Cardiol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Framingham Heart Study, 73 Mount Wayte Avenue, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702-5827, USA.
    In the past 2 decades, a high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as obesity, physical inactivity, and poor diet, has been observed among young individuals living in developed countries. The rate of substance abuse (opioids, cocaine, electronic cigarettes, and anabolic steroids) is also increasing among young adults, whereas cigarette smoking might be declining. Among younger individuals (aged 18-50 years), the incidence of cardiovascular diseases over the same time period has either been steady or has increased, in contrast to the trend towards a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in adults aged >50 years. Read More

    Long-term anabolic steroids in male bodybuilders induce cardiovascular structural and autonomic abnormalities.
    Clin Auton Res 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Biological and Natural Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.
    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the hypothesis that users of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) would have cardiac autonomic disorders and that there is a correlation between sympathetic modulation, high blood pressure (BP) and alterations to cardiac dimensions.

    Methods: Forty-five male subjects were enrolled in the study. They were categorized into three groups comprising bodybuilders actively using AAS (AAS users; n = 15), bodybuilders who had never used AAS (nonusers; n = 15) and age-paired healthy sedentary controls (n = 15). Read More

    Severe hypokalemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis occurring after binge eating in a young bodybuilder: Case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Oct;96(40):e8251
    aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Changwon Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Changwon-si bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital cDepartment of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University dInstitute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea.
    Rationale: Severe hypokalemia can be a potentially life-threatening disorder and is associated with variable degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.

    Patient Concerns: We report a case of severe hypokalemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis in a 28-year-old bodybuilder. He was admitted to the emergency room due to progressive paralysis in both lower extremities, which had begun 12 hours earlier. Read More

    The Role of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Disruption of the Physiological Function in Discrete Areas of the Central Nervous System.
    Mol Neurobiol 2017 Oct 2. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Forensic Pathology, University of Foggia, Ospedale Colonnello D'Avanzo, Foggia, Italy.
    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse is often associated with a wide spectrum of adverse effects. These drugs are frequently abused by adolescents and athletes for esthetic purposes, as well as for improvement of their endurance and performances. In this literature review, we evaluated the correlation between AAS and anxiety or aggression. Read More

    Increased blood pressure and aortic stiffness among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids: potential effect of suppressed natriuretic peptides in plasma?
    J Hypertens 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    aCentre of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine bDepartment of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Herlev and Gentofte cDepartment of Clinical Physiology, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Rigshospitalet and Glostrup dDepartment of Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Herlev and Gentofte eDepartment of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Rigshospitalet and Glostrup fInstitute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP-homeostasis in AAS abusers.

    Objective: To investigate BP and aortic stiffness in relation to natriuretic peptides among current AAS abusers, former AAS abusers and controls. Read More

    Sexual orientation, bullying for being labeled gay or bisexual, and steroid use among US adolescent boys.
    J Health Psychol 2017 Feb 1:1359105317692144. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Texas Tech University, USA.
    Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids is a public health concern for adolescent boys. This study examined bullying based on being labeled gay/bisexual and steroid use among US adolescent boys, including sexual orientation disparities. Data from 2660 boys from the 2015 Youth Behavior Risk Survey were used. Read More

    Advanced methods for analysis of testosterone.
    Curr Med Chem 2017 Jul 24. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Laboratory of Electrochemistry and PATLAB, National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., 060021, Bucharest-6. Romania.
    Testosterone is the principal endogenous androgenic-anabolic steroid in humans. The levels of testosterone in the human body are correlated with many hormonal disorders (hypogonadism, impotence, etc) mostly in men, and with many types of diseases such as: prostate cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and so on. Testosterone is extensively used among sportsmen willing to increase strength, aggressiveness, and recovery; making it the most commonly reported substance in steroid abuse. Read More

    Information sought, information shared: exploring performance and image enhancing drug user-facilitated harm reduction information in online forums.
    Harm Reduct J 2017 Jul 21;14(1):48. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background: There is good evidence to suggest that performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) use is increasing in Australia and that there is an increase in those using PIEDs who have never used another illicit substance. Peers have always been an important source of information in this group, though the rise of the Internet, and the increased use of Internet forums amongst substance consumers to share harm reduction information, means that PIED users may have access to a large array of views and opinions. The aim of this study was to explore the type of information that PIED users seek and share on these forums. Read More

    Differential protein expression profile in the hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line after exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(7):e0180409. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico, United States of America.
    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been considered a major public health problem during decades. Supraphysiological doses of AAS may lead to a variety of neuroendocrine problems. Precisely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is one of the body systems that is mainly influenced by steroidal hormones. Read More

    Do anabolic-androgenic steroids have performance-enhancing effects in female athletes?
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Section of Men's Health: Aging and Metabolism, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Doping with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is common among both male and female athletes and is a growing public health problem. Review of historical data of systematic state-sponsored doping programs implemented by the German Democratic Republic in elite female athletes and from clinical trials of testosterone administration in non-athlete women suggests that AAS have ergogenic effects in women. The use of AAS in female athletes has been associated with adverse effects that include acne, hirsutism, deepening of the voice and menstrual disturbances; life-threatening adverse effects such as cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death have also been reported. Read More

    Synchronous solid pseudopapillary tumor and insulinoma in an adolescent MEN1 patient presenting with diagnostic dilemmas.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Jun 30. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and anterior pituitary adenomas. A 16-year-old male presented to the emergency outpatient clinic with tonic convulsions. Physical examination in the postconvulsive period was unremarkable and revealed a muscular, postpubertal adolescent. Read More

    Adverse health effects of androgen use.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Research Program in Men's Health: Aging and Metabolism, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are performance enhancing drugs commonly used by athletes and bodybuilders to improve appearance and athletic capability. Unfortunately, these testosterone derivatives can be associated with serious and potentially irreversible side effects, and can impact multiple organ systems. It is important that physicians be familiar with these adverse consequences so that they can appropriately counsel patients whom they suspect of AAS-abuse. Read More

    The role of neuropeptide-Y in nandrolone decanoate-induced attenuation of antidepressant effect of exercise.
    PLoS One 2017 5;12(6):e0178922. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac, Serbia.
    Since the increased prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse in last few decades is usually accompanied by various exercise protocols, the scope of our study was to evaluate the effects of chronic nandrolone decanoate administration in supraphysiological dose and a prolonged swimming protocol (alone and simultaneously with nandrolone decanoate) on depressive state in male rats. Simultaneously, we investigated the possible alterations in neuropeptide Y (NPY) content in blood and the hippocampus, in order to determine the role of NPY in the modulation of depressive-like behavior.Exercise induced antidepressant effects in tail suspension test (decrease of the total duration of immobility), as well as significant increase in the number of hippocampal NPY-interneurons in CA1 region. Read More

    Cardiovascular Toxicity of Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use.
    Circulation 2017 May;135(21):1991-2002
    From Cardiovascular Performance Program, Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (A.L.B., R.B.W.); Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (A.L.B., R.B.W.); Biological Psychiatry Laboratory and Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA (G.K., J.I.H., H.G.P.); Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (G.K., J.I.H., H.G.P.); Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston (M.T.L., U.H.).
    Background: Millions of individuals have used illicit anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), but the long-term cardiovascular associations of these drugs remain incompletely understood.

    Methods: Using a cross-sectional cohort design, we recruited 140 experienced male weightlifters 34 to 54 years of age, comprising 86 men reporting ≥2 years of cumulative lifetime AAS use and 54 nonusing men. Using transthoracic echocardiography and coronary computed tomography angiography, we assessed 3 primary outcome measures: left ventricular (LV) systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction), LV diastolic function (early relaxation velocity), and coronary atherosclerosis (coronary artery plaque volume). Read More

    High-dose testosterone enanthate supplementation boosts oxidative stress, but exerts little effect on the antioxidant barrier in sedentary adolescent male rat liver.
    Pharmacol Rep 2017 Aug 11;69(4):673-678. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland.
    Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse is on the rise among adolescent boys and young men, mostly in those seeking a 'shortcut' to an improved body image. This approach is associated with the risk of severe adverse health effects, some of which involve the liver and are linked to hepatic oxidative stress. Testosterone and its esters is a cornerstone of most anabolic-androgenic steroid stacking protocols. Read More

    Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Sep 8;87(3):249-256. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Herlev and Gentofte, Denmark.
    Objective: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls.

    Design: Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Read More

    Muscle dysmorphia: detection of the use-abuse of anabolic adrogenic steroids in a Spanish sample.
    Adicciones 2017 Jul 14;0(0):853. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. Facultad de Educación. Departamento de Educación Física.
    Debido a una distorsión en la imagen corporal, las personas que padecen Dismorfia Muscular se perciben menos musculosas de lo que son en realidad. Con el fin de aumentar su musculatura, algunas de estas personas hacen uso de hormonas cuya función principal es la del aumento del tamaño muscular. Por lo que el objetivo de este estudio es conocer la prevalencia del uso de hormonas en personas afectadas por Dismorfia Muscular. Read More

    Ventricular androgenic-anabolic steroid-related remodeling: an immunohistochemical study.
    Int J Legal Med 2017 Nov 21;131(6):1589-1595. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Medicine and Surgery, Via Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy.
    Background: Several fatal cases of bodybuilders, following a myocardial infarction after long exposure to androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS), are reported. In recent years, evidence has emerged of cases of heart failure related to AAS consumption, with no signs of coronary or aorta atherosclerosis. This study aims to further investigate the pathogenesis of the ventricular AAS-related remodeling performing immunohistochemistry (IHC). Read More

    Somatic effects of AAS abuse: A 30-years follow-up study of male former power sports athletes.
    J Sci Med Sport 2017 Sep 21;20(9):814-818. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between somatic health and former abuse of AAS in former elite male athletes 30 years after the end of their active sports career.

    Design: Retrospective follow-up study.

    Methods: N=996 former elite male athletes were sent a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic variables, previous and past sport activity and lifetime prevalence of seeking professional help for health problems. Read More

    Hepatotoxicity associated with illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids in doping.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 Mar;21(1 Suppl):7-16
    Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Drug Abuse and Doping Unit, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) abuse and misuse is nowadays a harmful habit involving both professional or recreational athletes, as well as general population. AAS are also frequently present in over-the-counter dietary supplements without being declared in the list of ingredients, leaving consumers unaware of the risks of adverse effects. Indeed, health risks of AAS consumption in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary complements seem still underestimated and under-reported. Read More

    Abuse of anabolic agents in beef cattle: Could bile be a possible alternative matrix?
    Food Chem 2017 Aug 15;229:188-197. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Umbria e delle Marche, Via G. Salvemini 1, I-06126 Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:
    European Union prohibited the use of anabolic agents in food producing animals since 1988. An efficient control of abuses is guaranteed not only by highly performing analytical methods, but also by knowledge of metabolic pathways, kinetics of elimination and tissue distribution. To obtain data concerning metabolites production and accumulation in bile, two typical growth promoting treatments are carried out in cattle. Read More

    Alterations of the oxidative status in rat hippocampus and prodepressant effect of chronic testosterone enanthate administration.
    Mol Cell Biochem 2017 Sep 24;433(1-2):41-50. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovica 69, 34000, Kragujevac, Serbia.
    In a last few decades, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) abuse has become serious health concern especially among adolescents. AASs abuse has been reported to be involved in pathogenesis of various mood disorders, including depression. In order to evaluate the effects of chronic (6 weeks) testosterone enanthate (TE) treatment in supraphysiological dose and exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, 32 male rats were divided into four groups: control (C), testosterone enanthate (T, 20 mg/kg/w, s. Read More

    Identification and characterization of novel long-term metabolites of oxymesterone and mesterolone in human urine by application of selected reaction monitoring GC-CI-MS/MS.
    Drug Test Anal 2017 Mar 11. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Doping Control Laboratory, Ghent University, Technologiepark 30 B, B-9052, Zwijnaarde, Belgium.
    The search for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task in, for example, toxicology and doping control. The impact of these long-term metabolites is highlighted by the high number of positive cases after reanalysis of samples that were stored for several years, e.g. Read More

    Tubulointerstitial Injury and Drugs of Abuse.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 03;24(2):80-85
    Department of Nephrology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH; and Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
    Drug abuse is widespread in many populations, and patients abusing illicit substances are at a significantly increased risk of kidney injury. The tubulointerstitial compartment is a common target of these nephrotoxic agents. This review will cover some of the common illicit drugs and will focus on the tubulointerstitial injuries seen in the setting of drug abuse. Read More

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and abuse of anabolic steroids.
    J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Feb 20;43(1):57-60. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dentistry, General Hospital of Siena, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. Read More

    Effects of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids on the Reproductive System of Athletes and Recreational Users: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Sports Med 2017 Sep;47(9):1869-1883
    Department of Endocrinology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Background: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are testosterone derivatives used by athletes and recreational users to improve athletic performance and/or enhance appearance. Anabolic androgenic steroids use may have serious and potentially irreversible adverse effects on different organs and systems, including the reproductive system.

    Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically assess the impact of AAS use on the reproductive system of athletes and recreational users. Read More

    History and epidemiology of anabolic androgens in athletes and non-athletes.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    From the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    The use of androgens, frequently referred to as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), has grown into a worldwide substance abuse problem over the last several decades. Testosterone was isolated in the 1930s, and numerous synthetic androgens were quickly developed thereafter. Athletes soon discovered the dramatic anabolic effects of these hormones, and AAS spread rapidly through elite athletics and bodybuilding from the 1950s through the 1970s. Read More

    Detection and quantification of 12 anabolic steroids and analogs in human whole blood and 20 in hair using LC-HRMS/MS: application to real cases.
    Int J Legal Med 2017 Jul 24;131(4):989-999. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    MassSpecLab, Plateforme de Spectrométrie de Masse, UFR des Sciences de la Santé Simone Veil, Université Versailles Saint-Quentin, 2 Avenue de la Source de la Bièvre, 78180, Montigny le Bretonneux, France.
    We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method used a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer operating with an APCI probe under positive ionization mode. Analysis was realized in full scan experiment with a nominal resolving power of 140,000. Read More

    Long-term treatment with Nandrolone Decanoate impairs mesenteric vascular relaxation in both sedentary and exercised female rats.
    Steroids 2017 Apr 10;120:7-18. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo, Brazil.
    Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) is an Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) that under abusive regimen can lead to multiple physiological adverse effects. Studies of AAS-mediated cardiovascular (CV) alterations were mostly taken from male subjects, even though women are also susceptible to the effects of AAS and gender-specific differences in susceptibility to vascular diseases exist. Here we investigate ND-induced vascular reactivity alterations in both sedentary and exercised female rats and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors. Read More

    Strategies that athletes use to avoid detection of androgenic-anabolic steroid doping and sanctions.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:
    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are potent and widely used performance-enhancing substances (PES). Since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began testing athletes for AAS in the 1970s, athletes and their teams have endeavored to beat the system to avoid doping violations and/or sanctions derived from positive test results. This review will discuss the strategies used to avoid detection based on the pharmacology, biochemistry, and genetics of AAS metabolism and testing principles. Read More

    Detection of stanozolol in the urine of athletes at a pg level: The possibility of passive exposure.
    Biomed Rep 2016 Dec 27;5(6):665-666. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. Read More

    Challenges in detecting substances for equine anti-doping.
    Drug Test Anal 2017 Sep 5;9(9):1291-1303. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Doping Control Laboratory of Athens, Olympic Athletic Center of Athens 'Spyros Louis', 37 Kifisias Avenue, 15123, Maroussi, Greece.
    The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well known in racing and other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. Read More

    Semiquantitative immunohistochemical detection of progesterone receptors in male accessory sex glands as a screening assay for anabolic steroid use in bulls.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Jan;29(1):35-40
    Histopathology Department (Zanardello, Vascellari), Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Legnaro, Padua, Italy.
    We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of progesterone receptors (PRs) in the prostate and bulbourethral glands of thirty-two 10-14-mo-old Charolais bulls following treatment with a low dosage of estrogens. Animals were divided into 2 groups: 16 animals (group T) were treated for 71 d with a therapeutic dose of trenbolone acetate and estradiol by subcutaneous implant, 16 animals (group C) received no treatment. Urine samples were collected both at the beginning of the trial and 9 times during the study. Read More

    Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys: Disparities by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity.
    Am J Public Health 2017 Feb 20;107(2):319-321. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Aaron J. Blashill and Jerel P. Calzo are with San Diego State University, San Diego, CA. Scott Griffiths is with University of Canberra, Bruce, Canberra, Australia. Stuart B. Murray is with University of California, San Francisco.
    Objectives: To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity.

    Methods: We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Read More

    Effectiveness and implementation of a community-based prevention programme targeting anabolic androgenic steroid use in gyms: study protocol of a quasi-experimental control group study.
    BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2016 17;8:36. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, STAD, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: During the past decades, concerns about increased anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among recreational sportspeople have been raised, yet there is a paucity of AAS prevention efforts targeting this group. Accordingly, doping prevention efforts aimed at gyms have been recommended. The overall objective of the present project is to examine a prevention programme named 100% Pure Hard Training (100% PHT), which targets AAS use among recreational sportspeople training in gyms. Read More

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function.
    Pharmacol Res 2017 Jan 24;115:209-217. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Centre of Excellence "Neurobiology of Dependence", University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, SS 554 Km 4,500, 09042 Monserrato, CA, Italy; CNR Institute of Neuroscience-Cagliari, National Research Council, Italy. Electronic address:
    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12. Read More

    Effect of Administration of Nandrolone Decanoate upon Aldosterone Concentration and Serum Na+/K+ Levels in Albino Mice.
    Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2017 ;14(3):160-166
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Cotton College, Guwahati, Assam, India.
    Background: This article is a study of adverse effects associated with the abuse of recreational drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids. Nandrolone decanoate is one such drug often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking enhanced physical strength or appearance. The use of such steroids has increased dramatically over the years. Read More

    A novel HPLC-MRM strategy to discover unknown and long-term metabolites of stanozolol for expanding analytical possibilities in doping-control.
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Jan 8;1040:250-259. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, PR China. Electronic address:
    Stanozolol is one of the most commonly abused anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) by athletes and usually detected by its parent drug and major metabolites. However, its metabolic pathway is complex, varied and individually different, it is important to characterize its overall metabolic profiles and discover new and long-term metabolites for the aims of expanding detection windows. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the human urine after oral administration of stanozolol. Read More

    Analytical strategies to detect enobosarm administration in bovines.
    Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2017 Apr 28;34(4):632-640. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    a LaBoratoire d'Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA) , Oniris , Nantes , France.
    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of androgen receptor ligands. They are intended to exhibit the same kind of effects as androgenic drugs, like anabolic steroids, but be much more selective in their action, targeting particular tissues without any undesirable effects on others. While the main applications of these synthetic substances are for therapeutic purposes, they also have a high potential for misuse in veterinary practice and the sporting world. Read More

    The Prevalence and Characteristics of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use Among Bodybuilding Athletes in the South of Iran, Bushehr.
    Asian J Sports Med 2016 Sep 16;7(3):e35018. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
    Department of Pharmacology, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran.
    Background: Several reports have implied progressive increase of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use among Iranian athletes. More importantly, most of the previous research in the Iranian population had mainly focused on the anabolic steroid abuse, and ignored other agents.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PED use among bodybuilding athletes in Bushehr, south of Iran. Read More

    Non-allowed Pharmacologically Active Substances in Physical and Sexual Performance Enhancing Products.
    Curr Neuropharmacol 2017 ;15(5):724-730
    Drug Abuse and Doping Unit, Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome. Italy.
    Background: Recently, a large amount of physical and sexual performance enhancing products have started to be freely sold mainly on internet web sites as dietary supplements. However, there a high suspicion that pharmacologically active substance, prohibited in these products, can be present to provide the expected effect.

    Methods: A simple and rapid systematic toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been applied after a liquidliquid extraction at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1 v/v). Read More

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