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    1342 results match your criteria Anabolic Steroid Use and Abuse

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    Ventricular androgenic-anabolic steroid-related remodeling: an immunohistochemical study.
    Int J Legal Med 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Department of Medicine and Surgery, Via Gramsci 14, 43126, Parma, Italy.
    Background: Several fatal cases of bodybuilders, following a myocardial infarction after long exposure to androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS), are reported. In recent years, evidence has emerged of cases of heart failure related to AAS consumption, with no signs of coronary or aorta atherosclerosis. This study aims to further investigate the pathogenesis of the ventricular AAS-related remodeling performing immunohistochemistry (IHC). Read More

    Somatic effects of AAS abuse: A 30-years follow-up study of male former power sports athletes.
    J Sci Med Sport 2017 Mar 21. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between somatic health and former abuse of AAS in former elite male athletes 30 years after the end of their active sports career.

    Design: Retrospective follow-up study.

    Methods: N=996 former elite male athletes were sent a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic variables, previous and past sport activity and lifetime prevalence of seeking professional help for health problems. Read More

    Hepatotoxicity associated with illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids in doping.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2017 Mar;21(1 Suppl):7-16
    Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Drug Abuse and Doping Unit, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) abuse and misuse is nowadays a harmful habit involving both professional or recreational athletes, as well as general population. AAS are also frequently present in over-the-counter dietary supplements without being declared in the list of ingredients, leaving consumers unaware of the risks of adverse effects. Indeed, health risks of AAS consumption in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary complements seem still underestimated and under-reported. Read More

    Alterations of the oxidative status in rat hippocampus and prodepressant effect of chronic testosterone enanthate administration.
    Mol Cell Biochem 2017 Mar 24. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovica 69, 34000, Kragujevac, Serbia.
    In a last few decades, anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) abuse has become serious health concern especially among adolescents. AASs abuse has been reported to be involved in pathogenesis of various mood disorders, including depression. In order to evaluate the effects of chronic (6 weeks) testosterone enanthate (TE) treatment in supraphysiological dose and exercise on depression-like behavior in rats, 32 male rats were divided into four groups: control (C), testosterone enanthate (T, 20 mg/kg/w, s. Read More

    Identification and characterization of novel long term metabolites of oxymesterone and mesterolone in human urine by application of SRM GC-CI-MS/MS.
    Drug Test Anal 2017 Mar 11. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Doping Control Laboratory, Ghent University, Zwijnaarde, Belgium.
    The search for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task in for example toxicology and doping control. The impact of these long term metabolites is highlighted by the high number of positive cases after reanalysis of samples that were stored for several years, e.g. Read More

    Tubulointerstitial Injury and Drugs of Abuse.
    Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2017 Mar;24(2):80-85
    Department of Nephrology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH; and Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
    Drug abuse is widespread in many populations, and patients abusing illicit substances are at a significantly increased risk of kidney injury. The tubulointerstitial compartment is a common target of these nephrotoxic agents. This review will cover some of the common illicit drugs and will focus on the tubulointerstitial injuries seen in the setting of drug abuse. Read More

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and abuse of anabolic steroids.
    J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Feb 20;43(1):57-60. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dentistry, General Hospital of Siena, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. Read More

    Effects of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids on the Reproductive System of Athletes and Recreational Users: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Sports Med 2017 Mar 4. Epub 2017 Mar 4.
    Department of Endocrinology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.
    Background: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are testosterone derivatives used by athletes and recreational users to improve athletic performance and/or enhance appearance. Anabolic androgenic steroids use may have serious and potentially irreversible adverse effects on different organs and systems, including the reproductive system.

    Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically assess the impact of AAS use on the reproductive system of athletes and recreational users. Read More

    History and epidemiology of anabolic androgens in athletes and non-athletes.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Mar 1. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    From the Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    The use of androgens, frequently referred to as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), has grown into a worldwide substance abuse problem over the last several decades. Testosterone was isolated in the 1930s, and numerous synthetic androgens were quickly developed thereafter. Athletes soon discovered the dramatic anabolic effects of these hormones, and AAS spread rapidly through elite athletics and bodybuilding from the 1950s through the 1970s. Read More

    Long-term treatment with Nandrolone Decanoate impairs mesenteric vascular relaxation in both sedentary and exercised female rats.
    Steroids 2017 Apr 10;120:7-18. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo, Brazil.
    Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) is an Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) that under abusive regimen can lead to multiple physiological adverse effects. Studies of AAS-mediated cardiovascular (CV) alterations were mostly taken from male subjects, even though women are also susceptible to the effects of AAS and gender-specific differences in susceptibility to vascular diseases exist. Here we investigate ND-induced vascular reactivity alterations in both sedentary and exercised female rats and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors. Read More

    Strategies that athletes use to avoid detection of androgenic-anabolic steroid doping and sanctions.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:
    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are potent and widely used performance-enhancing substances (PES). Since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began testing athletes for AAS in the 1970s, athletes and their teams have endeavored to beat the system to avoid doping violations and/or sanctions derived from positive test results. This review will discuss the strategies used to avoid detection based on the pharmacology, biochemistry, and genetics of AAS metabolism and testing principles. Read More

    Detection of stanozolol in the urine of athletes at a pg level: The possibility of passive exposure.
    Biomed Rep 2016 Dec 27;5(6):665-666. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Greece.
    Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. Read More

    Challenges in detecting substances for equine anti-doping.
    Drug Test Anal 2017 Jan 14. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Doping Control Laboratory of Athens, Olympic Athletic Center of Athens 'Spyros Louis', 37 Kifisias Avenue, 15123, Maroussi, Greece.
    The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well known in racing and other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. Read More

    Effectiveness and implementation of a community-based prevention programme targeting anabolic androgenic steroid use in gyms: study protocol of a quasi-experimental control group study.
    BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2016 17;8:36. Epub 2016 Nov 17.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, STAD, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: During the past decades, concerns about increased anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among recreational sportspeople have been raised, yet there is a paucity of AAS prevention efforts targeting this group. Accordingly, doping prevention efforts aimed at gyms have been recommended. The overall objective of the present project is to examine a prevention programme named 100% Pure Hard Training (100% PHT), which targets AAS use among recreational sportspeople training in gyms. Read More

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function.
    Pharmacol Res 2017 Jan 24;115:209-217. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Centre of Excellence "Neurobiology of Dependence", University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, SS 554 Km 4,500, 09042 Monserrato, CA, Italy; CNR Institute of Neuroscience-Cagliari, National Research Council, Italy. Electronic address:
    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12. Read More

    Effect of supraphysiological doses of Nandrolone Decanoate upon Aldosterone concentration and serum Na+/K+ levels in albino mice.
    Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 2016 Nov 21. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam, India.
    Background: This article is a study of adverse effects associated with the abuse of recreational drugs such as Anabolic Androgenic Steroids. Nandrolone Decanoate is one such drug often abused by athletes and bodybuilders seeking enhanced physical strength or appearance. The use of such steroids has increased dramatically over the years. Read More

    A novel HPLC-MRM strategy to discover unknown and long-term metabolites of stanozolol for expanding analytical possibilities in doping-control.
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Jan 8;1040:250-259. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, PR China. Electronic address:
    Stanozolol is one of the most commonly abused anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) by athletes and usually detected by its parent drug and major metabolites. However, its metabolic pathway is complex, varied and individually different, it is important to characterize its overall metabolic profiles and discover new and long-term metabolites for the aims of expanding detection windows. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the human urine after oral administration of stanozolol. Read More

    Analytical strategies to detect enobosarm administration in bovines.
    Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2017 Apr 28;34(4):632-640. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    a LaBoratoire d'Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA) , Oniris , Nantes , France.
    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a novel class of androgen receptor ligands. They are intended to exhibit the same kind of effects as androgenic drugs, like anabolic steroids, but be much more selective in their action, targeting particular tissues without any undesirable effects on others. While the main applications of these synthetic substances are for therapeutic purposes, they also have a high potential for misuse in veterinary practice and the sporting world. Read More

    The Prevalence and Characteristics of Performance-Enhancing Drug Use Among Bodybuilding Athletes in the South of Iran, Bushehr.
    Asian J Sports Med 2016 Sep 16;7(3):e35018. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
    Department of Pharmacology, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, IR Iran.
    Background: Several reports have implied progressive increase of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use among Iranian athletes. More importantly, most of the previous research in the Iranian population had mainly focused on the anabolic steroid abuse, and ignored other agents.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PED use among bodybuilding athletes in Bushehr, south of Iran. Read More

    Non-allowed pharmacologically active substances in physical and sexual performance enhancing products.
    Curr Neuropharmacol 2016 Oct 28. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Drug Abuse and Doping Unit, Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.
    Recently, a large amount of physical and sexual performance enhancing products have started to be freely sold mainly on internet web sites as dietary supplements. However, there a high suspicion that pharmacologically active substance, prohibited in these products, can be present to provide the expected effect. A simple and rapid systematic toxicological analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1 v/v). Read More

    Longitudinal evaluation of the isotope ratio mass spectrometric data: towards the 'isotopic module' of the athlete biological passport?
    Drug Test Anal 2016 Nov 11;8(11-12):1212-1221. Epub 2016 Nov 11.
    Laboratorio Antidoping FMSI, Largo Onesti 1, 00197, Rome, Italy.
    The detection of the abuse of pseudo-endogenous steroids (testosterone and/or its precursors) is currently based on the application of the steroid module of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Athletes' Biological Passport (ABP), implemented through ADAMS. Diagnostic metabolites are monitored for every athlete and statistically evaluated with a predictive Bayesian approach. In the case of suspicious samples, the data of the ABP are confirmed and the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) test is activated. Read More

    A review of designer anabolic steroids in equine sports.
    Drug Test Anal 2016 Oct 12. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
    Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    In recent years, the potential for anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports has increased due to the growing availability of designer steroids. These compounds are readily accessible online in 'dietary' or 'nutritional' supplements and contain steroidal compounds which have never been tested or approved as veterinary agents. They typically have unusual structures or substitution and as a result may pass undetected through current anti-doping screening protocols, making them a significant concern for the integrity of the industry. Read More

    Selective androgen receptor modulators: comparative excretion study of bicalutamide in bovine urine and faeces.
    Drug Test Anal 2016 Oct 11. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d'Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Nantes, France.
    Besides their development for therapeutic purposes, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (non-steroidal SARMs) are also known to impact growth-associated pathways as ligands of androgenic receptors (AR). They present a potential for abuse in sports and food-producing animals as an interesting alternative to anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). These compounds are easily available and could therefore be (mis)used in livestock production as growth promoters. Read More

    Structural Brain Imaging of Long-Term Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users and Nonusing Weightlifters.
    Biol Psychiatry 2016 Jun 30. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Prolonged high-dose anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been associated with psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits, yet we have almost no knowledge of the long-term consequences of AAS use on the brain. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between long-term AAS exposure and brain morphometry, including subcortical neuroanatomical volumes and regional cortical thickness.

    Methods: Male AAS users and weightlifters with no experience with AASs or any other equivalent doping substances underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain. Read More

    Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.
    PLoS One 2016 17;11(8):e0161208. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.
    Aims: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers.

    Methods: This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2. Read More

    C-H Acetoxylation-Based Chemical Synthesis of 17 β-Hydroxymethyl-17 α-methyl-18-norandrost-13-ene Steroids.
    Chemistry 2016 Sep 17;22(40):14171-4. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Kuprevich str., 5/2, 220141, Minsk, Belarus.
    Palladium-catalyzed C-H acetoxylation has been proposed as a key transformation in the first chemical synthesis of steroids bearing a unique 17β-hydroxymethyl-17α-methyl-18-nor-13-ene D-fragment. This C-H functionalization step was crucial for inverting the configuration at the quaternary stereocenter of a readily available synthetic intermediate. The developed approach was applied to prepare the metandienone metabolite needed as a reference substance in anti-doping analysis to control the abuse of this androgenic anabolic steroid. Read More

    A screening and determinative method for the analysis of natural and synthetic steroids, stilbenes and resorcyclic acid lactones in bovine urine.
    Drug Test Anal 2016 May;8(5-6):448-57
    Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Saskatoon Laboratory, Saskatoon, Canada.
    Our laboratory has four separate methods for the analysis of trenbolone, stilbenes, resorcyclic acid lactones, and estradiol in bovine urine. The method described in this paper was in response to a client request to consolidate the methods preferably into one method. A multiresidue semi-quantitative method was developed and any suspect positive samples detected by the method were subjected to the method of standard addition to accurately quantify the concentration of the positive analyte. Read More

    Analysis of sulfate metabolites of the doping agents oxandrolone and danazol using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2016 Sep 17;1029-1030:1-9. Epub 2016 Jun 17.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norwegian Doping Control Laboratory, Oslo, Norway; University of Münster, Institute of Food Chemistry, Münster, Germany.
    The direct detection of sulfate conjugates of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can be a powerful tool in doping control analysis. By skipping the solvolysis step analysis time can be reduced, and due to long term sulfate metabolites the detection time can be significantly extended as demonstrated for some AAS. This study presents the successful identification of sulfate metabolites of the doping agents oxandrolone and danazol in excretion urines by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Read More

    Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity.
    Med Hypotheses 2016 Aug 5;93:150-3. Epub 2016 Jun 5.
    Muscle and Sports Science, Kairostraat 22, 8400 Oostende, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused for decades by both professional and amateur athletes in order to improve physical performance or muscle mass. AAS abuse can cause adverse effects, among which are hepatotoxic effects. These effects include cholestatic icterus and possibly peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular carcinoma or adenoma. Read More

    Pulmonary hemorrhage following anabolic agent abuse: Two cases.
    Respir Med Case Rep 2016 13;18:45-7. Epub 2016 Apr 13.
    Department of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Aarhus University Hospital, Noerrebrogade 44, DK-8000, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Numerous adverse effects follow anabolic agent abuse. Pulmonary hemorrhage is not considered one of them. We present two cases of young male bodybuilders who developed diffuse alveolar bleeding as a result of anabolic steroid abuse. Read More

    Chronic administration of nandrolone increases susceptibility to morphine dependence without correlation with LVV-hemorphin 7 in rats.
    Neuropeptides 2016 Oct 26;59:63-69. Epub 2016 May 26.
    Department of Anesthesiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Anesthesiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:
    LVV-hemorphin 7 (LVVYPWTQRF; LVV-H7), an N-terminal fragment of the β-chain of hemoglobin cleaved by cathepsin D/pepsin, is an atypical endogenous opioid peptide that is found in high concentration in blood. LVV-H7 acts as a μ-opioid agonist and an inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. Subchronic administration of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been clinically proven to induce the synthesis of erythrocytes and increase hemoglobin concentrations. Read More

    Understanding alterations on blood and biochemical parameters in athletes that use dietary supplements, steroids and illicit drugs.
    Toxicology 2017 Feb 24;376:75-82. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    In recent years it was verified there are an alarming growing number of teenagers and young adults using a combination of dietary supplements (DS) anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and drugs of abuse. This practice is used to improve physical fitness and appearance, may cause serious side effects. This article shows the alterations in the hematological and renal function parameters associate with these substances in 40 athletes. Read More

    Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.
    J Chromatogr A 2016 Jun 3;1451:145-55. Epub 2016 May 3.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Boulevard d'Yvoy 20, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Read More

    Acute myocardial infarction in a young bodybuilder taking anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and critical review of the literature.
    Eur J Prev Cardiol 2016 Nov 16;23(16):1785-1796. Epub 2016 May 16.
    First Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece.
    We describe a case report of a 30-year-old bodybuilder suffering acute myocardial infarction (AMI). He had been taking stanozolol and testosterone for two months. The coronary angiogram showed high thrombotic burden in the left anterior descending artery without underlying atherosclerosis. Read More

    The use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry to demonstrate progesterone treatment in bovines.
    J Chromatogr A 2016 Jun 29;1449:129-40. Epub 2016 Apr 29.
    LUNAM Université, Oniris, Laboratoire d'Etude des Résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), F-44307 Nantes, France.
    Currently, no analytical method is available to demonstrate progesterone administration in biological samples collected in rearing animals, and therefore, tracking the abuse of this popular growth promoter is arduous. In this study, a method is presented to reveal progesterone (PG) treatment on the basis of carbon isotope measurement of 5β-pregnane-3α, 20α-diol (BAA-PD), a major PG metabolite excreted in bovine urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-MS/C/IRMS). 5-Androstene-3β,17α-diol (AEdiol) is used as endogenous reference compound. Read More

    The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.
    Brain Res Bull 2016 Sep 5;126(Pt 1):127-137. Epub 2016 May 5.
    The Beijer Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Biological Research on Drug Dependence, BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. Read More

    Effect of supraphysiological dose of Nandrolone Decanoate on the testis and testosterone concentration in mature and immature male rats: A time course study.
    Int J Reprod Biomed (Yazd) 2015 Dec;13(12):779-86
    Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.
    Background: Most studies on anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse have been done in adult rats, but few data are available to immature.

    Objective: This study was conducted to assay the effect of Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) on the testis and testosterone concentration in male immature rats compare with mature ones in short and long time.

    Materials And Methods: 40 mature rats were divided into 4 groups: group A (short term) and group B (long-term) received 10 mg/kg/day ND interaperitoneally for 35 and 70 days, respectively. Read More

    Emerging trends in consuming behaviours for non-controlled substances by Italian urban youth: a cross sectional study.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2016 ;52(1):104-13
    Dipartimento del Farmaco, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Introduction: We investigated emerging trends in consuming behaviours for non-controlled substances in a cross sectional study on urban Italian adolescents and young adults, the reasons for consumption and risk perception as function of age, the relation with lifestyles and finally risk factors associated.

    Methods: The survey methodology involved the administration of an anonymous questionnaire. It consisted of 68 questions, divided into five sections: personal details, socioeconomic characteristics, family and peer group, free time and lifestyles, and substances use. Read More

    Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.
    PLoS One 2016 21;11(3):e0151860. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
    Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Read More

    In vivo and in vitro metabolism of the designer anabolic steroid furazadrol in thoroughbred racehorses.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 May 26;124:198-206. Epub 2016 Feb 26.
    Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia. Electronic address:
    Furazadrol ([1',2']isoxazolo[4',5':2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol) is a designer anabolic androgenic steroid that is readily available via the internet. It contains an isoxazole fused to the steroid A-ring which offers metabolic stability and noteworthy anabolic activity raising concerns over the potential for abuse of this compound in equine sports. The metabolism of furazadrol was studied by in vivo and in vitro methods for the first time. Read More

    Recruitment to doping and help-seeking behavior of eight female AAS users.
    Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2016 Mar 5;11:11. Epub 2016 Mar 5.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids in sports has now developed to a widespread use of these agents among young people outside the sport. This is of major concern to the society. The purpose of the use is mainly for aesthetic reasons and is seen as a male phenomenon. Read More

    Acute myocardial infarction in a young male wrestler: A case report.
    ARYA Atheroscler 2015 Nov;11(6):366-9
    Cardiologist, Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center AND Department of Cardiovascular, School of Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Background: Anabolic steroids have been widely used in recent years. It could adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Non-traditional risk factors for coronary heart diseases (CHDs) have raised great concern. Read More

    Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.
    Basic Clin Androl 2016 6;26. Epub 2016 Feb 6.
    Urology Department of Brabois University Hospital, CHU de Nancy, Allée du Morvan, 54511 Vandœuvre les Nancy, France.
    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Read More

    The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors.
    Iran J Public Health 2015 Dec;44(12):1662-9
    Sports Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Dept. of Sports and Exercise Medicine, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Read More

    Heavy Testosterone Use Among Bodybuilders: An Uncommon Cohort of Illicit Substance Users.
    Mayo Clin Proc 2016 Feb 5;91(2):175-82. Epub 2016 Jan 5.
    Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:
    Objective: To identify and characterize patterns of use among a contemporary cohort of current anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users.

    Patients And Methods: An anonymous, self-administered, 49-item questionnaire was posted on message boards of Internet websites popular among AAS users and administered via SurveyMonkey from February 1, 2015, to June 1, 2015. Thirty-seven questions were analyzed for this study. Read More

    Mad men, women and steroid cocktails: a review of the impact of sex and other factors on anabolic androgenic steroids effects on affective behaviors.
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2016 Feb 12;233(4):549-69. Epub 2016 Jan 12.
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, HB 7701, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA.
    Rationale: For several decades, elite athletes and a growing number of recreational consumers have used anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as performance enhancing drugs. Despite mounting evidence that illicit use of these synthetic steroids has detrimental effects on affective states, information available on sex-specific actions of these drugs is lacking.

    Objectives: The focus of this review is to assess information to date on the importance of sex and its interaction with other environmental factors on affective behaviors, with an emphasis on data derived from non-human studies. Read More

    Longitudinal monitoring of endogenous steroids in human serum by UHPLC-MS/MS as a tool to detect testosterone abuse in sports.
    Anal Bioanal Chem 2016 Jan 16;408(3):705-19. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
    Swiss Laboratory for Doping Analyses, University Center of Legal Medicine Geneva and Lausanne, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois and University of Lausanne, Chemin des Croisettes 22, 1066, Epalinges, Switzerland.
    The detection of testosterone abuse in sports is routinely achieved through the 'steroidal module' of the Athlete Biological Passport by GC-MS(/MS) quantification of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) from athletes' urines. To overcome some limitations of the "urinary steroid profile" such as the presence of confounding factors (ethnicity, enzyme polymorphism, bacterial contamination, and ethanol), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) measurements of blood concentrations of testosterone, its major metabolites, and precursors could represent an interesting and complementary strategy. In this work, two UHPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the quantification of testosterone and related compounds in human serum, including major progestogens, corticoids, and estrogens. Read More

    Targeted Metabolomics Approach To Detect the Misuse of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors in Equine Sports by Biomarker Profiling.
    Anal Chem 2016 Jan 15;88(1):764-72. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse , Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong, China.
    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prohibited in both human and equine sports. The conventional approach in doping control testing for AAS (as well as other prohibited substances) is accomplished by the direct detection of target AAS or their characteristic metabolites in biological samples using hyphenated techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Such an approach, however, falls short when dealing with unknown designer steroids where reference materials and their pharmacokinetics are not available. Read More

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