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    14287 results match your criteria American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine[Journal]

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    Health Disparities in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Blueprint for Action. An Official American Thoracic Society Statement.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Oct;196(8):e32-e47
    Background: Health disparities have a major impact in the quality of life and clinical care received by minorities in the United States. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare cardiopulmonary disorder that affects children and adults and that, if untreated, results in premature death. The impact of health disparities in the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome of patients with PAH has not been systematically investigated. Read More

    The Role of Danger Signals in the Pathogenesis and Perpetuation of Critical Illness.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Weill Cornell Medical College, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Weill Department of Medicine, New York, New York, United States ;
    The innate immune system induces inflammation through induction of multiple pathways including the TNFα/NF-κB signaling as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome cascade activation with production of inflammatory molecules. Pathogen associated molecular patterns are immunogenic costimulatory molecules that can activate the innate immune system in the presence of foreign pathogens. These molecularly distinct, foreign, particles initiate inflammatory and cell death cascades of the innate immune response through the binding of pathogen recognition receptors such as toll like receptors. Read More

    Lung Cancer Screening and Smoking Cessation Clinical Trials: SCALE Collaboration.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    University of Minnesota, Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States ;
    National recommendations for lung cancer screening for former and current smokers aged 55-80 years with a 30-pack year smoking history create demand to implement efficient and effective systems to offer smoking cessation on a large scale. These older, high-risk smokers differ from participants in past clinical trials of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for tobacco dependence. There is a gap in knowledge about how to best design systems to extend reach and treatments to maximize smoking cessation in the context of lung cancer screening. Read More

    Evaluating Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: When Is a Biomarker Ready for Clinical Use? An Official American Thoracic Society Policy Statement.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Oct;196(7):e15-e29
    Background: Molecular biomarkers have the potential to improve the current state of early lung cancer detection. The goal of this project was to develop a policy statement that provides guidance about the level of evidence required to determine that a molecular biomarker, used to support early lung cancer detection, is appropriate for clinical use.

    Methods: An ad hoc project steering committee was formed, to include individuals with expertise in the early detection of lung cancer and molecular biomarker development, from inside and outside of the Assembly on Thoracic Oncology. Read More

    Cellular Immunotherapy for Septic Shock (CISS): A Phase I Clinical Trial.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 29. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ;
    Rationale: In septic animal models mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) modulate inflammation, enhance tissue repair and pathogen clearance, and reduce death.

    Objectives: We conducted a Phase I dose escalation trial of MSCs in septic shock with the primary objective to examine the safety and tolerability of MSCs.

    Methods: We enrolled nine participants within 24 hours of admission to the intensive care unit. Read More

    Effect of Early Life Geohelminth Infections on the Development of Wheezing at 5 Years of Age.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;
    Rationale: Exposures to geohelminths during gestation or early childhood may reduce risk of wheezing illness/asthma and atopy during childhood in tropical regions.

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of maternal and early childhood geohelminths on development of wheeze/asthma and atopy during the first 5 years of life.

    Methods: Cohort of 2,404 neonates followed to 5 years of age in rural District in coastal Ecuador. Read More

    Features and Outcomes of Methamphetamine Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    University of Pennsylvania, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States ;
    Rationale: While amphetamines are recognized as "likely" agents to cause drugs and toxins associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), (meth)amphetamine associated PAH (Meth-APAH) has not been well described.

    Objectives: To prospectively characterize the clinical presentation, histopathology, and outcomes of Meth-APAH compared to those of idiopathic PAH (iPAH).

    Methods And Measurements: We performed a prospective cohort study of Meth-APAH and iPAH patients presenting to the Stanford University Pulmonary Hypertension Program between 2003-2015. Read More

    COPD Alters Immune Cell Composition and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Efficacy in NSCLC.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, Washington, United States.
    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are interrelated diseases with substantial mortality; the pathogenesis of both involves aberrant immune functioning.

    Objective: To profile the immune cell composition and function in patients with NSCLC and describe the effect of COPD on lung and tumor microenvironments.

    Methods: We profiled resected lung and tumor tissue using flow cytometry and T-cell receptor sequencing in patients with and without COPD from a prospective cohort of patients undergoing resection of NSCLC. Read More

    Face Masks and Cough Etiquette Reduce the Cough Aerosol Concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in People with Cystic Fibrosis.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    The Prince Charles Hospital, Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Rationale: People with cystic fibrosis (CF) generate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in droplet nuclei during coughing. The use of surgical masks has been recommended in healthcare settings to minimise pathogen transmission between CF patients.

    Objective: To determine if face masks and cough etiquette reduce viable P. Read More

    50 Years of Research in ARDS. Tidal Volume Selection in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Baltimore, Maryland, United States ;
    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is critical in the management of many patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, MV can also cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The selection of an appropriate tidal volume is an essential part of a lung-protective MV strategy. Read More

    Fetal and Infant Growth Patterns and Risk of Lower Lung Function and Asthma. The Generation R Study.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Erasmus MC, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Rotterdam, Netherlands ;
    Background: Children with lower birth weight are at increased risk of asthma symptoms. We examined associations of fetal and infant growth with childhood lung function and asthma.

    Methods: This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5,635children. Read More

    Tezacaftor/Ivacaftor in Subjects with Cystic Fibrosis and F508del/F508del-CFTR or F508del/G551D-CFTR.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc, 2184, Clinical Development, Boston, Massachusetts, United States ;
    Rationale: Tezacaftor (formerly VX-661) is an investigational small molecule that improves processing and trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in vitro, and improves CFTR function alone and in combination with ivacaftor.

    Objectives: To evaluate safety and efficacy of tezacaftor monotherapy and tezacaftor/ivacaftor combination therapy in subjects with CF homozygous for F508del or compound heterozygous for F508del and G551D.

    Methods: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter, phase 2 study (NCT01531673). Read More

    Emerging Roles of Inflammasomes in Acute Pneumonia.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Louisiana State University, Pathobiolgical Sciences, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States ;
    Pneumonia is responsible for a substantial burden on healthcare worldwide and the single largest cause for death of infants globally. Pneumonia is caused by a variety of pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The lung has developed complex innate immune mechanisms to combat these infections while minimizing tissue damage. Read More

    Mechanical Ventilation-induced Diaphragm Atrophy Strongly Impacts Clinical Outcomes.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    University Health Network, Department of Medicine, Division of Respirology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Rationale Diaphragm dysfunction worsens outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients but the clinical impact of potentially preventable changes in diaphragm structure and function due to mechanical ventilation is unknown. Objectives To determine whether diaphragm atrophy developing during mechanical ventilation leads to prolonged ventilation. Methods Diaphragm thickness was measured daily by ultrasound in adults requiring invasive mechanical ventilation; inspiratory effort was assessed by thickening fraction. Read More

    Randomised Controlled Trial of Urokinase versus Placebo for Non-draining Malignant Pleural Effusion.
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017 Sep 19. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    University of Oxford, Oxford Respiratory Trials Unit, Oxford, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;
    Rationale: Patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) experience breathlessness, which is treated by drainage and pleurodesis. Incomplete drainage results in residual dyspnea and pleurodesis failure. Intrapleural fibrinolytics lyse septations within pleural fluid, improving drainage. Read More

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