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    14391 results match your criteria American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine[Journal]

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    Exhaustion of Airway Basal Progenitor Cells in Early and Established COPD.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    University of Colorado, Department of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States ;
    Rationale: Up to 40% of smokers develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) over a period that spans decades. Despite the importance of COPD, much remains to be learned about susceptibility and pathogenesis, especially during early, pre-diagnostic stages of disease. Airway basal progenitor cells are crucial for lung health and resilience, because of their ability to repair injured airways. Read More

    Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Causes, Diagnosis and Management.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Mayo Clinic Minnesota, 4352, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, United States ;
    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is an uncommon acute respiratory illness of varying severity that includes presentation as acute respiratory distress syndrome with fatal outcome. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia may be idiopathic but identifiable causes include smoking and other inhalational exposures, medications and infections. The pathogenesis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia is poorly understood but likely varies depending on the underlying cause. Read More

    Reply to: Increasing Physical Activity in Daily Life in COPD: Each Piece Counts to Solve the Puzzle.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Respiratory Medicine, Harefield Hospital, Harefield, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;

    Risk Trajectories of Readmission and Death in the First Year Following Hospitalization for COPD.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Yale University School of Medicine, 12228, Internal Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States.
    Rationale Characterizing the dynamic nature of post-hospital risk in COPD is needed to provide counseling and plan clinical services. Objectives To analyze risk of readmission and death among Medicare beneficiaries >=65 years following discharge for COPD, and to determine the association between ventilator support and risk trajectory. Methods We computed daily absolute risks of hospital readmission and death for one year after discharge for COPD, stratified by ventilator support. Read More

    Recommendations for a Standardized Pulmonary Function Report. An Official American Thoracic Society Technical Statement.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Dec;196(11):1463-1472
    Background: The American Thoracic Society committee on Proficiency Standards for Pulmonary Function Laboratories has recognized the need for a standardized reporting format for pulmonary function tests. Although prior documents have offered guidance on the reporting of test data, there is considerable variability in how these results are presented to end users, leading to potential confusion and miscommunication.

    Methods: A project task force, consisting of the committee as a whole, was approved to develop a new Technical Standard on reporting pulmonary function test results. Read More

    Evaluating UK National Guidance for Screening of Children for TB: A Prospective Multi-centre Study.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, 1727, Birmingham, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;
    Rationale and Objective In order to identify infected contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended the addition of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) to the tuberculin skin test (TST) in its 2006 TB guidelines. Treatment for TB infection was no longer recommended for children screened TST-positive but IGRA-negative. We carried out a cohort study to evaluate the risk of TB disease in this group. Read More

    Identification of Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: An International Modified Delphi Survey.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 27. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    University of California, San Francisco, Department of Medicine, San Francisco, California, United States ;
    Rationale: Current diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP) involves considering a combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological information in multidisciplinary team discussions. However, this approach is highly variable with poor agreement between centers.

    Objectives: We aimed to identify diagnostic criteria for cHP that reach consensus among international experts. Read More

    Corticosteroid Therapy for Critically Ill Patients with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ;
    Rationale: Corticosteroid therapy is commonly used among critically ill patients with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), but its impact on outcomes is uncertain. Analyses of observational studies often do not account for patients' clinical condition at the time of corticosteroid therapy initiation.

    Objectives: To investigate the association of corticosteroid therapy on mortality and on MERS coronavirus RNA clearance in critically ill patients with MERS. Read More

    B Cells Producing Type I Interferon Modulate Macrophage Polarization in Tuberculosis.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 27051, IPBS, Toulouse, France ;
    Rationale: In addition to their well-known function as antibody-producing cells, B lymphocytes can markedly influence the course of infectious or non-infectious diseases via antibody-independent mechanisms. In tuberculosis, B cells accumulate in lungs, yet their functional contribution to the host response remains poorly understood.

    Objectives: To document the role of B cells in tuberculosis in an unbiased manner. Read More

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Diagnosis and Management: High-Resolution Chest Computed Tomography, Transbronchial Lung Biopsy, and Pleural Disease Management. An Official American Thoracic Society/Japanese Respiratory Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov;196(10):1337-1348
    Background: Recommendations regarding key aspects related to the diagnosis and pharmacological treatment of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) were recently published. We now provide additional recommendations regarding four specific questions related to the diagnosis of LAM and management of pneumothoraces in patients with LAM.

    Methods: Systematic reviews were performed and then discussed by a multidisciplinary panel. Read More

    Increased Echocardiographic Pulmonary Pressure in HIV-infected and Uninfected Individuals in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, United States ;
    Background: The epidemiology and prognostic impact of increased pulmonary pressure among HIV-infected individuals in the antiretroviral therapy era is not well described.

    Methods: This study evaluated 8,296 veterans referred for echocardiography with reported pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) estimates from the Veterans Aging Cohort study, an observational cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected veterans matched by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and clinical site. The primary outcome was adjusted mortality by HIV status. Read More

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Affects Amyloid Burden in Cognitively Normal Elderly: A Longitudinal Study.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    New York University Langone Medical Center, 12297, Center for Brain Health, Department of Psychiatry , New York, New York, United States ;
    Rationale: Recent evidence suggests that Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) may be a risk factor for developing Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, how sleep apnea affects longitudinal risk for Alzheimer's disease is less well understood.

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that there is an association between severity of OSA and longitudinal increase in amyloid burden in cognitively normal elderly. Read More

    CDHR3 Genetics and Rhinovirus C Respiratory Illnesses.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    COPSAC, Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark ;
    Background Experimental evidence suggests that CDHR3 is a receptor for rhinovirus-C (RV-C), and a missense variant in this gene (rs6967330) is associated with childhood asthma with severe exacerbations. Objective To determine whether rs6967330 influences RV-C infections and illnesses in early childhood. Methods We studied associations between rs6967330 and respiratory infections and illnesses in the COPSAC2010 and COAST birth cohorts, where respiratory infections were monitored prospectively for the first 3 years of life. Read More

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea During Rapid Eye Movement Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Johns Hopkins University, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States ;
    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a common disorder. Data on whether OSA that occurs predominantly during REM sleep is associated with health outcomes are limited. The present study examined the association between OSA during REM sleep and a composite cardiovascular endpoint in a community sample with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Read More

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