Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.
Minerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
Centre of Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, University Hospital Münster, Muenster, Germany -
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. Read More