Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York; New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York; Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York.
Introduction: Adolescents with chronic medical conditions (CMCs) are at increased risk of vaccine-preventable infections. Little is known about their vaccine uptake.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 3,989 adolescents aged 11-17 years receiving care at academically affiliated pediatric clinics between August 2011 and June 2013. Read More
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, Colorado.
Introduction: Reducing obesity and diabetes risks among women of child-bearing age is urgently needed to halt the transgenerational cycle of disease. Interventions among pregnant women have largely been ineffective and may be initiated too late to improve maternal and child health. The National Diabetes Prevention Program is a widely disseminated lifestyle intervention that may help mitigate risks before pregnancy. Read More
Oregon Health & Science University-Portland State University School of Public Health, Portland, Oregon. Electronic address:
Introduction: Childhood maltreatment is associated with later obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which depression mediates the associations between childhood maltreatment and BMI in adolescence through adulthood.
Methods: Data on a cohort of 13,362 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Wave I [1994-1995] to Wave IV [2008-2009]) were analyzed in 2015-2016. Read More
Department of Health Management and Policy, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
Introduction: This study examined how mothers' Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) relate to their children's developmental risk and assessed how the association is mediated through mothers' depressive symptoms and fair/poor health.
Methods: Mothers of children aged between 4 months and 4 years were recruited from the emergency department of a children's hospital between March 2012 and June 2015 and interviewed about ACEs, mothers' depressive symptoms and health status, and children's developmental risk (screened via Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status [PEDS]). Between August and November 2016 a Cochran-Armitage test assessed trend of PEDS by ACEs. Read More
Introduction: Estimates of obesity prevalence based on current BMI are an important but incomplete indicator of the total effects of obesity on a population.
Methods: In this study, data on current BMI and maximum BMI were used to estimate prevalence and trends in lifetime obesity status, defined using the categories never (maximum BMI ≤30 kg/m(2)), former (maximum BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) and current BMI ≤30 kg/m(2)), and current obesity (current BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Prevalence was estimated for the period 2013-2014 and trends for the period 1988-2014 using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Read More
Introduction: Previous studies suggest an association between paid sick leave (PSL) and better population health, including fewer infectious and nosocomial gastrointestinal disease outbreaks. Yet few studies examine whether laws requiring employers to offer PSL demonstrate a similar association. This mixed-methods study examined whether laws requiring employers to provide PSL are associated with decreased foodborne illness rates, particularly laws that are more supportive of employees taking leave. Read More
Introduction: Approximately 40 million people in the U.S. identify as having a serious disability, and people with disabilities experience many health disparities compared with the general population. Read More
Introduction: Dental caries are highly prevalent among children and have negative health consequences. Their occurrence may depend in part on school-based environmental or policy-related factors, but few researchers have explored this subject. This study aimed to identify oral health promoting school environment types and estimate their relation with 2-year dental caries incidence among Québec children aged 8-10 years. Read More
Introduction: Knee pain may preclude participation in higher intensity physical activity in people with knee osteoarthritis and benefits of light activity are unclear. The effect of replacing sedentary time with light intensity activity on incident functional limitation 2 years later was investigated.
Methods: Included were people with or at high risk of knee osteoarthritis without baseline functional limitation using data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative collected between August 2008 and July 2010. Read More
Introduction: Pregnant women are at risk for severe influenza-related complications; however, only 52% reported receiving an influenza vaccination during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Text4baby, a free national text service, provides influenza vaccination education and reminders to pregnant women. This study examined reported influenza vaccination during pregnancy among Text4baby participants who reported receiving influenza messages and women who reported never participating in Text4baby. Read More
Department of Pediatrics, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; NYU/Abu Dhabi Public Health Research Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; College of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, New York; Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.
Introduction: Because of the rapidly increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), this study aimed to investigate the individual characteristics and state-level prevalence of U.S. adults who have switched to e-cigarettes from traditional cigarettes. Read More
Population Wellbeing and Environment Research Lab (PowerLab), School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia; Early Start, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia; Menzies Centre for Health Policy, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:
Introduction: There are few studies on the potential benefits of green space quantity and quality for child well-being. The authors hypothesized that more and better quality residential green space would be favorable for well-being and that these associations could be subject to effect modification across childhood.
Method: Multilevel linear regression adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic confounders was used to track change in well-being (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Total Difficulties Score and "internalizing" and "externalizing" subscales) across five separate occasions among a cohort of 4,968 Australian children aged 4-5 years beginning in 2004. Read More
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Introduction: Favorable cardiovascular health (FCH) is associated with healthy longevity and reduced cardiovascular mortality risk. However, limited work has investigated the distribution of FCH in older age or considered the antecedents of FCH. Based on prior work linking psychological well-being with cardiovascular endpoints, higher psychological well-being was hypothesized to be associated with increased likelihood of maintaining FCH over time. Read More
Introduction: In support of the nation's effort to address rising healthcare costs and improve healthcare outcomes, the National Academy of Medicine called for a minimum package of public health services available in every community to protect and improve population health and identification of the resources needed to make these services universally available. In response, the Foundational Public Health Services (FPHS) framework was developed to outline a basic set of public health programs and capabilities. Although the FPHS is considered a useful public health practice tool, cost estimation for providing the FPHS is in its infancy. Read More
Introduction: Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U. Read More
Introduction: The Department of Defense uses a universal prevention framework for sexual assault prevention, with each branch implementing its own branch-wide programs. Intensive interventions exist, but would be cost effective only if targeted at high-risk personnel. This study developed actuarial models to identify male U. Read More
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of General Academic Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts.
Introduction: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 gave the U.S. Department of Agriculture authority to regulate school wellness policies, which include nutritional standards for foods advertised in schools. Read More
Introduction: Appropriate identification of subjects who are candidates for spirometry through case-finding questionnaires may help solve the problem of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease misdiagnosis. The performance of case-finding questionnaires depends at least partially on the characteristics of the population used for their development. The use of an accurate threshold for the forced expiratory volume in 1 second / forced vital capacity ratio to define persistent airway obstruction is also vital in ascertaining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Read More
Introduction: Primary care physicians are well placed to offer physical activity counseling, but insufficient time is a barrier. Referral to an exercise specialist is an alternative. In Australia, exercise specialists are publicly funded to provide face-to-face counseling to patients who have an existing chronic illness. Read More
Institute for Research on Women and Gender, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Addiction Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Introduction: Although sport participation among adolescents has been found to lower the risk of traditional cigarette smoking, no studies to date have assessed if this type of physical activity lowers the risk of e-cigarette use among adolescents.
Methods: National data from the 2014 and 2015 Monitoring the Future study of 12th-grade students were used and analyses were conducted in 2016. Measures for past 30-day e-cigarette use and traditional cigarette smoking were used to assess differences between adolescents who participated in at least one competitive sport during the past year and adolescents who did not. Read More
Introduction: The associations of modifiable lifestyle risk factors with incident diabetes are not well investigated in African Americans (AAs). This study investigated the association of modifiable lifestyle risk factors (exercise, diet, smoking, TV watching, and sleep-disordered breathing burden) with incident diabetes among AAs.
Methods: Modifiable lifestyle risk factors were characterized among 3,252 AAs in the Jackson Heart Study who were free of diabetes at baseline (2000-2004) using baseline questionnaires and combined into risk factor categories: poor (0-3 points), average (4-7 points), and optimal (8-11 points). Read More
UK Clinical Research Collaboration Centre for Diet and Activity Research, Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine, Washington State University, Spokane, Washington.
Introduction: Eating meals away from home has been associated with the consumption of unhealthy foods and increased body weight. However, more rigorous assessment of the contribution of different types of away-from-home food establishments to overall diet quality and obesity is minimal. This study examined usage of these food establishments, accordance to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern and obesity status in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United Kingdom. Read More
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
Introduction: Although one in seven Americans receives Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, little is known about how these benefits for food are spent because individual-level sales data are not publicly available. The purpose of this study is to compare transactions made with and without SNAP benefits at a large regional supermarket chain.
Methods: Sales data were obtained from a large supermarket chain in the Northeastern U. Read More
Context: The health and economic burden of hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is substantial. This systematic review evaluated the economic evidence of self-measured blood pressure (SMBP) monitoring interventions to control hypertension.
Evidence Acquisition: The literature search from database inception to March 2015 identified 22 studies for inclusion with three types of interventions: SMBP used alone, SMBP with additional support, and SMBP within team-based care (TBC). Read More
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
Cancer disparities research is motivated by persistent inequities in cancer outcomes by race, ethnicity, social status, neighborhood location, and other subpopulation characteristics. These inequities have proven to be persistent and difficult to alter. Part of the reason for the frustration with slow progress is a lack of appreciation of the long-term nature of the undertaking. Read More
Introduction: Tobacco contributes to multiple cancers, and it is largely preventable. As overall smoking prevalence in California declines, smoking has become concentrated among high-risk groups. Targeting social/cultural groups (i. Read More
Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Read More
Center for Community-Based Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Young adulthood represents a time of myriad transitions, which leave young adults (YAs) more susceptible to the influences of cancer risk-promoting information. The tobacco, alcohol, indoor tanning, and food and beverage industries engage in aggressive marketing strategies through both traditional and social media to target this age group to consume their products, which have known links to cancer. Despite this barrage of messaging, detailed data are lacking on the communication behaviors of subgroups of this diverse age group, particularly those from low SES. Read More
Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life. A number of social, behavioral, and environmental factors during early adulthood influence cancer risk, including dietary patterns, physical inactivity, medical conditions (e. Read More
Introduction: This study estimated the percentage of breast cancer cases, total number of incident cases, and total annual medical care costs attributable to alcohol consumption among insured younger women (aged 18-44 years) by type of insurance and stage at diagnosis.
Methods: The study used the 2012-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, cancer incidence data from two national registry programs, and published relative risk measures to estimate the: (1) alcohol-attributable fraction of breast cancer cases among younger women by insurance type; (2) total number of breast cancer incident cases attributable to alcohol consumption by stage at diagnosis and insurance type among younger women; and (3) total annual medical care costs of treating breast cancer incident cases attributable to alcohol consumption among younger women. Analyses were conducted in 2016; costs were expressed in 2014 U. Read More
Introduction: Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood.
Methods: In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. Read More
Introduction: The paper assesses social disparities in the burdens of metabolic and inflammatory risks for cancer in the U.S. young adult population and examines psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms in such disparities. Read More
Introduction: Carcinogen exposure and unhealthy habits acquired in young adulthood can set the stage for the development of cancer at older ages. This study measured the current prevalence of several cancer risk factors among young adults to assess opportunities to intervene to change the prevalence of these risk factors and potentially reduce cancer incidence.
Methods: Using 2015 National Health Interview Survey data (analyzed in 2016), the prevalence of potential cancer risk factors was estimated among U. Read More
Adolescence and young adulthood, a period essential for determining exposures over the life-course, is an ideal time to intervene to lower cancer risk. This demographic group can be viewed as both the target audience and generator of messages for cancer prevention, such as skin cancer, obesity-, tobacco-, and human papillomavirus-related cancers. The purpose of this paper is to encourage innovative health communications that target youth; youth behavior; and the structural, environmental, and social determinants of youth behavior as critical areas of focus for cancer prevention and disparities reduction. Read More
Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies and the Adolescent and Young Adult Health National Resource Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Electronic address: