5,456 results match your criteria American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism[Journal]


Sex-specific regulation of stress-induced fetal glucocorticoid surge by the mouse placenta.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department for Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine. University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.

Antenatal stress increases the prevalence of diseases in later life, which shows a strong sex-specific effect. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Maternal glucocorticoids can be elevated by stress and are potential candidates to mediate the effects of stress on the offspring sex-specifically. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00551.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00551.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Medium-chain triglyceride diet stimulates less GIP secretion and suppresses body weight and fat mass gain compared with long-chain triglyceride diet.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin secreted from enteroendocrine K-cells, and potentiates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. GIP also enhances long-chain triglyceride (LCT) diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Long-term intake of medium chain triglyceride (MCT) diet is known to induce less body weight and fat mass gain than that of LCT diet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00200.2018DOI Listing

C/EBPβ mediates palmitate-induced musclin expression via the regulation of PERK/ATF4 pathways in myotubes.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.

Musclin is a muscle-secreted cytokine that disrupts glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of musclin gene expression in response to treatment with palmitate. RNA sequencing results showed that biological processes activated by palmitate are mainly enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00478.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00478.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effect of PPAR-gamma agonist on aerobic exercise capacity in relation to body fat distribution in men with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec, Canada. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Targeting metabolic determinants of exercise performance with pharmacological agents that would mimic/potentiate the effects of exercise represents an attractive clinical alternative to counterbalance the poor exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Aims: We examined the effect of 1-year treatment with the insulin sensitizer PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone on exercise capacity and body fat composition/distribution in men with T2DM and stable coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: 104 men (age: 64±7 years; BMI: 30. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00505.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Lipolysis Defect in White Adipose Tissue and Rapid Weight Regain.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY. Department of Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States.

Weight regain after weight loss is a well described-phenomena in both humans and animal models of obesity. Reduced energy expenditure and increased caloric intake are considered the main drivers of weight regain. We hypothesized that adipose tissue with obesity memory (OM), has a tissue-autonomous lipolytic defect allowing increased efficiency of lipid storage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00542.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Modest changes to glycemic regulation are sufficient to maintain glucose flux in healthy humans following overfeeding with a habitual macronutrient composition.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Deakin University, Geelong, Australia, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Australia.

Currently, it is unclear whether short-term overfeeding in healthy people significantly affects postprandial glucose regulation, as most human overfeeding studies have utilized induced experimental conditions such as the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique to assess glucoregulation. The aim of this study was to quantify glucose fluxes (rates of meal glucose appearance (Ra), disposal (Rd) and endogenous glucose production (EGP)) in response to 5 and 28 days of overfeeding (+45% energy) while maintaining the habitual diet's macronutrient composition (31.0 ± 1. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00500.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00500.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Role of exercise-induced hepatokines in metabolic disorders.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

The health-promoting effects of physical activity to prevent and treat metabolic disorders are numerous. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet completely deciphered. In recent years, studies have reported that the liver can be considered as a secretory organ by releasing specific proteins called hepatokines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00433.2018DOI Listing

Aging impairs mouse skeletal muscle macrophage polarization and muscle-specific abundance during recovery from disuse.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, University of Utah, 520 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84018. Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, University of Utah, 250 S. 1850 E, RM 214 Salt Lake City, Utah, 84112. Department of Pathology, University of Utah, 15 North Medical Drive East, Ste. #1100 - Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, United States.

Impaired recovery of aged muscle following a disuse event is unresolved issue facing the older adult population. Although investigations in young animals has suggested that rapid regrowth of skeletal muscle following a disuse event involves a coordinated involvement of skeletal muscle macrophages, this phenomenon has not yet been thoroughly tested as an explaination for impaired muscle recovery in aging. To examine this hypothesis, young (3 month) and old (24-26 month) malemice were examined as controls, following 2 weeks of hindlimb unloading (HU) and following 4 (RL4)and 7 (RL7)days of reloading after HU. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00422.2018DOI Listing

Liver X Receptor α Activation Enhances Cholesterol Secretion in Lactating Mammary Epithelium.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Instituto de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Neurociencias (IFIBYNE), CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Departamento de Química Biológica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Liver-X-Receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors activated by cholesterol metabolites. These receptors induce a suite of target genes required for de novo synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol transport in many tissues. Two different isoforms -LXRα and LXRβ- have been well characterized in liver, adipocytes, macrophages and intestinal epithelium among others, but their contribution to cholesterol and fatty acid efflux in the lactating mammary epithelium is poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00548.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Sustained hypoxemia in late gestation potentiates hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression but does not activate glucose production in the ovine fetus.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora CO, United States.

Fetal hypoxemia is associated with pregnancy conditions that cause an early activation of fetal glucose production. However, the independent role of hypoxemia to activate this pathway is not well understood. We hypothesized that fetal hypoxemia would activate fetal glucose production by decreasing umbilical glucose uptake and increasing counter-regulatory hormone concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00069.2019DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Loss of the glucocorticoid receptor in zebrafish improves muscle glucose availability and increases growth.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary 2500 University Drive NW Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Chronic stress and the associated elevation in corticosteroid levels increase muscle protein catabolism. We hypothesized that the GR-regulated restriction of muscle glucose availability may play a role in the increased protein catabolism during chronic stress. To test this, we generated a ubiquitous GR knockout (GRKO) zebrafish to determine the physiological consequence of glucocorticoid stimulation on muscle metabolism and growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00045.2019DOI Listing

Quantifying the contribution of dietary protein to whole body protein kinetics: examination of the intrinsically-labeled proteins method.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Intrinsically-labeled dietary proteins have been used to trace various aspects of digestion and absorption, including quantifying the contribution of dietary protein to observed post-prandial amino acid and protein kinetics in human subjects. Quantification of the rate of appearance in peripheral blood of an unlabeled (tracee) amino acid originating from an intrinsically-labeled protein (exogenous Ra) requires the assumption that there is no dilution of the isotope enrichment of the protein-bound amino acid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or across the splanchnic bed. It must also be assumed that the effective volume of distribution (pV) into which the tracer and tracee appear can be reasonably estimated by a single value, and that any recycling of the tracer is minimal and thus does not affect calculated rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00294.2018DOI Listing

Krüppel-like factor 4 plays a role in the luteal transition in steroidogenesis by down-regulating Cyp19A1 expression.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology, Dept. of Anatomy & Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea, Korea (South), Republic of.

The transition from granulosa cell to luteal cell involves a change from estrogen production to predominantly progesterone production. We analyzed the role of Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a transcriptional repressor used to generate pluripotent cells, in that transition. After luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (LH/hCG) treatment of preovulatory follicles, a major but transient increase in Klf4 transcript levels was detected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00238.2018DOI Listing

Cellular and molecular signatures of alcohol-induced myopathy in women.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Institute of Biomedical Problems, RAS, Khoroshevskoe sh. 76a, 123007, Moscow, Russia.

Alcoholic myopathy is characterized by the reduction in cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers and impaired anabolic signaling. The goal of the current study was to investigate the causes and compare the changes in CSA and fiber type composition with the modifications of anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways at the early stages of chronic alcohol consumption in women.Skeletal muscle samples from 5 female patients with alcohol abuse (AL; 43 ± 5 years old; alcohol abuse duration 5,6±0,6 years) were compared with the muscle from the control group of 8 healthy women (C; 35±4 years old). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00513.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Compensation for cold-induced thermogenesis during weight loss maintenance and regain.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, United States.

Prevalence of obesity is exacerbated by low rates of successful long-term weight loss maintenance (WLM). In part, relapse from WLM to obesity is due to a reduction in energy expenditure (EE) that persists throughout WLM and relapse. Thus, interventions that increase EE might facilitate WLM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00543.2018DOI Listing

Spatial and temporal studies of metabolic activity: Contrasting biochemical kinetics in tissues and pathways during fasted and fed states.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

MRL, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, United States.

The regulation of nutrient homeostasis, i.e. the ability to transition between fasted and fed states, is fundamental in maintaining health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00459.2018DOI Listing

Chronic fructose renders pancreatic beta-cells hyper-responsive to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through extracellular ATP signaling.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva Medical Center, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Faculty Diabetes Center, University of Geneva Medical Center, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

Fructose is widely used as a sweetener in processed food and since then is associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear, in particular regarding the pancreatic beta-cell. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to fructose on the function of insulinoma cells and isolated mouse and human pancreatic islets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00456.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads
3.785 Impact Factor

MYOSTATIN REGULATES PITUITARY DEVELOPMENT AND HEPATIC IGF1.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Washington Center for Muscle Biology, Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-7620. AAVogen Inc., Rockville, MD, 20850, United States.

Circulating myostatin-attenuating agents are being developed to treat muscle wasting disease despite their potential to produce serious off-target effects as myostatin/activin receptors are widely distributed among many non-muscle tissues. Our studies suggest that the myokine not only inhibits striated muscle growth, but also regulates pituitary development and growth hormone (GH) action in the liver. Using a novel myostatin null label retaining model (Jekyll mice), we determined that the heterogeneous pool of pituitary stem, transit amplifying and progenitor cells in Jekyll mice depletes more rapidly after birth than the pool in wild-type mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00001.2019DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Recurrent Glucose Deprivation Leads to the Preferential Use of Lactate by Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine - Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, United States.

Increased GABAergic output in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) contributes to counterregulatory failure in recurrently hypoglycemic (RH) rats and lactate, an alternate fuel source in the brain, contributes to this phenomenon. The current study assessed whether recurring bouts of glucose deprivation enhanced neuronal lactate uptake and if so, whether this influenced GABA output and the counterregulatory responses. Glucose deprivation was induced using 5-thioglucose (5TG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00468.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Germline or inducible knockout of p300 or CBP in skeletal muscle does not alter insulin sensitivity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Introduction: Akt is a critical mediator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The acetyltransferases, E1A binding protein p300 (p300) and cAMP response element-binding protein binding protein (CBP) are phosphorylated and activated by Akt, and p300/CBP can acetylate and inactivate Akt, thus giving rise to a possible Akt-p300/CBP axis. Our objective was to determine the importance of p300 and CBP to skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00497.2018DOI Listing

AMPK and PPARβ positive feedback loop regulates endurance exercise-mediated GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

The objective of this study is to determine whether AMPK, PGC-1α or PPARβ can independently mediate the increase of GLUT4 expression that occurs in response to exercise training. We found that PPARβ can regulate GLUT4 expression without PGC-1α. We also found AMPK and PPARβ are important for maintaining normal physiological levels of GLUT4 protein in the sedentary condition as well following exercise training. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00460.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Multi-Tissue Analysis of Exercise or Metformin on Doxorubicin-Induced Iron Dysregulation.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, United States.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic treatment with lasting side effects in heart and skeletal muscle. DOX is known to bind with iron, contributing to oxidative damage resulting in cardiac and skeletal muscle toxicity. However, major cellular changes to iron regulation in response to DOX are poorly understood in liver, heart and skeletal muscle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00140.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Rapid changes in the microvascular circulation of skeletal muscle impair insulin delivery during sepsis.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN. Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, United States.

Sepsis costs the healthcare system $23 billion annually and has a mortality rate between 10-40%. An early indication of sepsis is the onset of hyperglycemia, which is the result of sepsis-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Previous investigations have focused on events in the myocyte (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00501.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
3.785 Impact Factor

Transgenerational impact of maternal obesogenic diet on offspring bile acid homeostasis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 12;316(4):E674-E686. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.

Studies show maternal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring. Here we evaluated potential mechanisms underlying these phenotypes. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed chow or an obesogenic high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet with subsequent mating of F and F female offspring to lean males to develop F and F generations, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00474.2018DOI Listing

A Novel Measure of Glucose Homeostasis (or Loss thereof) Comprising the Joint Dynamics of Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon and Cortisol.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Division of Endocrinology, Center of Diabetes Technology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, 560 Ray C. Hunt Drive, Box 800831, Charlottesville, VA 22908, United States.

Quantification of disturbances in glucose-insulin homeostasis has been the cornerstone of appraising insulin resistance and detecting early-stage diabetes. Metabolic homeostasis arises from feedback and feed-forward interactions among (at least) all four of glucose, insulin, glucagon and cortisol. Quantifying such tetrapartite interactions in the fasting (endogenously regulated) state overnight could elucidate very early regulatory disruption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00078.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

ELABELA, as a potential diagnostic biomarker of pre-eclampsia, regulates abnormally shallow placentation via APJ.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Context: Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although there has been great progress in the understanding of preeclampsia, the exact cause for the disease development is still unclear. Recently, it showed that genetic deletion of ELABELA (ELA, also known as apela) could induce preeclampsia-like symptoms in mouse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00383.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Microbiome potentiates endurance exercise through intestinal acetate production.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

The intestinal microbiome produces short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from dietary fiber and has specific effects on other organs. During endurance exercise, fatty acids, glucose, and amino acids are major energy substrates. However, little is known about the role of SCFAs during exercise. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00510.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00510.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Exercise Training Promotes a GDF15 Associated Reduction in Fat Mass in Older Adults with Obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 03 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has shown promise as a weight loss agent for obesity in animal studies. In healthy lean humans, fasting plasma GDF15 increases after acute exercise. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00439.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00439.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Human Paneth cell α-defensin 5 treatment reverses dyslipidemia and improves glucoregulatory capacity in diet-induced obese mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Genomics and Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Québec Heart and Lung Institute, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cardiology axe, and Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods, Laval University, Québec, Canada. Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Human Genomics and Metagenomics in Metabolism, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: Overnutrition is the principal cause of insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidemia, which drive non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Overnutrition is further linked to disrupted bowel function, microbiota alterations and change-of-function in gut-lining cell populations including Paneth cells of the small intestine. Paneth cells regulate microbial diversity through expression of antimicrobial peptides, particularly human alpha-defensin-5 (HD-5), and have shown repressed secretory capacity in human obesity. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/ajpendo.00019.2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00019.2019DOI Listing
March 2019
9 Reads

Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance induce gravid uterine defects in association with mitochondrial dysfunction and aberrant ROS production.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of miscarriage, which often accompanies the hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance seen in these patients. However, neither the combinatorial interaction between these two PCOS-related etiological factors nor the mechanisms of their actions in the uterus during pregnancy are well understood. We hypothesised that hyperandrogensim and insulin resistance exert a causative role in miscarriage by inducing defects in uterine function that are accompanied by mitochondrial-mediated oxidative stress, inflammation and perturbed gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00359.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Muscle and serum metabolomes are dysregulated in colon-26 tumor-bearing mice despite amelioration of cachexia with activin receptor type 2B ligand blockade.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Neuromuscular Research Center, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Rautpohjankatu 8, Jyväskylä 40014. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

Cancer-associated cachexia reduces survival, which has been attenuated by blocking the activin receptor type 2B (ACVR2B) ligands in mice. The purpose of this study was to unravel the underlying physiology and novel cachexia biomarkers using the colon-26 (C26) carcinoma model of cancer cachexia. BALB/c male mice were subcutaneously inoculated with C26 cancer cells or vehicle control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00526.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Anti-atherogenic effects of liraglutide in hyperglycemic apolipoprotein E-null mice via AMP-activated protein kinase independent mechanisms.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Showa University School of Medicine, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) exert potent glucose lowering effects without increasing risks for hypoglycemia and weight gain. Preclinical studies have demonstrated direct anti-atherogenic effects of GLP-1RAs in normoglycemic animal models; however, the underlying mechanisms in hyperglycemic conditions have not been fully clarified. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in anti-atherogenic effects of GLP-1RAs in hyperglycemic mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00511.2018DOI Listing

The Impact of GPR1 Signaling on Maternal High-fat Feeding and Placenta Metabolism in Mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Research Laboratory of Reproductive Health, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Chemerin and GPR1 are increased on serum and placenta in mice during pregnancy. Interestingly, we observed increased serum chemerin levels and decreased GPR1 expression in HFD-fed mice placental compared to chow at gestational day 18(D18). GPR1 protein and gene levels were significantly decreased in GDM patient placentas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00437.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads
3.785 Impact Factor

Evidence for a Role for Sestrin1 in Mediating Leucine-Induced Activation of mTORC1 in Skeletal Muscle.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey PA 17033, United States.

Previous studies established that leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle to the same extent as a complete mixture of amino acids, and the effect occurs through activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin in complex 1 (mTORC1). Recent studies using cells in culture showed that the Sestrins bind leucine and are required for leucine-dependent activation of mTORC1. However, the role they play in mediating leucine-dependent activation of the kinase in vivohas been questioned because the dissociation constant of Sestrin2 for leucine is well below circulating and intramuscular levels of the amino acid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00522.2018DOI Listing

Apelin is a novel regulator of human trophoblast amino acid transport.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, United States.

Apelin is an insulin-sensitising hormone increased in abundance with obesity. Apelin and its receptor, APJ, are expressed in the human placenta but whether apelin regulates placental function in normal body mass index (BMI) and obese pregnant women remains unknown. We hypothesised that apelin stimulates amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells and that maternal circulating apelin levels are elevated in obese pregnant women delivering large babies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00012.2019DOI Listing

Energy Metabolism Couples Hepatocyte Integrin-linked Kinase to Liver Glucoregulation and the Postabsorptive Response of Mice in an Age-dependent Manner.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville TN 37232-0615, United States.

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a critical intracellular signaling node for integrin receptors. Its role in liver development is complex as ILK deletion at E10.5 (prior to hepatocyte differentiation) results in biochemical and morphological differences that resolve as mice age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00496.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Fiber Type-selective Exercise Effects on AS160 Phosphorylation.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Muscle Biology Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Institute of Gerontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

Earlier research using muscle tissue demonstrated that post-exercise elevation in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) occurs concomitant with greater insulin-stimulated Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation (pAS160) on sites that regulate ISGU. Because skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue, we previously isolated myofibers from rat epitrochlearis to assess fiber type-selective ISGU. Exercise induced greater ISGU in type I, IIA, IIB and IIBX, but not IIX fibers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00528.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

MicroRNA-183 inhibition exerts suppressive effects on diabetic retinopathy by inactivating BTG1-mediated PI3K/Akt/VEGF signaling pathway.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University 8 School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, P.R., China.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious diabetic complication caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Molecular mechanisms of DR may lead to the discovery of reliable prognostic indicators. The current study aimed to clarify the mechanism of microRNA-183 (miR-183) in DR in relation to the PI3K/Akt/VEGF signaling pathway . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00444.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Estrogen and voluntary exercise attenuate cardiometabolic syndrome and hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat high-fructose diet.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

The prevalence of cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is increased in women after menopause. While hormone replacement therapy has been prescribed to relieve several components of CMS in postmenopausal women, some aspects of cardiometabolic dysfunction cannot be completely restored. The present study examined the effectiveness of estrogen replacement alone and in combination with exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) for alleviating the risks of CMS, insulin-mediated skeletal muscle glucose transport and hepatic fat accumulation in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat high-fructose diet (OHFFD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00466.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Glucose and amino acid metabolism in mice depend mutually on glucagon and insulin receptor signaling.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 26;316(4):E660-E673. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.

Glucagon and insulin are important regulators of blood glucose. The importance of insulin receptor signaling for alpha-cell secretion and of glucagon receptor signaling for beta-cell secretion is widely discussed and of clinical interest. Amino acids are powerful secretagogues for both hormones, and glucagon controls amino acid metabolism through ureagenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00410.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Assessment of pulsatile insulin secretion derived from peripheral plasma C-peptide concentrations by nonparametric stochastic deconvolution.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 May 26;316(5):E687-E694. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua , Padua , Italy.

The characteristics of pulsatile insulin secretion are important determinants of type 2 diabetes pathophysiology, but they are understudied due to the difficulties in measuring pulsatile insulin secretion noninvasively. Deconvolution of either peripheral C-peptide or insulin concentrations offers an appealing alternative to hepatic vein catheterization. However, to do so, there are a series of methodological challenges to overcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00519.2018DOI Listing

In the absence of UCP1-mediated diet-induced thermogenesis, obesity is augmented even in the obesity-resistant 129S mouse strain.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 May 26;316(5):E729-E740. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University , Stockholm , Sweden.

The attractive tenet that recruitment and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) could counteract the development of obesity and its comorbidities in humans has been experimentally corroborated mainly by experiments demonstrating that UCP1-ablated mice on a C57Bl/6 background (exempt from thermal stress) become more obese when fed a high-fat diet. However, concerns may be raised that this outcome of UCP1 ablation is restricted to this very special inbred and particularly obesity-prone mouse strain. Therefore, we have examined to which degree UCP1 ablation has similar metabolic effects in a mouse strain known to be obesity resistant: the 129S strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00020.2019DOI Listing
May 2019
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Systemic bile acids induce insulin resistance in a TGR5-independent manner.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine Nashville, TN, United States.

Bile acids are involved in the emulsification and absorption of dietary fats as well as acting as signaling molecules. Recently, bile acid signaling through farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor (TGR5) has been reported to elicit changes in not only bile acid synthesis but also metabolic processes including altering gluconeogenic gene expression and energy expenditure. A role for bile acids in glucose metabolism is also supported by a correlation between changes in the metabolic state of patients (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00362.2018DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Contractile activity-specific transcriptome response to acute endurance exercise and training in human skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 19;316(4):E605-E614. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Moscow , Russia.

Reduction in daily activity leads to dramatic metabolic disorders, while regular aerobic exercise training is effective for preventing this problem. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that are directly related to contractile activity in human skeletal muscle, regardless of the level of fitness. Transcriptome changes after the one-legged knee extension exercise in exercised and contralateral nonexercised vastus lateralis muscle of seven men were evaluated by RNA-seq. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00449.2018DOI Listing

Indicator amino acid oxidation protein requirement estimate in endurance-trained men 24 h postexercise exceeds both the EAR and current athlete guidelines.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 May 19;316(5):E741-E748. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Exercise Nutrition Research Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, Western University , London, Ontario , Canada.

Despite studies indicating increased protein requirements in strength-trained or endurance-trained (ET) individuals, the Institute of Medicine has concluded that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise," and the controversy regarding exercise effects on protein requirements continues. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary protein requirement of healthy young ET men (≥1 yr training experience) 24 h post exercise (to minimize any acute effects of the previous training session) by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1-C]phenylalanine to CO in response to graded intakes of protein (indicator amino acid oxidation technique). Eight men [maximal oxygen consumption 64. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00174.2018DOI Listing

IL-6 released from muscles during exercise is stimulated by lactate-dependent protease activity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism (CIM) and the Centre for Physical Activity Research (CFAS), Copenhagen University Hospital, 7641, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: IL-6 is secreted from muscles to the circulation during high intensity and long duration exercise, where muscle-derived IL-6 works as an energy sensor to increase release of energy substrates from liver and adipose tissues. Here, we investigated the mechanism involved in the exercise-mediated surge in IL-6 during exercise.

Methods: Using interval-based cycling in healthy young men, swimming exercise in mice and electrical stimulation of primary human muscle cells, we explored the role of lactate production in muscular IL-6 release during exercise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00414.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Skeletal muscle fiber type-selective effects of acute exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin-resistant, high-fat-fed rats.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 May 12;316(5):E695-E706. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Muscle Biology Laboratory, School of Kinesiology, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) by skeletal muscle is enhanced several hours after acute exercise in rats with normal or reduced insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle is composed of multiple fiber types, but exercise's effect on fiber type-specific insulin-stimulated GU in insulin-resistant muscle was previously unknown. Male rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 2 wk) and were either sedentary (SED) or exercised (2-h exercise). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00482.2018DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Deletion of leptin receptors in vagal afferent neurons disrupts estrogen signaling, body weight, food intake and hormonal controls of feeding in female mice.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Apr 12;316(4):E568-E577. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis , Davis, California.

Deletion of the leptin receptor from vagal afferent neurons (VAN) using a conditional deletion (Nav1.8/LepR) results in an obese phenotype with increased food intake and lack of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced satiation in male mice. Female mice are partially protected from weight gain and increased food intake in response to ingestion of high-fat (HF) diets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00296.2018DOI Listing

Amino acid and fatty acid metabolomic profile during fasting and hyperinsulinemia in girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 May 12;316(5):E707-E718. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus , Aurora, Colorado.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and altered muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. IR in adults with obesity and diabetes is associated with changes in amino acid, free fatty acid (FFA), and mitochondrial acylcarnitine (AC) metabolism. We sought to determine whether these metabolites are associated with IR and/or androgens in youth-onset PCOS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00532.2018DOI Listing
May 2019
13 Reads

CORRIGENDUM.

Authors:

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb;316(2):E345

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.zh1-8043-corr.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397362PMC
February 2019