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    14517 results match your criteria American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine[Journal]

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    A Systematic Review of Tools to Measure Respiratory Rate to Identify Childhood Pneumonia.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    The University of British Columbia, Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, with most deaths occurring in developing countries. Measuring respiratory rate is critical to the World Health Organization's guidelines for diagnosing childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings, yet it is difficult to accurately measure. We conducted a systematic review to landscape existing respiratory rate measurement technologies. Read More

    Natural History of COPD Exacerbations in a General Practice Based COPD Population.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Imperial College London, Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Rationale Acute exacerbations (AECOPD) are important adverse events in the natural history of COPD. Objectives To investigate the natural history of AECOPD over 10-years of follow-up. Methods and Results We identified 99,574 patients with COPD 01/Jan/04-31/March/15 from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Read More

    Early Immune Function and Duration of Organ Dysfunction in Critically Ill Septic Children.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, United States.
    Rationale: Late immune suppression is associated with nosocomial infection and mortality in septic adults and children. Relationships between early immune suppression and outcomes in septic children remain unclear.

    Objective: Prospective observational study to test the hypothesis that early innate and adaptive immune suppression are associated with longer duration of organ dysfunction in children with severe sepsis/septic shock. Read More

    Cytokine Responses to Rhinovirus and Development of Asthma, Allergic Sensitization and Respiratory Infections during Childhood.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 21. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    National Heart & Lung and Wright Felming Institute of Infection & Immunity, Respiratory Medicine, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Background: Immunophenotypes of anti-viral responses, and their relationship with asthma, allergy and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are poorly understood. We characterized multiple cytokine responses of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to rhinovirus stimulation, and their relationship with clinical outcomes.

    Methods: In a population-based birth cohort, we measured 28 cytokines post-stimulation with rhinovirus-16 in 307 children aged 11 years. Read More

    Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Haukeland University Hospital, 11. Department of Occupational Medicine, Bergen, Norway.
    Rationale: Cleaning tasks may imply exposure to chemical agents with potential harmful effects to the respiratory system, and increased risk of asthma and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners and in persons cleaning at home has been reported. The long-term consequences of cleaning agents on respiratory health are, however, not well described.

    Objectives: This paper aims to investigate long-term effects of occupational cleaning and cleaning at home on lung function decline and chronic airway obstruction. Read More

    Prognostic and Pathogenic Role of Angiopoietin-1 and -2 in Pneumonia.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
    Rationale: During pneumonia, pathogen-host interaction evokes inflammation and lung barrier dysfunction. Tie2-activation by Angiopoietin-1 reduces, while Tie2-blockade by Angiopoietin-2 increases inflammation and permeability during sepsis. The role of Angiopoietin-1/-2 in pneumonia remains unidentified. Read More

    Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Cardiac Events: A Cohort Analysis.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Minneapolis VA Health Care System, 20040, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.
    Rationale: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are common, associated with acute inflammation, and may increase subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.

    Objective: Determine if AECOPD events are associated with increased risk of subsequent CVD.

    Methods: A secondary cohort analysis of the Study to Understand Mortality and MorbidITy (SUMMIT) trial, a convenience sample of current/former smokers with moderate COPD from 1,368 centers in 43 countries. Read More

    H2-receptor Antagonist Use and Mortality in Pulmonary Hypertension: Insight from the VA-CART Program.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Indiana University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States.

    Gene Promoter Hypermethylation Detected in Sputum Predicts FEV1 Decline and All-cause Mortality in Smokers.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Lovlace Respiratory Research Institute, Lung Cancer, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States.
    Rationale: Gene promoter hypermethylation detected in sputum assesses the extent of field cancerization and predicts lung cancer (LC) risk in ever smokers. A rapid decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is a major driver for development of airway obstruction.

    Objectives: To assess the effects of methylation of 12 genes on FEV1 decline and of FEV1 decline on subsequent LC incidence using two independent, longitudinal cohorts (i. Read More

    Excess Mucin Impairs Subglottic Epithelial Host Defense in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Newcastle University, 5994, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;
    Rationale: Aspiration of infective subglottic secretions causes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Mechanisms underlying subglottic colonization in critical illness have not been defined, limiting strategies for targeted prevention of VAP.

    Objectives: To characterize subglottic host defense dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Read More

    Genome Wide Association Study in African Americans with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Identifies the Selectin P Ligand Gene as a Risk Factor.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    University of Arizona, Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, United States ;
    Rationale: Genetic factors are involved in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) susceptibility. Identification of novel candidate genes associated with increased risk and severity will improve our understanding of ARDS pathophysiology and enhance efforts to develop novel preventive and therapeutic approaches.

    Methods: A genome-wide association study was performed on 232 African-American patients with ARDS and 162 at-risk controls. Read More

    Challenges in Pulmonary Hypertension: Controversies in Treating the Tip of the Iceberg.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 24481, Critical Care Medicine Department, Bethesda, Maryland, United States ;
    The Critical Care Medicine Department of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and the Pulmonary Hypertension Association held a joint symposium to discuss "Challenges in Pulmonary Hypertension: Beating, Breathing, and Beyond." Communities of interest including patient advocates, clinicians, and academic investigators gathered together to raise awareness and highlight the challenges in diagnosing and treating pulmonary hypertension (PH). The current symposium focused on whether or not pulmonary arterial hypertension specific treatments are warranted as therapies for PH due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis. Read More

    Regulatory T Cells Subvert Mycobacterial Containment in Patients Failing Extensively Drug-resistant TB Treatment.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    University of Cape Town, Lung Infection and Immunity Unit and Division of Pulmonology, Cape Town , South Africa ;
    Rationale: The advent of extensively (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant TB, with limited or no treatment options, has facilitated renewed interest in host directed immunotherapy, particularly for therapeutically destitute patients. However, the selection and utility of such approaches depend upon understanding the host immune response in XDR-TB, which hitherto remains unexplored.

    Objectives: To determine the host immunological profile in patients with XDR-TB, compared to drug-sensitive TB, using peripheral blood and explanted lung tissue. Read More

    Unstable Inflation Causing Injury: Insight from Prone Position and Paired CT Scans.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    University of Pennsylvania, Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States ;
    Background: It remains unclear how prone positioning improves survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Using serial computed tomography (CT), we previously reported that 'unstable' inflation, i.e. Read More

    Platelets Regulate Pulmonary Inflammation and Tissue Destruction in Tuberculosis.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Imperial College London, Infectious Diseases & Immunity, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;
    Rationale: Platelets may interact with the immune system in tuberculosis (TB) to regulate human inflammatory responses that lead to morbidity and spread of infection.

    Objectives: To identify a functional role of platelets in the innate inflammatory and matrix degrading response in TB.

    Methods: Markers of platelet activation were examined in plasma from 50 TB patients pre-treatment, and 50 controls. Read More

    At the Root: Defining and Halting Progression of Early Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Imperial College London, National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder with varying presentations and progression, but limited disease-modifying therapies. Trajectories of lung function decline in COPD differ significantly between individuals, with differences detectable in young adulthood. "Early disease" (initial manifestations in young individuals) should be distinguished from "late mild disease" (disease of mild severity in older individuals potentially present for decades). Read More

    Mitochondrial HSP90 Accumulation Promotes Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Centre de recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Québec, Quebec, Canada ;
    Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vascular remodeling disease with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic option. Although the mechanisms contributing to vascular remodeling in PAH are still unclear, several features, including hyper-proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), have led to the emergence of the cancer-like concept. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is directly associated with malignant growth and proliferation under stress conditions. Read More

    A Genome-wide Association Study in Hispanics/Latinos Identifies Novel Signals for Lung Function. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Columbia University, Department of Medicine and Department of Epidemiology, New York, New York, United States.
    Rationale: Lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heritable traits. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous pulmonary function and COPD loci, primarily in cohorts of European ancestry.

    Objectives: Perform a GWAS of COPD-phenotypes in Hispanic/Latino populations to identify loci not previously detected in European populations. Read More

    Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule Stimulates the T Cell Response in Allergic Asthma.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Pediatrics, Seoul, Korea, Republic of ;
    Rationale: Activated leukocyte cell-adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a cluster of differentiation 6 ligand that is important for stabilizing the immunological synapse and inducing T cell activation and proliferation.

    Objectives: This study investigated the role of ALCAM in the development of inflammation in allergic asthma.

    Methods: An ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model was established in wild-type (WT) and ALCAM-deficient (ALCAM-/-) mice. Read More

    Research Priorities in Pathophysiology for Sleep-disordered Breathing in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2018 Feb;197(3):289-299
    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions; the co-occurrence of these diseases, called the overlap syndrome (OVS), has been associated with poor health outcomes.

    Purpose: The purpose of this Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement is to describe pathophysiology, epidemiology, outcomes, diagnostic metrics, and treatment of OVS, as well as to identify important gaps in knowledge and make recommendations for future research.

    Methods: Clinicians and researchers with expertise in sleep medicine, pulmonary medicine, or both were invited to participate. Read More

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