112,746 results match your criteria Amphibian & Reptile Conservation[Journal]


Larval amphibians rapidly bioaccumulate poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Apr 16;178:137-145. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 715 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, United States.

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous contaminants that can bioaccumulate in aquatic taxa. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to contaminants and sensitive to endocrine disruptors during their aquatic larval stage. However, few studies have explored PFAS uptake rates in amphibians, which is critical for designing ecotoxicology studies and assessing the potential for bioaccumulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.022DOI Listing

Light and transmission electron microscopic structure of skin glands and dermal scales of a caecilian amphibian Gegeneophis ramaswamii, with a note on antimicrobial property of skin gland secretion.

Microsc Res Tech 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Animal Science, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala, India.

Amphibian skin secretions contain a variety of bioactive compounds that are involved in diverse roles such as communication, homeostasis, defence against predators, pathogens, and so on. Especially, the caecilian amphibians possess numerous cutaneous glands that produce the secretory material, which facilitate survival in their harsh subterranean environment. Inspite of the fact that India has a fairly abundant distribution of caecilian amphibians, there has hardly been any study on their skin and its secretion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23276DOI Listing

Opposite T Response of ACTG1-FOS Subnetwork Differentiate Tailfin Fate in Xenopus Tadpole and Post-hatching Axolotl.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 2;10:194. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Unité Mixte de Recherche 7221, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Alliance Sorbonne Université, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

Amphibian post-embryonic development and Thyroid Hormones (TH) signaling are deeply and intimately connected. In anuran amphibians, TH induce the spectacular and complex process known as metamorphosis. In paedomorphic salamanders, at similar development time, raising levels of TH fail to induce proper metamorphosis, as many "larval" tissues (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454024PMC

Fatal phaeohyphomycosis due to Exophiala sp. infection in a free-living common toad Bufo bufo.

Dis Aquat Organ 2019 Feb;133(1):19-24

Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London NW1 4RY, UK.

A wild adult female common toad Bufo bufo found dead in Scotland in September 2016 was observed to have hepatomegaly, a large soft tissue mass in the coelomic cavity (2.7 g, 3.5 × 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03341DOI Listing
February 2019

Evolutionary history of burrowing asps (Lamprophiidae: Atractaspidinae) with emphasis on fang evolution and prey selection.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214889. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.

Atractaspidines are poorly studied, fossorial snakes that are found throughout Africa and western Asia, including the Middle East. We employed concatenated gene-tree analyses and divergence dating approaches to investigate evolutionary relationships and biogeographic patterns of atractaspidines with a multi-locus data set consisting of three mitochondrial (16S, cyt b, and ND4) and two nuclear genes (c-mos and RAG1). We sampled 91 individuals from both atractaspidine genera (Atractaspis and Homoroselaps). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214889PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Metacercariae of Strigeidae Parasitizing Amphibians of the Chaco Region in Argentina.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 8;91(1):e20180044. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas/CONICET, Centro de Ecología Aplicada del Litoral/CECOAL, W 3400 AMD, Corrientes, Argentina.

The goal of the present study was to analyze the metacercariae found in adult amphibians collected in the Argentinean Chaco region. A total of 194 frogs, Leptodactylus chaquensis, Leptodactylus latinasus, and Lepidobatrachus laevis was examined for digeneans. Three different larval trematodes of the genus Strigea (Digenea, Strigeidae) were found infecting the liver, mesentery, body cavity, and muscle of frogs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180044DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Chromatin dynamics underlying the precise regeneration of a vertebrate limb-epigenetic regulation and cellular memory.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Science, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki 036-8561, Japan. Electronic address:

Wound healing, tissue regeneration, and organ regrowth are all regeneration phenomena observed in vertebrates after an injury. However, the ability to regenerate differs greatly among species. Mammals can undergo wound healing and tissue regeneration, but cannot regenerate an organ; for example, they cannot regrow an amputated limb. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Testing the evolutionary constraints of metamorphosis: the ontogeny of head shape in Triturus newts.

Evolution 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.

In vertebrates with complex, biphasic, life cycles, larvae have a distinct morphology and ecological preferences compared to metamorphosed juveniles and adults. In amphibians, abrupt and rapid metamorphic changes transform aquatic larvae to terrestrial juveniles. The main aim of this study is to test whether, relative to larval stages, metamorphosis 1) resets the pattern of variation between ontogenetic stages and species; 2) constrains intraspecific morphological variability, and 3) similar to the "hour-glass" model, reduces morphological disparity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evo.13743DOI Listing

Disease and the Drying Pond: Examining Possible Links among Drought, Immune Function, and Disease Development in Amphibians.

Physiol Biochem Zool 2019 May/Jun;92(3):339-348

Drought can heavily impact aquatic ecosystems. For amphibian species that rely on water availability for larval development, drought can have direct and indirect effects on larval survival and postmetamorphic fitness. Some amphibian species can accelerate the timing of metamorphosis to escape drying habitats through developmental plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/703137DOI Listing

High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi in racing pigeon flocks in Germany.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(4):e0215241. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Clinic for Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fish, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi (Coccidia: Eimeriorina: Sarcocystidae) is the causative agent of Pigeon Protozoal Encephalitis (PPE) and infects birds of the orders Columbiformes, Piciformes and Psittaciformes. Accipiter hawks (Aves: Accipitriformes) are the definitive hosts of this parasite. Infections of S. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215241PLOS
April 2019
3 Reads

Novel Herpesvirus Associated With Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Smooth Green Snakes ( Opheodrys vernalis).

Vet Pathol 2019 Apr 14:300985819837722. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

1 Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL, USA.

During a 19-month period, 5 smooth green snakes ( Opheodrys vernalis) maintained as an ex situ conservation colony presented with rapid clinical progression of locally invasive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. All 5 originated from the same wild source and were housed together or in close proximity. An infectious cause was considered likely, and nested conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of a novel alphaherpesvirus, Opheodrys herpesvirus 1, in the neoplastic tissue in 4 of the 5 snakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985819837722DOI Listing

Molecular markers for corneal epithelial cells in larval vs. adult Xenopus frogs.

Exp Eye Res 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Illinois, 601 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. Electronic address:

Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells (CESCs) and their proliferative progeny, the Transit Amplifying Cells (TACs), are responsible for maintaining the integrity and transparency of the cornea. These stem cells (SCs) are widely used in corneal transplants and ocular surface reconstruction. Molecular markers are essential to identify, isolate and enrich for these cells, yet no definitive CESC marker has been established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Molecular and functional characterization of a short-type peptidoglycan recognition protein, PGRP-S in the amphibian Xenopus laevis.

Dev Comp Immunol 2019 Apr 10;98:13-19. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Key Laboratory of Aquaculture Disease Control, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei Province, 430072, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266237, China; School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in host antibacterial responses, and their functions have been characterized in most invertebrate and vertebrate animals. However, little information is available regarding the function of frog PGRPs. In this study, a short-type PGRP (termed Xl-PGRP-S) gene was identified in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Impact of environmental factors on aquatic biodiversity in roadside stormwater ponds.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 12;9(1):5994. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, PO 5003, 1432, Ås, Norway.

Constructed stormwater ponds mitigate runoff volumes and pollution, and provide other ecosystem services, such as supporting biodiversity, but these services attracted relatively less attention. The impacts of the pollution levels in the water column and sediments, the physical characteristics of ponds, and the presence of amphibians on the macroinvertebrate community composition and biodiversity were explored in twelve stormwater ponds in Norway. Also, the similarities between macroinvertebrate, zooplankton and plant communities were explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42497-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461623PMC

Tissue-Specific Accumulation, Sexual Difference, and Maternal Transfer of Chlorinated Paraffins in Black-Spotted Frogs.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry , Stockholm University , SE-10691 Stockholm , Sweden.

The restriction on usage of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) under Stockholm Convention may promote the production and application of medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) and long chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs) as substitutes. This study focused on the tissue-specific exposure to SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in black-spotted frog, a prevalent amphibian species in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total CP concentrations in frog liver, muscle, and egg samples ranged of 35-1200, 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06350DOI Listing

Protected area targets post-2020.

Science 2019 Apr 11;364(6437):239-241. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia Queensland 4072, Australia.

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http://www.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/science.aav6886
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aav6886DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Native amphibian larvae exhibit higher upper thermal limits but lower performance than their introduced predator Gambusia affinis.

J Therm Biol 2019 Apr 25;81:154-161. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China.

Information on the thermal limits and physiology of ectothermic amphibians is crucial to our understanding of their ecology in the natural environment, particularly with predicted global changes in climate. We documented the thermal limits of larvae of three amphibian species native to Hong Kong, and their introduced, invasive predator, the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). We then used larvae of the brown tree frog Polypedates megacephalus as a model amphibian to further investigate growth, oxygen consumption rate and heat shock protein expression with changes in thermal regime. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2019.02.014DOI Listing

Experimental duplication of bilaterian body axes in spider embryos: Holm's organizer and self-regulation of embryonic fields.

Dev Genes Evol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Evolutionary Cell and Developmental Biology, JT Biohistory Research Hall, 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka, 569-1125, Japan.

Bilaterally symmetric body plans of vertebrates and arthropods are defined by a single set of two orthogonal axes, the anterior-posterior (or head-tail) and dorsal-ventral axes. In vertebrates, and especially amphibians, complete or partial doubling of the bilaterian body axes can be induced by two different types of embryological manipulations: transplantation of an organizer region or bi-sectioning of an embryo. Such axis doubling relies on the ability of embryonic fields to flexibly respond to the situation and self-regulate toward forming a whole body. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-019-00631-xDOI Listing

Transcriptome profiling reveals male- and female-specific gene expression pattern and novel gene candidates for the control of sex determination and gonad development in Xenopus laevis.

Dev Genes Evol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Univ Rennes, UMR 6290, Cell Cycle Group, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Development of Rennes, F-35000, Rennes, France.

Xenopus laevis is an amphibian (frog) species widely used in developmental biology and genetics. To unravel the molecular machinery regulating sex differentiation of Xenopus gonads, we analyzed for the first time the transcriptome of developing amphibian gonads covering sex determination period. We applied microarray at four developmental stages: (i) NF50 (undifferentiated gonad during sex determination), (ii) NF53 (the onset of sexual differentiation of the gonads), (iii) NF56 (sexual differentiation of the gonads), and (iv) NF62 (developmental progression of differentiated gonads). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-019-00630-yDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

A Novel Delivery System for the Controlled Release~of Antimicrobial Peptides: Citropin 1.1 and Temporin A.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 May 2;10(5). Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Biomaterials Chemistry, Chair of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Laboratory Medicine Division, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1 St., 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are prospective therapeutic options for treating multiple-strain infections. However, clinical and commercial development of AMPs has some limitations due to their limited stability, low bioavailability, and potential hemotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to develop new polymeric carriers as highly controlled release devices for amphibian peptides citropin 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10050489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415511PMC

Phylogenetic investigation of skin sloughing rates in frogs: relationships with skin characteristics and disease-driven declines.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Feb;286(1896):20182378

1 School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland , St Lucia, Queensland 4072 , Australia.

Amphibian skin is highly variable in structure and function across anurans, and plays an important role in physiological homeostasis and immune defence. For example, skin sloughing has been shown to reduce pathogen loads on the skin, such as the lethal fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd), but interspecific variation in sloughing frequency is largely unknown. Using phylogenetic linear mixed models, we assessed the relationship between skin turnover rate, skin morphology, ecological traits and overall evidence of Bd-driven declines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408608PMC
February 2019

Globally invasive genotypes of the amphibian chytrid outcompete an enzootic lineage in coinfections.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 Dec;285(1893):20181894

1 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, MI 48109 , USA.

Competition between genotypes is likely to be a key driver of pathogen evolution, particularly following a geographical invasion by distant strains. Theory predicts that competition between disease strains will result in the most virulent strain persisting. Despite its evolutionary implications, the role of strain competition in shaping populations remains untested for most pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304064PMC
December 2018

A global meta-analysis of the ecological impacts of alien species on native amphibians.

Proc Biol Sci 2019 Feb;286(1897):20182528

1 Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University , Stellenbosch , South Africa.

The exponential increase in species introductions during the Anthropocene has brought about a major loss of biodiversity. Amphibians have suffered large declines, with more than 16% considered to be threatened by invasive species. We conducted a global meta-analysis of the impacts of alien species on native amphibians to determine which aspects of amphibian ecology are most affected by plant, invertebrate, fish, amphibian, reptile, or mammal introductions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.2528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408899PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Glycosaminoglycans compositional analysis of Urodele axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Porcine Retina.

Glycoconj J 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Biochemistry and Biophysics Graduate Program, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 12180, USA.

Retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), are major causes of blindness worldwide. Humans cannot regenerate retina, however, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a laboratory-bred salamander, can regenerate retinal tissue throughout adulthood. Classic signaling pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF), are involved in axolotl regeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10719-019-09863-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sampling related individuals within ponds biases estimates of population structure in a pond-breeding amphibian.

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 6;9(6):3620-3636. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

School of Natural Resources University of Nebraska Lincoln Lincoln Nebraska.

Effective conservation and management of pond-breeding amphibians depends on the accurate estimation of population structure, demographic parameters, and the influence of landscape features on breeding-site connectivity. Population-level studies of pond-breeding amphibians typically sample larval life stages because they are easily captured and can be sampled nondestructively. These studies often identify high levels of relatedness between individuals from the same pond, which can be exacerbated by sampling the larval stage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434569PMC

The effects of different cold-temperature regimes on development, growth, and susceptibility to an abiotic and biotic stressor.

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 20;9(6):3355-3366. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Biological Sciences Department Binghamton University (SUNY) Binghamton New York.

Global climate change is expected to both increase average temperatures as well as temperature variability.Increased average temperatures have led to earlier breeding in many spring-breeding organisms. However, individuals breeding earlier will also face increased temperature fluctuations, including exposure to potentially harmful cold-temperature regimes during early developmental stages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434568PMC
March 2019
1.658 Impact Factor

Matriline effects on metamorphic traits in a natural system in the European common frog ().

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 21;9(6):3075-3088. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Animal Ecology I, Bayreuth Center for Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER) University of Bayreuth Bayreuth Germany.

Successful reproduction is an important determinant of the fitness of an individual and of the dynamics of populations. Offspring of the European common frog () exhibit a high degree of variability in metamorphic traits. However, environmental factors alone cannot explain this phenotypic variability, and the influence of genetic factors remains to be determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434577PMC

Hierarchical distance sampling to estimate population sizes of common lizards across a desert ecoregion.

Ecol Evol 2019 Mar 20;9(6):3046-3058. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside Riverside California.

Multispecies wildlife monitoring across large geographical regions is important for effective conservation planning in response to expected impacts from climate change and land use. Unlike many species of birds, mammals, and amphibians which can be efficiently sampled using automated sensors including cameras and sound recorders, reptiles are often much more challenging to detect, in part because of their typically cryptic behavior and generally small body sizes. Although many lizard species are more active during the day which makes them easier to detect using visual encounter surveys, they may be unavailable for sampling during certain periods of the day or year due to their sensitivity to temperature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434545PMC

Origins and evolutionary consequences of ancient endogenous retroviruses.

Authors:
Welkin E Johnson

Nat Rev Microbiol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA.

Retroviruses infect a broad range of vertebrate hosts that includes amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds and mammals. In addition, a typical vertebrate genome contains thousands of loci composed of ancient retroviral sequences known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). ERVs are molecular remnants of ancient retroviruses and proof that the ongoing relationship between retroviruses and their vertebrate hosts began hundreds of millions of years ago. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41579-019-0189-2DOI Listing

Orthopedics in Reptiles and Amphibians.

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2019 May;22(2):285-300

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, 2065 West Farm Road, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Musculoskeletal disorders are a common cause for presentation of reptiles and amphibians to the veterinarian. A clinical approach to orthopedic cases starts with a thorough history and review of husbandry, and identification of any underlying or concomitant disease. Medical management is indicated for pathologic fractures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2019.01.009DOI Listing

Critical Role of an MHC Class I-Like/Innate-Like T Cell Immune Surveillance System in Host Defense against Ranavirus (Frog Virus 3) Infection.

Viruses 2019 Apr 6;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Besides the central role of classical Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class Ia-restricted conventional Cluster of Differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells in antiviral host immune response, the amphibian critically rely on MHC class I-like (mhc1b10.1.L or XNC10)-restricted innate-like (i)T cells (iVα6 T cells) to control infection by the ranavirus Frog virus 3 (FV3). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11040330DOI Listing

A Skin Secretion-Derived Novel Bombesin-Related Pentadecapeptide (Ranatensin-HLa) Evoke Myotropic Effects on the in vitro Rat Smooth Muscles.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 Apr 5;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Natural Drug Discovery Group, School of Pharmacy, Queen's University, Belfast BT9 7BL, Northern Ireland, UK.

Amphibians have developed successful defensive strategies for combating predators and invasive microorganisms encountered in their broad range of environments, which involve secretion of complex cocktails of noxious, toxic and diverse bioactive molecules from the skins. In recent years, amphibian skin secretions have been considered as an extraordinary warehouse for the discovery of therapeutic medicines. In this study, through bioactivity screening of the skin secretion-derived fractions, a novel peptide belonging to ranatensin subfamily (ranatensin-HLa) was discovered, and structurally and pharmacologically-characterised. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040204DOI Listing

Morphological abnormalities in natural populations of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum inhabiting fluoride-rich environments.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Aug 6;177:32-38. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Ecología, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Ruta Nacional N° 36-km 601, X5804BYA, Río Cuarto, Argentina.

Morphological abnormalities in amphibians may be attributed to contaminants, ultraviolet radiation and trematode parasites, or a synergistic effect between them. In the present study, morphological abnormalities in Rhinella arenarum adults from natural and artificial fluoride-rich environments were identified and evaluated. Three sites were sampled in central Argentina: Los Vallecitos stream (LF-LV), Los Cerros Negros stream (MF-CN), and Decantation ponds (HF-DP), with low (0. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01476513193037
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.03.098DOI Listing
August 2019
2 Reads

Rational Design of Short Peptide Variants by Using Kunitzin-RE, an Amphibian-Derived Bioactivity Peptide, for Acquired Potent Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial and Improved Therapeutic Potential of Commensalism Coinfection of Pathogens.

J Med Chem 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institute of Animal Nutrition , Northeast Agricultural University , Harbin 150030 , P. R. China.

Commensalism coinfection of pathogens has seriously jeopardized human health. Currently, Kunitzin-RE, as an amphibian-derived bioactivity peptide, is regarded as a potential antimicrobial candidate. However, its antimicrobial properties were unsatisfactory. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00149
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00149DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Is normalized hindlimb length measurement in assessment of thyroid disruption in the amphibian metamorphosis assay relevant?

J Appl Toxicol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Fort Environmental Laboratories, Stillwater, Oklahoma.

The amphibian metamorphosis assay represents an OECD Level 3 and EDSP Tier 1 ecotoxicity test assessing thyroid activity of chemicals in African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). To evaluate the effectiveness of snout-vent length (SVL) normalization of hindlimb length (HLL), correlation between the HLL and SVL or body weight was evaluated in the control groups of 10 individual studies from three laboratories. Two studies required separate analysis of the Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage ≤60 and >60 animals creating a total of 12 data sets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3801DOI Listing

Chromosomal Evolution in the Amolops mantzorum Species Group (Ranidae; Anura) Narrated by Repetitive DNAs.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

In an attempt to analyze the organization of repetitive DNAs in the amphibian genome, 7 microsatellite motifs and a 5S rDNA sequence were synthesized and mapped in the karyotypes of 5 Amolops species. The results revealed nonrandom distribution of the microsatellite repeats, usually in the heterochromatic regions, as found in other organisms. These microsatellite repeats showed rapid changes among Amolops species, documenting the recent evolutionary history within this lineage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499416DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Lethality, neurotoxicity, morphological, histological and cellular alterations of Ni-Al nanoceramics on the embryo-larval development of Rhinella arenarum.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Mar 28;69:36-43. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET, Argentina. Electronic address:

Alumina nanoparticles (NP-AlO) are widely used but their environmental effects are unknown, so they can become potentially dangerous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of a nanoceramic catalyst Ni/γ-AlO (NC) and NPs involved in their synthesis, γ-AlO support (SPC) and NiO/γ-AlO precursor (PC) on Rhinella arenarum embryo-larval development. The NPs toxicity significantly increased over time obtaining a similar sensitivity to PC and NC (336 h-LC50 = 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2019.03.020DOI Listing
March 2019
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Regeneration enhancers: Starting a journey to unravel regulatory events in tissue regeneration.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, 53705, USA. Electronic address:

Regeneration, an ability to replace lost body parts, is widespread across animal species. While mammals poorly regenerate most tissues, teleost fish and urodele amphibians possess remarkable regenerative capacity. Earlier work demonstrated that genes driving regeneration are evolutionarily conserved, indicating that a key factor in diverse tissue regeneration is not the presence or absence of regeneration-driving genes but the mechanisms controlling activation of these genes after injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.04.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Epigenetics in Neuronal Regeneration.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Biological Structure, Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, Institute for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, United States. Electronic address:

Damage to neuronal tissues in mammals leads to permanent loss of tissue function that can have major health consequences. While mammals have no inherent regenerative capacity to functionally repair neuronal tissue, other species such as amphibians and teleost fish readily replace damaged tissue. The exploration of development and native regeneration can thus inform the process of inducing regeneration in non-regenerative systems, which can be used to develop new therapeutics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.04.001DOI Listing

An Assessment of the Multifunctionality of Integrated Buffer Zones in Northwestern Europe.

J Environ Qual 2019 Mar;48(2):362-375

Integrated buffer zones (IBZs) have recently been introduced in the Northwestern Europe temperate zone to improve delivery of ecosystem services compared with the services associated with long-established vegetated buffer zones. A common feature of all the studied IBZ sites is that tile drainage, which previously discharged directly into the streams, is now intercepted within the IBZ. Specifically, the design of IBZs combines a pond, where soil particles present in drain water or surface runoff can be deposited, and a planted subsurface flow infiltration zone. Read More

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https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2018.05.0216DOI Listing
March 2019
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Molecular basis of the digestive functionality in developing Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) larvae: additional clues for its phylogenetic status.

J Comp Physiol B 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (ICMAN-CSIC), 11519, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.

Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) is a critically endangered species, mainly due to overexploitation for its caviar. The permanence of populations of this species in the Caspian Sea is fully dependent on restocking programs. Accordingly, it is considered as an interesting target for aquaculture for both restocking and commercial purposes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00360-019-01215-xDOI Listing

Ecological Correlates of Large-Scale Turnover in the Dominant Members of Pseudacris crucifer Skin Bacterial Communities.

Microb Ecol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, 4088 Derring Hall, 926 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Animals host a wide diversity of symbiotic microorganisms that contribute important functions to host health, and our knowledge of what drives variation in the composition of these complex communities continues to grow. Microbiome studies at larger spatial scales present opportunities to evaluate the contribution of large-scale factors to variation in the microbiome. We conducted a large-scale field study to assess variation in the bacterial symbiont communities on adult frog skin (Pseudacris crucifer), characterized using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-019-01372-0DOI Listing

Human red and green cone opsins are O-glycosylated at an N-terminal Ser/Thr-rich domain conserved in vertebrates.

J Biol Chem 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California, Irvine, United States.

There are fundamental differences in the structures of outer segments between rod and cone photoreceptor cells in the vertebrate retina. Visual pigments are the only essential membrane proteins that differ between rod and cone outer segments, making it likely that they contribute to these structural differences. Human rhodopsin is N-glycosylated on Asn-2 and Asn-15, whereas human red and green cone opsins (hOPSR and hOPSG, respectively) are N-glycosylated at Asn-34. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006835DOI Listing
April 2019
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Characterisation and 3D structure of melanomacrophage centers in shorthorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius).

Tissue Cell 2019 Apr 6;57:34-41. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, 7250, Australia; Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000, Roskilde, Denmark. Electronic address:

Melanomacrophage centres (MMCs) are distinct aggregations of pigment-containing cells in internal organs of fish, amphibians and reptiles. Although MMCs are commonly used as biomarkers for anthropogenic exposure in many environmental monitoring programs, a substantial knowledge on characteristics of MMCs is required prior to the assessment of MMC responses. The present study was the first to determine the 3D structure of splenic MMCs of a fish from a number of consecutive histology sections by use of the Fiji and AutoCad software. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00408166183042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2019.02.003DOI Listing
April 2019
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Underwater sound production varies within not between species in sympatric newts.

PeerJ 2019 28;7:e6649. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Institute of Vertebrate Biology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.

Sound production is a widespread phenomenon among animals. Effective sound use for mate or species recognition requires some acoustic differentiation at an individual or species level. Several species of caudate amphibians produce underwater sounds, but information about intra- and interspecific variation in their acoustic production is missing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441559PMC

Geo-referenced population-specific microsatellite data across American continents, the MacroPopGen Database.

Sci Data 2019 Apr 3;6(1):14. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street W., Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6, Canada.

Population genetic data from nuclear DNA has yet to be synthesized to allow broad scale comparisons of intraspecific diversity versus species diversity. The MacroPopGen database collates and geo-references vertebrate population genetic data across the Americas from 1,308 nuclear microsatellite DNA studies, 897 species, and 9,090 genetically distinct populations where genetic differentiation (F) was measured. Caribbean populations were particularly distinguished from North, Central, and South American populations, in having higher differentiation (F = 0. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41597-019-0024-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-019-0024-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Backward Bifurcation as a Desirable Phenomenon: Increased Fecundity Through Infection.

Bull Math Biol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, 69000, Huajuapan de León, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Backward or subcritical bifurcation is usually considered an undesirable phenomenon in epidemiology since control measures require a reduction in R not below one but below a much smaller value. However, there are contexts for which a backward or subcritical bifurcation is not a bad thing; it can even be desirable. Such is the case for any characteristic that can be passed to the next generation (genetically fixed or not) and that increases the effective reproductive rate of the host or the total number of individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11538-019-00604-1DOI Listing
April 2019
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Geographic Distribution of (EHNV) in Freshwater Fish in South Eastern Australia: Lost Opportunity for a Notifiable Pathogen to Expand Its Geographic Range.

Viruses 2019 Apr 1;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden 2570, Australia.

(EHNV) was originally detected in Victoria, Australia in 1984. It spread rapidly over two decades with epidemic mortality events in wild redfin perch () and mild disease in farmed rainbow trout () being documented across southeastern Australia in New South Wales (NSW), the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Victoria, and South Australia. We conducted a survey for EHNV between July 2007 and June 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11040315DOI Listing

Developmental exposure to chemicals associated with unconventional oil and gas extraction alters immune homeostasis and viral immunity of the amphibian Xenopus.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 26;671:644-654. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, United States of America.

Although aquatic vertebrates and humans are increasingly exposed to water pollutants associated with unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOG), the long-term effects of these pollutants on immunity remains unclear. We have established the amphibian Xenopus laevis and the ranavirus Frog Virus 3 (FV3) as a reliable and sensitive model for evaluating the effects of waterborne pollutants. X. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193139
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.395DOI Listing
March 2019
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Pooling skin swabs does not inhibit qPCR detection of amphibian chytrid infection.

PLoS One 2019 2;14(4):e0214405. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Zoological Institute, Braunschweig University of Technology, Braunschweig, Germany.

Immediate and reliable pathogen detection in large numbers of samples is essential in wildlife disease monitoring and is often realized by DNA-based techniques. Pooling samples increases processing efficiency and reduces processing costs, and has been suggested as a viable technique for quantitative PCR detection of fungal amphibian pathogens of the genus Batrachochytrium. For these fungi, this diagnostic method has been validated by in vitro set ups that provided controlled test conditions but did not take into account potential effects from amphibian skin compounds (e. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214405PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445426PMC
April 2019
1 Read