115,175 results match your criteria Amphibian & Reptile Conservation[Journal]


Impacts of the Toba eruption and montane forest expansion on diversification in Sumatran parachuting frogs (Rhacophorus).

Mol Ecol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Biology and Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Research Center, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, 76019, USA.

Catastrophic events, such as volcanic eruptions, can have profound impacts on the demographic histories of resident taxa. Due to its presumed effect on biodiversity, the Pleistocene eruption of super-volcano Toba has received abundant attention. We test the effects of the Toba eruption on the diversification, genetic diversity, and demography of three co-distributed species of parachuting frogs (Genus Rhacophorus) on Sumatra. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15541DOI Listing

A National-Scale Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in United States National Parks Using Dragonfly Larvae As Biosentinels through a Citizen-Science Framework.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

United States Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Boise, Idaho 83706, United States.

We conducted a national-scale assessment of mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems, using dragonfly larvae as biosentinels, by developing a citizen-science network to facilitate biological sampling. Implementing a carefully designed sampling methodology for citizen scientists, we developed an effective framework for a landscape-level inquiry that might otherwise be resource limited. We assessed the variation in dragonfly Hg concentrations across >450 sites spanning 100 United States National Park Service units and examined intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with the variation in Hg concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01255DOI Listing

Societal attention toward extinction threats: a comparison between climate change and biological invasions.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 6;10(1):11085. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Helsinki Lab of Interdisciplinary Conservation Science (HELICS), Department of Geosciences and Geography, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Public attention and interest in the fate of endangered species is a crucial prerequisite for effective conservation programs. Societal awareness and values will largely determine whether conservation initiatives receive necessary support and lead to adequate policy change. Using text data mining, we assessed general public attention in France, Germany and the United Kingdom toward climate change and biological invasions in relation to endangered amphibian, reptile, bird and mammal species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67931-5DOI Listing

A Novel Antimicrobial Peptide (Kassinatuerin-3) Isolated from the Skin Secretion of the African Frog, .

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Natural Drug Discovery Group, School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK.

Amphibian skin secretions are remarkable sources of novel bioactive peptides. Among these, antimicrobial peptides have demonstrated an outstanding efficacy in killing microorganisms via a general membranolytic mechanism, which may offer the prospect of solving specific target-driven antibiotic resistance. Here, the discovery of a novel defensive peptide is described from the skin secretion of the African frog, Named kassinatuerin-3, it was identified through a combination of "shot-gun" cloning and MS/MS fragmentation sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9070148DOI Listing

What Is the Evolutionary Fingerprint in Neutrophil Granulocytes?

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 25;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Physiological Chemistry, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Over the years of evolution, thousands of different animal species have evolved. All these species require an immune system to defend themselves against invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the immune systems of different species are obviously counteracting against the same pathogen with different efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124523DOI Listing

Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide in the Carotid Body-A History of Forty Years of Research. A Mini Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 30;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowski Str. 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland.

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) consists of 28 amino acid residues and is widespread in many internal organs and systems. Its presence has also been found in the nervous structures supplying the carotid body not only in mammals but also in birds and amphibians. The number and distribution of VIP in the carotid body clearly depends on the animal species studied; however, among all the species, this neuropeptide is present in nerve fibers around blood vessels and between glomus cell clusters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134692DOI Listing

Risk of survival, establishment and spread of (Bsal) in the EU.

EFSA J 2018 Apr 30;16(4):e05259. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

(Bsal) is an emerging fungal pathogen of salamanders. Despite limited surveillance, Bsal was detected in kept salamanders populations in Belgium, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, and in wild populations in some regions of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. According to niche modelling, at least part of the distribution range of every salamander species in Europe overlaps with the climate conditions predicted to be suitable for Bsal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009437PMC

Scientific Opinion on the state of the science on pesticide risk assessment for amphibians and reptiles.

EFSA J 2018 Feb 23;16(2):e05125. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the potential development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for amphibians and reptiles. The coverage of the risk to amphibians and reptiles by current risk assessments for other vertebrate groups was investigated. Available test methods and exposure models were reviewed with regard to their applicability to amphibians and reptiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009658PMC
February 2018

Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western).

EFSA J 2017 Jul 28;15(7):e04946. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western) has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western) to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western) according to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV, and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western). The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus was reached before, also at collective level. The output is composed of the categorical answer, and for the questions where no consensus was reached, the different supporting views are reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010142PMC

Preliminary evidence for hdv exposure in apparently non-HBV-infected patients.

Hepatology 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Team EVIR, Univ Lyon, Inserm, U1111, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, ENS de Lyon, F-69007, Lyon, France.

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective human virus that lacks the ability to produce its own envelope proteins and is thus dependent on the presence of a helper virus, which provides its surface proteins to produce infectious particles. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was so far thought to be the only helper virus described to be associated to HDV. However, recent studies showed that divergent HDV-like viruses can be detected in fishes, birds, amphibians, and invertebrates, without evidence of any HBV-like agent supporting infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31453DOI Listing

Developmental stages of Amphibiocystidium sp., a parasite from the Italian stream frog (Rana italica).

Zoology (Jena) 2020 Jun 2;141:125813. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

Amphibian parasites of the genus Amphibiocystidium are members of the class Ichthyosporea (=Mesomycetozoea), within the order Dermocystida. Most of the species in the Dermocystida fail to grow in ordinary culture media, so their life cycle has only been partially constructed by studies in host tissues. However, to date, there have been few reports on the life cycle of Amphibiocystidium parasites with respect to the developmental life stages of both Dermocystidium and Rhinosporidium parasites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2020.125813DOI Listing

Morphological Evidence for an Oral Venom System in Caecilian Amphibians.

iScience 2020 Jun 19:101234. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Structural Biology Lab, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Amphibians are known for their skin rich in glands containing toxins employed in passive chemical defense against predators, different from, for example, snakes that have active chemical defense, injecting their venom into the prey. Caecilians (Amphibia, Gymnophiona) are snake-shaped animals with fossorial habits, considered one of the least known vertebrate groups. We show here that amphibian caecilians, including species from the basal groups, besides having cutaneous poisonous glands as other amphibians do, possess specific glands at the base of the teeth that produce enzymes commonly found in venoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101234DOI Listing

Isolation and maintenance of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans cultures.

Dis Aquat Organ 2020 Jun 18;140:1-11. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Discovered in 2013, the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is an emerging amphibian pathogen that causes ulcerative skin lesions and multifocal erosion. A closely related pathogen, B. dendrobatidis (Bd), has devastated amphibian populations worldwide, suggesting that Bsal poses a significant threat to global salamander biodiversity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03488DOI Listing

Niche models at inter- and intraspecific levels reveal hierarchical niche differentiation in midwife toads.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10942. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Departamento de Biodiversidad, Ecología Y Evolución, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Variation and population structure play key roles in the speciation process, but adaptive intraspecific genetic variation is commonly ignored when forecasting species niches. Amphibians serve as excellent models for testing how climate and local adaptations shape species distributions due to physiological and dispersal constraints and long generational times. In this study, we analysed the climatic factors driving the evolution of the genus Alytes at inter- and intraspecific levels that may limit realized niches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67992-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331615PMC

Relationship between oxygen consumption and neuronal activity in a defined neural circuit.

BMC Biol 2020 Jul 3;18(1):76. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Großhaderner Str. 2, 82152, Planegg, Germany.

Background: Neuronal computations related to sensory and motor activity along with the maintenance of spike discharge, synaptic transmission, and associated housekeeping are energetically demanding. The most efficient metabolic process to provide large amounts of energy equivalents is oxidative phosphorylation and thus dependent on O consumption. Therefore, O levels in the brain are a critical parameter that influences neuronal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00811-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333326PMC

Environmental and host factors shaping the gut microbiota diversity of brown frog Rana dybowskii.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 13;741:140142. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China. Electronic address:

Symbiotic microbial communities are common in amphibians, and the composition of gut microbial communities varies with factors such as host phylogeny, life stage, ecology, and diet. However, little is known regarding how amphibians acquire their microbiota or how their growth, development, and environmental factors affect the diversity of their microbiotas. We sampled the gut microbiota during different developmental stages of brown frog Rana dybowskii, including tadpoles (T), frogs in metamorphosis (M), frogs just post-metamorphosis and after eating (F), juvenile frogs in summer (Js), adult frogs in summer (As), adult frogs in autumn (Aa), and hibernating frogs (Ah). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140142DOI Listing

Combined impact of pesticides and other environmental stressors on animal diversity in irrigation ponds.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0229052. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Rice paddy irrigation ponds can sustain surprisingly high taxonomic richness and make significant contributions to regional biodiversity. We evaluated the impacts of pesticides and other environmental stressors (including eutrophication, decreased macrophyte coverage, physical habitat destruction, and invasive alien species) on the taxonomic richness of freshwater animals in 21 irrigation ponds in Japan. We sampled a wide range of freshwater animals (reptiles, amphibians, fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, insects, annelids, bryozoans, and sponges) and surveyed environmental variables related to pesticide contamination and other stressors listed above. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229052PLOS

Composition of the North American Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) Bacterial Skin Microbiome and Seasonal Variation in Community Structure.

Microb Ecol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada.

While a number of amphibian skin microbiomes have been characterized, it is unclear how these communities might vary in response to seasonal changes in the environment and the corresponding behaviors that many amphibians exhibit. Given recent studies demonstrating the importance of the skin microbiome in frog innate immune defense against pathogens, investigating how changes in the environment impact the microbial species present will provide a better understanding of conditions that may alter host susceptibility to pathogens in their environment. We sampled the bacterial skin microbiome of North American wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from two breeding ponds in the spring, along with the bacterial community present in their vernal breeding pools, and frogs from the nearby forest floor in the summer and fall to determine whether community composition differs by sex, vernal pond site, or temporally across season (spring, summer, fall). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-020-01550-5DOI Listing

A new species of frog (Terrarana, Strabomantidae, ) from the Peruvian Andean grasslands.

PeerJ 2020 24;8:e9433. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

División de Herpetología, CORBIDI, Lima, Perú.

We describe a new, medium-sized species of terrestrial frog of the genus from a single locality in the central Andes of Peru (Departamento de Huánuco) at 3,730 meters of elevation. Phylogenetic analyses supported sp. nov. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320723PMC

Secretion and Function of Pituitary Prolactin in Evolutionary Perspective.

Front Neurosci 2020 16;14:621. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

MTA-ELTE Laboratory of Molecular and Systems Neurobiology, Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Institute of Biology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

The hypothalamo-pituitary system developed in early vertebrates. Prolactin is an ancient vertebrate hormone released from the pituitary that exerts particularly diverse functions. The purpose of the review is to take a comparative approach in the description of prolactin, its secretion from pituitary lactotrophs, and hormonal functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308720PMC

The Australian Roadkill Reporting Project-Applying Integrated Professional Research and Citizen Science to Monitor and Mitigate Roadkill in Australia.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Australia has no national roadkill monitoring scheme. To address this gap in knowledge, a roadkill reporting application (app) was developed to allow members of the public to join professional researchers in gathering Australian data. The app is used to photograph roadkill and simultaneously records the GPS location, time and date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10071112DOI Listing

Comparing the effect of triadimefon and its metabolite on male and female Xenopus laevis: Obstructed growth and gonad morphology.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 17;259:127415. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Yuanmingyuan West Road 2, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Amphibians are the most endangered class of vertebrates. In this study, Xenopus laevis frogs were exposed to 0, 1 and 10 mg/L of triadimefon or triadimenol. After 14 or 28 days of exposure, high levels of triadimefon or triadimenol obstructed the growth of frogs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127415DOI Listing

Beyond the limits: identifying the high-frequency detectors in the anuran ear.

Biol Lett 2020 Jul 1;16(7):20200343. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA.

Despite the predominance of low-frequency hearing in anuran amphibians, a few frog species have evolved high-frequency communication within certain environmental contexts. is the most remarkable anuran with regard to upper frequency limits; it is the first frog species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic signals. Characteristics of the Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions from the amphibian papilla and the basilar papilla were analysed to gain insight into the structures responsible for high-frequency/ultrasound sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2020.0343DOI Listing

Microplastic ingestion by tadpoles of pond-breeding amphibians-first results from Central Europe (SW Poland).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Fuels Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Gdańska 7/9, Wrocław, 50-344, Poland.

Microplastics (MPs) are one of the major threats to aquatic ecosystems. Surprisingly, our knowledge of its occurrence and its impact on the organisms that dwell in small water bodies is still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and chemical composition of MPs in tadpoles of pond-breeding amphibians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09648-6DOI Listing

Impact of habitat alteration on amphibian diversity and species composition in a lowland tropical rainforest in Northeastern Leyte, Philippines.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 29;10(1):10547. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Environmental Management Department, Visayas State University-Alangalang, Brgy. Binongto-an, 6517, Alangalang, Leyte, Philippines.

The impact of anthropogenic habitat alteration on amphibians was investigated, employing an investigative focus on leaf-litter and semi-aquatic species across different habitat alteration types. The habitat alteration types which include primary forest, selectively logged primary forest, secondary forest, abandoned farm areas and pasture (this represents a gradient of habitat alteration ranging from least altered to most altered, respectively) also encompass two habitat types: stream and terrestrial. Species assemblage was compared between habitat alteration types and habitat types, where a total 360 leaf-litter and semi-aquatic amphibians were observed (15 species, 6 families). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67512-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324599PMC

Tissue segregation in the early vertebrate embryo.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

CRBM, University of Montpellier and CNRS UMR 5237, 34293 Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

This chapter discusses our current knowledge on the major segregation events that lead to the individualization of the building blocks of vertebrate organisms, starting with the segregation between "outer" and "inner" cells, the separation of the germ layers and the maintenance of their boundaries during gastrulation, and finally the emergence of the primary axial structure, the notochord. The amphibian embryo is used as the prototypical model, to which fish and mouse development are compared. This comparison highlights a striking conservation of the basic processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.05.020DOI Listing

Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Canadian environment: Exposure and effects on wildlife.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jun 13;265(Pt B):114863. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement, Quebec, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Wildlife (including fish) are chronically exposed to PACs through air, water, sediment, soil, and/or dietary routes. Exposures are highest near industrial or urban sites, such as aluminum smelters and oil sands mines, or near natural sources such as forest fires. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114863DOI Listing

Spindly leg syndrome in Atelopus varius is linked to environmental calcium and phosphate availability.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(6):e0235285. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Center for Species Survival, Smithsonian National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, Front Royal, Virginia, United States of America.

Spindly leg syndrome (SLS) is a relatively common musculoskeletal abnormality associated with captive-rearing of amphibians with aquatic larvae. We conducted an experiment to investigate the role of environmental calcium and phosphate in causing SLS in tadpoles. Our 600-tadpole experiment used a fully-factorial design, rearing Atelopus varius tadpoles in water with either high (80mg/l CaCO3), medium (50mg/l CaCO3), or low calcium hardness (20mg/l CaCO3), each was combined with high (1. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235285PLOS

A conservation checklist of the herpetofauna of Morelos, with comparisons with adjoining states.

Zookeys 2020 16;941:121-144. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Biology, Denison University, Granville, Ohio 43023, USA Denison University Granville United States of America.

Despite being one of the smallest states in Mexico, the high diversity of habitats in Morelos has led to the development of a rich biota made up of a mixture of species typical of the Neovolcanic Axis and the Sierra Madre del Sur. However, recent expansion of cities in Morelos is likely to have consequences for the state's herpetofauna. Here a checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Morelos is provided with a summary of their conservation status and overlap with its neighboring states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.941.52011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311484PMC

Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism among African tree frogs (Family: Hyperoliidae).

J Hered 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.

Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is shaped by multiple selective forces that drive the evolution of sex-specific body size, resulting in male or female-biased SSD. Stronger selection on one sex can result in an allometric body-size scaling relationship consistent with Rensch's rule or its converse. Anurans (frogs and toads) generally display female-biased SSD, but there is variation across clades and the mechanisms driving the evolution of SSD remain poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esaa019DOI Listing

Host-parasite interaction between trematode, Clinostomum marginatum (Clinostomidae) and armoured catfish, Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Loricariidae) from Brazilian Amazon.

Ann Parasitol 2020 ;66(2):243-249

Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologia das Águas - ICTA, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará - UFOPA, Av. Mendonça Furtado, nº 2946, Fátima, CEP 68040-470, Santarém, Pará, Brasil.

Clinostomid trematodes are only widely studied due to the ability to infect their metacercariae, which can affect amphibians, fish, snakes and occasionally mammals, with occasional records in humans. The Loricariids constitute the most diverse family of neotropical fish, with more than 800 registered species. They present a large heterogeneity of colors and body forms that reflect its high degree of ecological specialization and importance on economic aspects such as ornamentation and food. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17420/ap6602.261DOI Listing
January 2020

Analysis of the Chinese Alligator TCRα/δ Loci Reveals the Evolutionary Pattern of Atypical TCRδ/TCRμ in Tetrapods.

J Immunol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China;

Atypical TCRδ found in sharks, amphibians, birds, and monotremes and TCRμ found in monotremes and marsupials are TCR chains that use Ig or BCR-like variable domains (VHδ/Vμ) rather than conventional TCR V domains. These unconventional TCR are consistent with a scenario in which TCR and BCR, although having diverged from each other more than 400 million years ago, continue to exchange variable gene segments in generating diversity for Ag recognition. However, the process underlying this exchange and leading to the evolution of these atypical TCR receptor genes remains elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000257DOI Listing

Seroprevalence of avian influenza in Baltic common eiders (Somateria mollissima) and pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus).

Environ Int 2020 Sep 22;142:105873. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Aarhus University, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark; Henan Province Engineering Research Center for Biomass Value-added Products, School of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China. Electronic address:

Blood plasma was collected during 2016-2018 from healthy incubating eiders (Somateria molissima, n = 183) in three Danish colonies, and healthy migrating pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus, n = 427) at their spring roost in Central Norway (Svalbard breeding population) and their novel flyway through the Finnish Baltic Sea (Russian breeding population). These species and flyways altogether represent terrestrial, brackish and marine ecosystems spanning from the Western to the Eastern and Northern part of the Baltic Sea. Plasma of these species was analysed for seroprevalence of specific avian influenza A (AI) antibodies to obtain information on circulating AI serotypes and exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105873DOI Listing
September 2020

Structural characterization and immunogenicity evaluation of amphibian-derived collagen type II from the cartilage of Chinese Giant Salamander ().

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2020 Jul 3:1-20. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Sustainable Utilization of Giant Salamander in Guizhou Province, Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Rare Animal and Economic Insects of the Mountainous Region, Guiyang University, Guiyang, China.

Collagen type II (CT-II) has unique biological activities and functions, yet the knowledge on amphibian-derived CT-II is rare. Herein, acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) were successfully isolated and characterized from the cartilage of Chinese Giant Salamander (CGS). The immunogenicity of collagen was then evaluated and compared with that of the standard bovine CT-II (SCT-II) by T-lymphocyte cell proliferation activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1786882DOI Listing

The challenge of biased evidence in conservation.

Conserv Biol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, The David Attenborough Building, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB3 3QZ, U.K.

Efforts to tackle the current biodiversity crisis need to be as efficient and effective as possible given chronic underfunding. To inform decision-makers of the most effective conservation actions, it is important to identify biases and gaps in the conservation literature to prioritize future evidence generation. We used the Conservation Evidence database to assess the state of the global literature that tests conservation actions for amphibians and birds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13577DOI Listing

Yellow sea mediated segregation between North East Asian Dryophytes species.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(6):e0234299. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

While comparatively few amphibian species have been described on the North East Asian mainland in the last decades, several species have been the subject of taxonomical debates in relation to the Yellow sea. Here, we sampled Dryophytes sp. treefrogs from the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the People's Republic of China to clarify the status of this clade around the Yellow sea and determine the impact of sea level change on treefrogs' phylogenetic relationships. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234299PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314424PMC

Biological drivers of individual-based anuran-parasite networks under contrasting environmental conditions.

J Helminthol 2020 Jun 24;94:e167. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Red de Ecoetología, Instituto de Ecología AC, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.

Understanding the mechanisms driving host-parasite interactions has important ecological and epidemiological implications. Traditionally, most studies dealing with host-parasite interaction networks have focused on species relationship patterns, and intra-population variation in such networks has been widely overlooked. In this study, we tested whether the composition of parasite communities of five anuran species (Leptodactylus chaquensis, Leptodactylus fuscus, Leptodactylus podicipinus, Pseudis paradoxa and Pithecopus azureus) vary across a pasture pond and a natural reserve site in south-eastern Pantanal, Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X20000504DOI Listing

Changes in physiology and microbial diversity in larval ornate chorus frogs are associated with habitat quality.

Conserv Physiol 2020 15;8(1):coaa047. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Biology, Texas State University, 601 University Dr. San Marcos, TX 78666, USA.

Environmental change associated with anthropogenic disturbance can lower habitat quality, especially for sensitive species such as many amphibians. Variation in environmental quality may affect an organism's physiological health and, ultimately, survival and fitness. Using multiple health measures can aid in identifying populations at increased risk of declines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coaa047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294888PMC

Warmer temperature and provision of natural substrate enable earlier metamorphosis in the critically endangered Baw Baw frog.

Conserv Physiol 2020 17;8(1):coaa030. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.

Temperature and food availability are known to independently trigger phenotypic change in ectotherms, but the interactive effects between these factors have rarely been considered. This study investigates the independent and interactive effects of water temperature and food availability on larval growth and development of the critically endangered Baw Baw frog, . Larvae were reared at low (12°C) or high (17°C) water temperature in the absence or presence of substrate that controlled food availability, and body size and time to metamorphosis were quantified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coaa030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298252PMC

Climate change and landscape-use patterns influence recent past distribution of giant pandas.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 Jun 24;287(1929):20200358. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation (Ministry of Education), China West Normal University, Nanchong, People's Republic of China.

Climate change is one of the most pervasive threats to biodiversity globally, yet the influence of climate relative to other drivers of species depletion and range contraction remain difficult to disentangle. Here, we examine climatic and non-climatic correlates of giant panda () distribution using a large-scale 30 year dataset to evaluate whether a changing climate has already influenced panda distribution. We document several climatic patterns, including increasing temperatures, and alterations to seasonal temperature and precipitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329028PMC

Stepping into the past to conserve the future: archived skin swabs from extant and extirpated populations inform genetic management of an endangered amphibian.

Mol Ecol 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Moving animals on a landscape through translocations and reintroductions is an important management tool used in the recovery of endangered species, particularly for the maintenance of population genetic diversity and structure. Management of imperiled amphibian species rely heavily on translocations and reintroductions, especially for species that have been brought to the brink of extinction by habitat loss, introduced species, and disease. One striking example of amphibian declines and associated management efforts is in California's Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks with the mountain yellow-legged frog species complex (Rana sierrae/muscosa). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15515DOI Listing

KAMBÔ: an Amazonian enigma.

J Venom Res 2020 26;10:13-17. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Zoology, Taubaté University, Taubaté, São Paulo State, Brazil.

The secretions of the Giant Monkey Frog are used by populations in the Amazon regions (mainly the indigenous Katukinas and Kaxinawás). The so-called "toad vaccine" or "kambô" is applied as a medication for infections and to prevent diseases, and also as physical and mental invigorator, and analgesic. Since the 1980s, researchers and companies have been interested in the composition of these secretions. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284396PMC

From biomechanics to mechanobiology: Xenopus provides direct access to the physical principles that shape the embryo.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2020 Jun 18;63:71-77. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA; Integrative Systems Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA; Department of Developmental Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA; Department of Computational and Systems Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. Electronic address:

Features of amphibian embryos that have served so well to elucidate the genetics of vertebrate development also enable detailed analysis of the physics that shape morphogenesis and regulate development. Biophysical tools are revealing how genes control mechanical properties of the embryo. The same tools that describe and control mechanical properties are being turned to reveal how dynamic mechanical information and feedback regulate biological programs of development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2020.05.011DOI Listing

Multiple glacial refugia and contemporary dispersal shape the genetic structure of an endemic amphibian from the Pyrenees.

Mol Ecol 2020 Jun 20. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Center for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Spain.

Historical factors (colonization scenarios, demographic oscillations) and contemporary processes (population connectivity, current population size) largely contribute to shaping species' present-day genetic diversity and structure. In this study, we use a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to understand the role of Quaternary climatic oscillations and present-day gene flow dynamics in determining the genetic diversity and structure of the newt Calotriton asper (Al. Dugès, 1852), endemic to the Pyrenees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.15521DOI Listing

Description and molecular characterisation of a new nematode species parasitic in the lungs of Strongylopus grayii (Smith) (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) in South Africa.

Syst Parasitol 2020 Aug 19;97(4):369-378. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

African Amphibian Conservation Research Group, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Rhabdias delangei n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is described from the lungs of the clicking stream frog Strongylopus grayii (Smith) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-020-09917-5DOI Listing

Distribution of major toxins in parotoid macroglands using Desorption-Electrospray-Ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI).

Toxicon X 2020 Jun 28;6:100033. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Universidade São Francisco, Av. São Francisco de Assis 218, 12916-900, Bragança Paulista, Brazil.

Amphibian cutaneous glands secrete toxins used in different vital functions including passive defense. Through Desorption Electrospray Ionization-Imaging we analyzed the distribution of the major toxins of the toad parotoid macroglands. Alkaloids and steroids showed characteristic distribution and intensity within the glands and were also present at lower levels on the skin surface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2020.100033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286094PMC

Glia-Mediated Regenerative Response Following Acute Excitotoxic Damage in the Postnatal Squamate Retina.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 28;8:406. Epub 2020 May 28.

Research Program in Developmental Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The retina is a complex tissue responsible for both detection and primary processing of visual stimuli. Although all vertebrate retinas share a similar, multi-layered organization, the ability to regenerate individual retinal cells varies tremendously, being extremely limited in mammals and birds when compared to anamniotes such as fish and amphibians. However, little is yet known about damage response and regeneration of retinal tissues in "non-classical" squamate reptiles (lizards, snakes), which occupy a key phylogenetic position within amniotes and exhibit unique regenerative features in many tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7270358PMC

Do epigenetic changes drive corticosterone responses to alarm cues in larvae of an invasive amphibian?

Integr Comp Biol 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW.

The developmental environment can exert powerful effects on animal phenotype. Recently epigenetic modifications have emerged as one mechanism that can modulate developmentally plastic responses to environmental variability. For example, the DNA methylation profile at promoters of hormone receptor genes can affect their expression and patterns of hormone release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icaa082DOI Listing

Health status of free-ranging ring-necked pheasant chicks (Phasianus colchicus) in North-Western Germany.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(6):e0234044. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Being a typical ground-breeding bird of the agricultural landscape in Germany, the pheasant has experienced a strong and persistent population decline with a hitherto unexplained cause. Contributing factors to the ongoing negative trend, such as the effects of pesticides, diseases, predation, increase in traffic and reduced fallow periods, are currently being controversially discussed. In the present study, 62 free-ranging pheasant chicks were caught within a two-year period in three federal states of Germany; Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234044PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297342PMC

GEOGRAPHIC AND INDIVIDUAL DETERMINANTS OF IMPORTANT AMPHIBIAN PATHOGENS IN HELLBENDERS () IN TENNESSEE AND ARKANSAS, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

University of Tennessee, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 569 Dabney Hall, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA.

Wildlife diseases are a major threat for species conservation and there is a growing need to implement disease surveillance programs to protect species of concern. Globally, amphibian populations have suffered considerable losses from disease, particularly from chytrid fungi ( [Bd] and []) and ranavirus. Hellbenders () are large riverine salamanders historically found throughout several watersheds of the eastern and midwestern United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2019-08-203DOI Listing