7,780 results match your criteria American journal of physical anthropology[Journal]


The Neolithic Pitted Ware culture foragers were culturally but not genetically influenced by the Battle Axe culture herders.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Human Evolution, Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objectives: In order to understand contacts between cultural spheres in the third millennium BC, we investigated the impact of a new herder culture, the Battle Axe culture, arriving to Scandinavia on the people of the sub-Neolithic hunter-gatherer Pitted Ware culture. By investigating the genetic make-up of Pitted Ware culture people from two types of burials (typical Pitted Ware culture burials and Battle Axe culture-influenced burials), we could determine the impact of migration and the impact of cultural influences.

Methods: We sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 25 individuals from typical Pitted Ware culture burials and from Pitted Ware culture burials with Battle Axe culture influences in order to determine if the different burial types were associated with different gene-pools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24079DOI Listing

Mapping carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of fingernails to demonstrate a rural-urban nutrition transition in the Center-West, Northeast, and Amazon regions of Brazil.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Laboratório de Ecologia Isotópica, CENA, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil.

Objective: The main objective of this study is to investigate diet patterns among rural and urban populations of the Center-West, Northeast, and Amazon regions of Brazil through the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of fingernails, recognizing that the extent of market integration is a key driver of food consumption.

Materials And Methods: In the Center-West, Northeast, and Amazon regions of Brazil, fingernails were sampled in clusters encompassing a major city, town, and rural village. A total of 2,133 fingernails were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24078DOI Listing

Sexual dimorphism and growth in Alouatta palliata based on 20+ years of field data.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Evolutionary Anthropology Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: Alouatta palliata patterns of growth and sexual dimorphism are evaluated using 20 plus years of field data. Comparisons are made to other species of Alouatta and other New World primates.

Materials And Methods: Records of 92 A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24055DOI Listing

Survival analysis of the Black Death: Social inequality of women and the perils of life and death in Medieval London.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 29:e24081. Epub 2020 May 29.

Anthropology Program, University of La Verne, La Verne, California, USA.

Objectives: Described as an indiscriminate killer by many chroniclers, the Black Death descended on London during the 14th century. To best understand the pattern of transmission among demographic groups, models should include multiple demographic and health covariates concurrently, something rarely done when examining Black Death, but implemented in this study to identify which demographic groups had a higher susceptibility. Female predisposition to the Black Death was also explored, focusing on whether social inequality added to vulnerability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24081DOI Listing

Ontogenetic changes of diploic channels in modern humans.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 28:e24085. Epub 2020 May 28.

Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana, Burgos, Spain.

Objectives: The diploic channels are bony passages of veins, running within frontal, parietal, and occipital bones. In this study, we investigate ontogenetic changes of these channels in a sample of nonadult and adult modern humans.

Materials And Methods: Using computed tomography scans of dried crania, we provide quantitative comparisons of lumen size, branch length, volume, and vascular asymmetries, and correlations with age, cranial size, and bone thickness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24085DOI Listing

Reassessment of the TM 1517 odonto-postcranial assemblage from Kromdraai B, South Africa, and the maturational pattern of Paranthropus robustus.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 24:e24082. Epub 2020 May 24.

UMR 7194 CNRS, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Musée de l'Homme, Paris, France.

Objectives: The Pleistocene taxon Paranthropus robustus was established in 1938 following the discovery at Kromdraai B, South Africa, of the partial cranium TM 1517a and associated mandible TM 1517b. Shortly thereafter, a distal humerus (TM 1517g), a proximal ulna (TM 1517e), and a distal hallucial phalanx (TM 1517k) were collected nearby at the site, and were considered to be associated with the holotype. TM 1517a-b represents an immature individual; however, no analysis of the potentially associated postcranial elements has investigated the presence of any endostructural remnant of recent epiphyseal closure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24082DOI Listing

Sex differences in daily activity intensity and energy expenditure and their relationship to cortisol among BaYaka foragers from the Congo Basin.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Anthropology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA.

Objectives: The pooling of energetic resources and food sharing have been widely documented among hunter-gatherer societies. Much less is known about how the energetic costs of daily activities are distributed across individuals in such groups, including between women and men. Moreover, the metabolic physiological correlates of those activities and costs are relatively understudied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24075DOI Listing

A multi-isotope, multi-tissue study of colonial origins and diet in New Zealand.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 18:e24077. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Durham, UK.

Objectives: Colonial period New Zealand was lauded as a land of plenty, where colonists could improve their station in life and secure a future for their families. Our understanding of colonial experience, however, is often shaped by historical records which communicate a state-sponsored version of history. This study aims to reconstruct the lives of settlers using isotopic evidence from the colonial skeletons themselves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24077DOI Listing

Ancient DNA reveals two paternal lineages C2a1a1b1a/F3830 and C2b1b/F845 in past nomadic peoples distributed on the Mongolian Plateau.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Ancient DNA Laboratory, Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology, Jilin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Since the third century CE, a series of nomadic tribes have been active on the eastern part of the Mongolian Plateau. Characterizing the genetic compositions of past nomadic people is significant for research on the nomadic cultures of the Eurasian Steppe region. Ancient DNA analysis facilitates a deeper understanding of the relationship between historical and modern nomadic populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24076DOI Listing

Comment on data sharing in biological anthropology.

Authors:
Steven R Leigh

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 14:e24073. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Anthropology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24073DOI Listing

Assessing recovery rate methods: A review and application for human skeletal assemblages.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency Laboratory, Offutt AFB, Bellevue, Nebraska, USA.

Objectives: Recovery rates reflect the amount of recovered skeletal materials based on expectations about the total number of elements or individuals that should be present in an assemblage. It is an underlying concept that reflects analytical potential, wherein high recovery rates typically indicate high analytical capabilities. However, numerous methods are available to calculate different types of recovery rates, and each method addresses various types of research questions and utilizes different variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24070DOI Listing

Letter to the editor in support of data sharing, with caveats.

Authors:
Thomas W McDade

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 6:e24072. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Anthropology and Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24072DOI Listing

My New Year's resolution for 2020 is to try harder at sharing data.

Authors:
Sarah Elton

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 6. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Durham, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24071DOI Listing

Enamel growth rates of anterior teeth in males and females from modern and ancient British populations.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Human Osteology Lab, Skeletal Biology Research Centre, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.

Objective: This study explored biological sex differences in the regional daily growth rates of human anterior enamel from modern and ancient populations in Britain.

Methods: Maxillary permanent incisors (n = 80) and canines (n = 69) from Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Medieval, and Modern day populations were analyzed using histological methods. Daily secretion rates (DSRs) were collected for inner, mid, and outer regions of cuspal and lateral enamel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24068DOI Listing

Concerning data sharing in biological anthropology.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Center for Translational Bioethics & Health Care Policy, Geisinger, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24074DOI Listing

Response to letters to the editor concerning AJPA commentary on "data sharing in biological anthropology: Guiding principles and best practices".

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Apr 30:e24065. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24065DOI Listing

Yearbook of Physical Anthropology Preface.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May;171 Suppl 70:3-4

Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24063DOI Listing

Strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope variation in modern human dental enamel.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Earth Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Objectives: Isotopic analyses using human dental enamel provide information on the mobility and diet of individuals in forensic and archeological studies. Thus far, no study has systematically examined intraindividual coupled strontium (Sr), oxygen (O), and carbon (C) isotope variation in human enamel or the effect that caries have on the isotopic integrity of the enamel. The inadequate quantification of isotopic variation affects interpretations and may constrain sample selection of elements affected by caries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24059DOI Listing

High-altitude adaptations mitigate risk for hypertension and diabetes-associated anemia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 23;172(2):156-164. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico.

Background: Human populations native to high altitude exhibit numerous genetic adaptations to hypobaric hypoxia. Among Tibetan plateau peoples, these include increased vasodilation and uncoupling of erythropoiesis from hypoxia.

Objective/methods: We tested the hypothesis that these high-altitude adaptations reduce risk for hypertension and diabetes-associated anemia among the Mosuo, a Tibetan-descended population in the mountains of Southwest China that is experiencing rapid economic change and increased chronic disease risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24032DOI Listing

The effect of diet and sociopolitical change on physiological stress and behavior in late Roman-Early Byzantine (300-700 AD) and Islamic (902-1,235 AD) populations from Ibiza, Spain.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 22;172(2):189-213. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Objectives: This study evaluated chronological changes in physiological stress and levels of habitual loading of Ibizan populations from the Late Roman-Early Byzantine (LREB) to the Islamic period (300-1,235 AD) using measures of body size and bone cross-sectional properties to compare Urban LREB, Urban Medieval Islamic, and Rural Medieval Islamic groups. It also explored the effect of diet, modeled using stable isotopes, on physiological stress levels and behavior.

Materials And Methods: The sample comprised individuals from three archeological populations: Urban Late Roman- Early Byzantine (LREB) (300-700 AD), Medieval Urban Islamic (902-1,235 AD), and Medieval Rural Islamic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24062DOI Listing
June 2020
2.379 Impact Factor

Mitochondrial genomes from Bronze Age Poland reveal genetic continuity from the Late Neolithic and additional genetic affinities with the steppe populations.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 15;172(2):176-188. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Molecular Biology Techniques Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poznań, Poland.

Objective: In this work we aim to investigate the origins and genetic affinities of Bronze Age populations (2,400-1,100 BC) from the region of southern Poland and to trace maternal kinship patterns present in the burials of those populations by the use of complete mitochondrial genomes.

Materials And Methods: We performed ancient DNA analyses for Bronze Age individuals from present-day Poland associated with the Strzyżow culture, the Mierzanowice culture, and the Trzciniec Cultural circle. To obtain complete mitochondrial genomes, we sequenced genomic libraries using Illumina platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24057DOI Listing
June 2020
2.379 Impact Factor

Intrapopulation variation in lower limb trabecular architecture.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Apr 11. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

University of Cambridge, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: Trabecular structure is frequently used to differentiate between highly divergent mechanical environments. Less is known regarding the response of the structural properties to more subtle behavioral differences, as the range of intrapopulation variation in trabecular architecture is rarely studied. Examining the extent to which lower limb trabecular architecture varies when inferred mobility levels and environment are consistent between groups within a relatively homogenous population may aid in the contextualization of interpopulation differences, improve detectability of sexual dimorphism in trabecular structure, and improve our understanding of trabecular bone functional adaptation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24058DOI Listing

The Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Armenian Highland in the genetic history of Armenians.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Apr 9. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Archeology and Ethnography, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia.

Objectives: To investigate the biological diversity of the late Bronze and Iron Age populations in the Armenian Highland by nonmetric cranial traits, evaluate the genetic continuity in the development of the modern Armenian gene pool, and compare the results obtained with genetic data.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-eight nonmetric cranial traits were scored on 498 adult crania from different late Bronze and Iron Age cemeteries, as well as from modern Armenians and other European populations. We carried out a biodistance analysis between populations using the mean measure of divergence (MMD) statistics, tested the spatial-temporal model of population structure, and assessed the diversity within the late Bronze and early Iron Ages by using the values of variability index (Fst). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24060DOI Listing

Fruit-feeding and activity patterns of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Apr 9. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: Availability of fruit is an important factor influencing variation in great ape foraging strategies and activity patterns. This study aims to quantify how frugivory influences activity budgets across age-sex classes of mountain gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda.

Materials And Methods: Daily proportions of fruit-feeding and activity budgets were calculated using 6 years of observational data on four habituated groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24056DOI Listing

Assessment of nutritional stress in famine burials using stable isotope analysis.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 3;172(2):214-226. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

University of Bradford, School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK.

Objectives: We compared δ N and δ C values from bone and dentine collagen profiles of individuals interred in famine-related and attritional burials to evaluate whether individuals in medieval London who experienced nutritional stress exhibit enriched nitrogen in bone and tooth tissue. Dentine profiles were evaluated to identify patterns that may be indicative of famine during childhood and were compared with the age of enamel hypoplasia (EH) formation to assess whether isotopic patterns of undernutrition coincide with the timing of physiological stress.

Materials And Methods: δ N and δ C isotope ratios of bone collagen were obtained from individuals (n = 128) interred in attritional and famine burials from a medieval London cemetery (c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24054DOI Listing

Is the middle cranial fossa a reliable predictor of temporal lobe volume in extant and fossil anthropoids?

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Paleobiology, Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana, Burgos, Spain.

Objectives: We investigate the suitability of middle cranial fossa (MCF) size as a proxy for temporal lobe volume (TLV), examining the strength of the association between TLV and MCF metrics and assess the reliability predicting TLV in fossil anthropoids. The temporal lobe of the primate brain is a multimodal association cortex involved in long-term memory, auditory, and visual processing with unique specializations in modern humans for language comprehension. The MCF is the bony counterpart for the temporal lobe providing inferences for fossil hominin temporal lobe evolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24053DOI Listing

Do dental nonmetric traits actually work as proxies for neutral genomic data? Some answers from continental- and global-level analyses.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Anthropology Department, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA.

Objectives: Crown and root traits, like those in the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS), are seemingly useful as genetic proxies. However, recent studies report mixed results concerning their heritability, and ability to assess variation to the level of genomic data. The aim is to test further if such traits can approximate genetic relatedness, among continental and global samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24052DOI Listing

Resources for functional genomic studies of health and development in nonhuman primates.

Authors:
Anna J Jasinska

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 27;171 Suppl 70:174-194. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Primates display a wide range of phenotypic variation underlaid by complex genetically regulated mechanisms. The links among DNA sequence, gene function, and phenotype have been of interest from an evolutionary perspective, to understand functional genome evolution and its phenotypic consequences, and from a biomedical perspective to understand the shared and human-specific roots of health and disease. Progress in methods for characterizing genetic, transcriptomic, and DNA methylation (DNAm) variation is driving the rapid development of extensive omics resources, which are now increasingly available from humans as well as a growing number of nonhuman primates (NHPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24051DOI Listing

The evolution of pair-living, sexual monogamy, and cooperative infant care: Insights from research on wild owl monkeys, titis, sakis, and tamarins.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 19;171 Suppl 70:118-173. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador.

"Monogamy" and pair bonding have long been of interest to anthropologists and primatologists. Their study contributes to our knowledge of human evolutionary biology and social evolution without the cultural trappings associated with studying human societies directly. Here, we first provide an overview of theoretical considerations, followed by an evaluation of recent comparative studies of the evolution of "social monogamy"; we are left with serious doubts about the conclusions of these studies that stem from the often poor quality of the data used and an overreliance on secondary sources without vetting the data therein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24017DOI Listing

Influences of passive intervertebral range of motion on cervical vertebral form.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 18;172(2):300-313. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Objectives: The cervical spine is the junction between the head and trunk, and it therefore facilitates head mobility and stability. The goal of this study is to test several predictions regarding cervical morphology and intervertebral ranges of motion.

Materials And Methods: Intervertebral ranges of motion for 12 primate species were collected via radiographs or taken from the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24044DOI Listing

Endomaker, a new algorithm for fully automatic extraction of cranial endocasts and the calculation of their volumes.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Mar 18. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli, Naples, Italy.

Objectives: Reproducing cranial endocasts is a major goal of researchers interested in vertebrate brain evolution. We present a new R software, named endomaker, which allows the automatic extraction of endocasts from skull meshes along with the calculation of its volume.

Materials And Methods: We applied endomaker on non-primate and primate skulls including the Australopithecus africanus specimen Sts-5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24043DOI Listing

To the hunter go the spoils? No evidence of nutritional benefit to being or marrying a well-reputed Hadza hunter.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Mar 16. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: The incentives underlying men's hunting acquisition patterns among foragers are much debated. Some argue that hunters preferentially channel foods to their households, others maintain that foods are widely redistributed. Debates have focused on the redistribution of foods brought to camp, though the proper interpretation of results is contested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24027DOI Listing

Intraspecific and interspecific investigations of skeletal DNA methylation and femur morphology in primates.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Mar 14. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

Objectives: Epigenetic mechanisms influence the development and maintenance of complex phenotypes and may also contribute to the evolution of species-specific phenotypes. With respect to skeletal traits, little is known about the gene regulation underlying these hard tissues or how tissue-specific patterns are associated with bone morphology or vary among species. To begin exploring these topics, this study evaluates one epigenetic mechanism, DNA methylation, in skeletal tissues from five nonhuman primate species which display anatomical and locomotor differences representative of their phylogenetic groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24041DOI Listing

A chomped chimp: New evidence of tooth marks on an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 14;172(1):140-147. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Objectives: To describe and interpret previously unreported marks on the dry cranium of an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) from Côte d'Ivoire at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (USNM 450071).

Materials And Methods: All marks on the cranium were documented and assessed through physical examination of the specimen, photography, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and 3D laser scanning. Pits and punctures were measured with digital calipers for comparison with published carnivore tooth mark measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24049DOI Listing

Mandibular symphyseal fusion in fossil primates: Insights from correlated patterns of jaw shape and masticatory function in living primates.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Mar 13. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Evolutionary Anthropology Lab, Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Objectives: Variation in primate masticatory form and function has been extensively researched through both morphological and experimental studies. As a result, symphyseal fusion in different primate clades has been linked to either the recruitment of vertically directed balancing-side muscle force, the timing and recruitment of transversely directed forces, or both. This study investigates the relationship between jaw muscle activity patterns and morphology in extant primates to make inferences about masticatory function in extinct primates, with implications for understanding the evolution of symphyseal fusion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24048DOI Listing

Mandibular corpus shape is a taxonomic indicator in extant hominids.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 13;172(1):25-40. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Anthropology, Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to understand whether the shape of three sub-regions of the mandibular corpus (the alveolar arch, corpus at M and posterior symphysis) are useful for making taxonomic assessments at the genus and species levels in extant hominids.

Materials And Methods: We use data taken from 3D surface scans of the mandibular corpus of seven extant hominid taxa: Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri, Homo sapiens, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, Pongo abelii, and Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus to generate four shape variables: alveolar arch shape (AAS), corpus shape at M (CSM ), posterior symphysis shape at the midline (PSSM), and posterior symphysis shape (PSS). To ascertain how reliable each mandibular shape variable is for assessing taxonomy, we ran canonical discriminant and discriminant function analysis, reporting cross-validated results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24030DOI Listing

Effects of maternal, gestational, and perinatal variables on neonatal line width observed in a modern UK birth cohort.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 10;172(2):314-332. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Natural History Museum, London, UK.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore potential relationships between neonatal line (NNL) width and early life history variables such as maternal health, gestation, the birth process, and perinatal health.

Materials And Methods: Histological thin sections of deciduous canines were studied from 71 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The width of the NNL was measured in three locations on the tooth crown using spatial mapping techniques (ArcGIS) from digital images from an Olympus VS-120 microscope. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24042DOI Listing

A microarchitectural assessment of the gluteal tuberosity suggests two possible patterns in entheseal changes.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 10;172(2):291-299. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Laboratory for Anthropology, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia.

Objectives: Macroscopic entheseal forms show two main features: predominant signs of bony formation or resorption. To understand the development of these forms, we investigated microarchitectural differences between the macroscopic proliferative and resorptive forms of the gluteus maximus enthesis.

Materials And Methods: The macromorphological analysis of entheseal changes (EC) was based on the Villotte, visual scoring system for fibrous entheses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24038DOI Listing

Recent kuru-induced female gene flow disrupted the coevolution of genes and languages in the Papua New Guinea highlands.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 9;172(1):87-98. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, USA.

Objectives: The island of New Guinea was settled by modern human over 50,000 years ago, and is currently characterized by a complex landscape and contains one-seventh of the world's languages. The Eastern Highlands of New Guinea were also the home to the devastating prion disease called kuru that primarily affected Fore-speaking populations, with some 68% of cases involving adult females. We characterized the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of highlanders from Papua New Guinea (PNG) to: (a) gain insight into the coevolution of genes and languages in situ over mountainous landscapes; and (b) evaluate the recent influence of kuru mortality on the pattern of female gene flow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24047DOI Listing

Perimortem versus postmortem damage: The recent case of Cioclovina 1.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 9;172(1):135-139. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Anthropology, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objectives: Kranioti, Grigorescu, and Harvati have recently described (PLoS One 2019, 14(7),e0216718) the breakage to the Cioclovina 1 earlier Upper Paleolithic cranium as indicating fatal interhuman blunt trauma. We have reassessed their analysis in terms of the specimen's condition at discovery, its current condition, and the post-discovery history of the cranium.

Materials And Methods: The original Cioclovina 1 neurocranium and currently associated pieces were visually assessed for the nature of the damage to them, and the records of its discovery, the original 1942 photographs, and their subsequent history in Bucharest were reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24045DOI Listing

Identifying new lineages in the Y chromosome of Colombian Amazon indigenous populations.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 6;172(2):165-175. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Laboratory of Human Molecular Genetics, Department of Biology, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

Objectives: The Y chromosome has highly informative markers, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that are useful for making historical inferences about the settlement of the Americas. However, the scarcity of these markers has limited their use. This study aims to identify new SNPs and increase the phylogenetic resolution of haplogroup Q for the Americas, mainly focusing on the lineages of the Amazon region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24039DOI Listing

Raising girls and boys in early China: Stable isotope data reveal sex differences in weaning and childhood diets during the eastern Zhou era.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Mar 6. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Objectives: Using stable isotope analysis of incremental dentin segments, we reconstruct breastfeeding, weaning, and childhood dietary patterns of Eastern Zhou period (771-221 BC) individuals from the Central Plains of China. Previous isotopic research on the Eastern Zhou demonstrated dietary difference between male and female diets in adulthood via bone collagen analysis. To understand the development of gendered dietary patterns we must examine the early life period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24033DOI Listing

Hired helpers at the nest: The association between life-cycle servants and net fertility in North Orkney, 1851-1911.

Authors:
Julia A Jennings

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Mar 6. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Anthropology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York, USA.

Objectives: The presence of kin is often, but not always, associated with higher fertility in historical populations. However, the effect of other household members on fertility is less frequently studied. While not genetically related, life-cycle servants lived and worked alongside household members and may have provided assistance to reproducing families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24040DOI Listing

Factors influencing infant sex ratio in howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.): A literature review and analysis.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 6;172(1):48-57. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Primate Behavioral Ecology Lab, Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.

Objective: Frequency-dependent selection is expected to maintain infant sex ratios around parity over evolutionary time. However, over ecological time periods, infant sex ratios vary, and it has been proposed that this variation may reflect adaptive processes. In primates, there are consistent patterns of variation in infant sex ratios, although their adaptive significance remains contentious. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24035DOI Listing

Lateralization in seven lemur species when presented with a novel cognitive task.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 4;172(2):270-279. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Primate Behavior and Ecology Program, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington, USA.

Objectives: Asymmetrical behavior patterns are observed in many animal species, but the potential adaptive significance of lateralization and the evolutionary forces driving it remain unclear. Most laterality studies have focused on a single species, which makes interspecies comparisons difficult. The aim of this study was to examine differences in the strength and direction of lateralization in multiple lemur species when engaged in a standardized, novel cognitive task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24037DOI Listing

Ontogeny of the distal femoral metaphyseal surface and its relationship to locomotor behavior in hominoids.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Mar 3. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis, California, USA.

Objective: Distal femoral metaphyseal surface morphology is highly variable in extant mammals. This variation has previously been linked to differences in locomotor behavior. We perform the first systematic survey and description of the development of this morphology in extant hominoids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24036DOI Listing

Skeletal morphology of the lesula (Cercopithecus lomamiensis) and the evolution of guenon locomotor behavior.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 3;172(1):3-24. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

PhD Program in Anthropology, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, New York.

Objectives: The guenons (tribe Cercopithecini) are a diverse and primarily arboreal radiation of Old World monkeys from Africa. However, preliminary behavioral observations of the lesula (Cercopithecus lomamiensis), a little-known guenon species described in 2012, report it spending substantial amounts of time on the ground. New specimens allow us to present the first description of lesula postcranial morphology and apply a comparative functional morphology approach to supplement our knowledge of its locomotor behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24025DOI Listing

Reproductive life histories influence cariogenesis: Exploring sex-specific variation in dental caries and survivorship in the human past.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Feb 29. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA.

Objectives: Differences in dental caries prevalence between males and females is considered a reflection of diet. However, recent syntheses argue that sex-specific variation in dental caries prevalence also reflects changes in the oral cavity attributable to variation in reproductive life histories. This study explores sex-specific variation in carious lesions using a life history perspective to understand if differences in reproductive ecology influence this process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24034DOI Listing
February 2020

The structural and motivational role of the unique lip-flip movement in the gelada (Theropithecus gelada) facial display repertoire.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 Jun 26;172(2):280-290. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objectives: Human language represents an extreme form of communicative complexity. Primate facial display complexity, which depends upon facial mobility, can be used as a model for the study of the evolution of communicative complexity. The gelada (Theropithecus gelada) is the only primate that can produce a lip-flip eversion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24031DOI Listing

Wood and meat as complementary sources of sodium for Kanyawara chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 May 24;172(1):41-47. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Objectives: Sodium, a vital micronutrient that is often in scarce supply for tropical herbivores, is sometimes found at high concentration in decaying wood. We tested two hypotheses for chimpanzees: first, that wood-eating facilitates acquisition of sodium; second, that wood-eating occurs in response to the low availability of sodium from other dietary sources.

Materials And Methods: We studied the behavior of more than 50 chimpanzees of all age-sex classes in the Kanyawara community of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180133PMC