7,573 results match your criteria American journal of physical anthropology[Journal]


Climatic adaptation in human inferior nasal turbinate morphology: Evidence from Arctic and equatorial populations.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Objectives: The nasal turbinates directly influence the overall size, shape, and surface area of the nasal passages, and thus contribute to intranasal heat and moisture exchange. However, unlike the encapsulating walls of the nasal cavity, ecogeographic variation in nasal turbinate morphology among humans has not yet been established. Here we investigate variation in inferior nasal turbinate morphology in two populations from climatically extreme environments. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23840
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23840DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sex ratio and maternal age in a natural fertility, subsistence population: Daughters, sons, daughters.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Maternal and Child Health Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate putative links between birth sex ratios (BSR = male:female births) and maternal age in a traditional, agricultural, natural fertility population. Metabolic energy, social support, and the costs and benefits associated with producing sons versus daughters can affect BSR. These variables fluctuate with maternal age. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23838
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23838DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Nasal cavity and maxillary sinuses form variation among modern humans of Asian descent.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia.

Objectives: This study explores variation, covariation, and ecogeographic pattern of the nasal cavity, maxillary sinuses, and external midfacial skeleton across 15 populations of east Asian origin inhabiting the Far East, Siberia, Alaska and Greenland.

Materials And Methods: We have collected linear measurements of the internal nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and external midfacial skeleton as well as volumes and surface areas of three-dimensional models of the cavity. A set of seven climatic variables, mtDNA and Y-chromosome genetic matrices and a matrix of geographic distances were also utilized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23841DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Dental microwear of living Hadza foragers.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Objectives: Studies of dental microwear of bioarchaeological assemblages and extant mammals from museum collections show that surface texture can provide a valuable proxy for reconstructing diets of past peoples and extinct species. However, no study to date has focused on occlusal surface microwear textures of living hunter-gatherers. Here we present the first such study of the Hadza foragers of Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23836DOI Listing

Heterochrony in chimpanzee and bonobo spatial memory development.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objectives: The emergence of human-unique cognitive abilities has been linked to our species' extended juvenile period. Comparisons of cognitive development across species can provide new insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping cognition. This study examined the development of different components of spatial memory, cognitive mechanisms that support complex foraging, by comparing two species with similar life history that vary in wild ecology: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23833
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23833DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Cranial and endocranial diversity in extant and fossil atelids (Platyrrhini: Atelidae): A geometric morphometric study.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

División Antropología (FCNyM-UNLP), CONICET, La Plata, Argentina.

Objectives: Platyrrhines constitute a diverse clade, with the modern Atelidae exhibiting the most variation in cranial and endocast morphology. The processes responsible for this diversification are not well understood. Here, we present a geometric morphometric study describing variation in cranial and endocranial shape of 14 species of Alouatta, Ateles, Brachyteles, and Lagothrix and two extinct taxa, Cartelles and Caipora. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23837DOI Listing

Diet variability among pre-Dogon and early Dogon populations (Mali) from stable isotopes and dental diseases.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Laboratory Archaeology and Population in Africa, Anthropology Unit of the Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Aims And Objectives: This article reports on diet variability in the Dogon Country (Mali) through a bio-archeological study of pre-Dogon and early Dogon human remains (7th century to 19th century AD) from collective burial caves in the Bandiagara Escarpment.

Materials And Methods: Two hundred and twenty crania from collections curated in Leiden, Paris, and Bamako were studied for dental diseases. In a subset of teeth (n = 175), δ C and δ N were measured in bulk dentine samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23831DOI Listing

Genetic resiliency and the Black Death: No apparent loss of mitogenomic diversity due to the Black Death in medieval London and Denmark.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

McMaster Ancient DNA Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: In the 14th century AD, medieval Europe was severely affected by the Great European Famine as well as repeated bouts of disease, including the Black Death, causing major demographic shifts. This high volatility led to increased mobility and migration due to new labor and economic opportunities, as evidenced by documentary and stable isotope data. This study uses ancient DNA (aDNA) isolated from skeletal remains to examine whether evidence for large-scale population movement can be gleaned from the complete mitochondrial genomes of 264 medieval individuals from England (London) and Denmark. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23820DOI Listing

Heteropaternity of twins in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Anthropology, California State University-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Objectives: This project investigated paternity among 14 sets of twins born into a colony of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) on St. Catherines Island, GA. Female L. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23827
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23827DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Diaphysator: An online application for the exhaustive cartography and user-friendly statistical analysis of long bone diaphyses.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Laboratory of 3D Imaging and Analytical Methods, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Charles University, Praha, Czech Republic.

The cross-sectional geometry (CSG) of long bone diaphyses is used in bioanthropology to evaluate their resistance to biomechanical constraints and to infer life-history-related patterns such as mobility, activity specialization or intensity, sexual dimorphism, body mass and proportions. First limited by technical analytical constraints to the analysis of one or two cross sections per bone, it has evolved into the analysis of cross sections of the full length of the diaphyseal part of long bones. More recently, researchers have developed analytical tools to map the cortical thickness of entire diaphyses to evaluate locomotor signatures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23835DOI Listing

Response to multivariate ordinal probit analysis in the skeletal assessment of sex (Konigsberg and Frankenberg).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner 2, Tucson, Arizona.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23830DOI Listing

Three-dimensional analysis of sexual dimorphism in ribcage kinematics of modern humans.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, MCC, De la Prehistoire a l'Actuel: Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie, (PACEA), Pessac, France.

Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is an important biological factor underlying morphological variation in the human skeleton. Previous research found sex-related differences in the static ribcage, with males having more horizontally oriented ribs and a wider lower ribcage than females. Furthermore, a recent study found sex-related differences in the kinematics of the human lungs, with cranio-caudal movements of the caudal part of the lungs accounting for most of the differences between sexes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23829DOI Listing

CT-based sex estimation on human femora using statistical shape modeling.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objectives: Estimating the sex of decomposed corpses and skeletal remains of unknown individuals is one of the first steps in the identification process in forensic contexts. Although various studies have considered the femur for sex estimation, the focus has primarily been on a specific single or a handful of measurements rather than the entire shape of the bone. In this article, we use statistical shape modeling (SSM) for sex estimation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23828DOI Listing

Multivariate ordinal probit analysis in the skeletal assessment of sex.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23832DOI Listing

Making sense of medieval mouths: Investigating sex differences of dental pathological lesions in a late medieval Italian community.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Archaeology, Foggia University, Foggia, Italy.

Objectives: Bioarchaeological investigations of sex-based differences in the prevalence of dental pathological lesions, particularly caries, have drawn considerable attention, and out of this work, two dominant models have emerged. Traditionally, the first model interprets sex-related patterns in caries as a product of gendered differences in diet. A more recent model interprets a generally higher propensity for caries prevalence in females in light of reproductive ecology. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23821
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23821DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
2.379 Impact Factor

The massive assimilation of indigenous East Asian populations in the origin of Muslim Hui people inferred from paternal Y chromosome.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology and Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: The Hui people are the adherents of Muslim faith and distributing throughout China. There are two contrasting hypotheses about the origin and diversification of the Hui people, namely, the demic diffusion involving the mass movement of people or simple cultural diffusion.

Materials And Methods: We collected 621 unrelated male individuals from 23 Hui populations all over China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23823DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
2.379 Impact Factor

Analyses of Neanderthal introgression suggest that Levantine and southern Arabian populations have a shared population history.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Objectives: Modern humans are thought to have interbred with Neanderthals in the Near East soon after modern humans dispersed out of Africa. This introgression event likely took place in either the Levant or southern Arabia depending on the dispersal route out of Africa that was followed. In this study, we compare Neanderthal introgression in contemporary Levantine and southern Arabian populations to investigate Neanderthal introgression and to study Near Eastern population history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23818DOI Listing

Dental microwear texture analysis of Homo sapiens sapiens: Foragers, farmers, and pastoralists.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Anthropology, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas.

Objectives: The current study seeks to determine if a sample of foragers, farmers, and pastoralists are distinguishable based on their dental microwear texture signatures.

Materials And Methods: The study included a sample of 719 individuals from 51 archeological sites (450 farmers, 192 foragers, 77 pastoralists). All were over age 12 and sexes were pooled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23815DOI Listing

Micro-CT assessment of dental mineralization defects indicative of vitamin D deficiency in two 17th-19th century Dutch communities.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 18;169(1):122-131. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Anthropology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: This study investigates vitamin D deficiency patterns in individuals from birth to the beginning of adolescence. Microscopic computed tomography (micro-CT) evaluation of interglobular dentine (IGD) in teeth provides information on the age of disease onset and the number of deficient periods per individual, which will increase our understanding of factors influencing vitamin D deficiency prevalence, including sociocultural practices and latitude.

Materials And Methods: Beemster and Hattem, two Dutch 17th-19th century communities, yielded relatively high prevalences of rickets (15-24%) and residual rickets (15-24%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23819DOI Listing

Methodological differences cannot explain associations between health, anthropometrics, and excess resting metabolic rate.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 18;169(1):197-198. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23811DOI Listing

Sexual dimorphism of dental tissues in modern human mandibular molars.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Laboratorio de Antropología Forense, Escuela de Medicina Legal y Forense, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Previous studies have revealed that human permanent dental tissue proportions differ significantly between males and females, with females having relatively thicker enamel relative to overall crown area than males. The aims of this study are to investigate sexual dimorphism in permanent mandibular molars and to determine whether such differences can be used to estimate sex in modern humans reliably.

Materials And Methods: The permanent mandibular molars used in this study (n = 51) originate from 36 individuals of known sex from a Spanish anthropological collection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23822DOI Listing

North and south: A comprehensive analysis of non-adult growth and health in the industrial revolution (AD 18th-19th C), England.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 9;169(1):104-121. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.

Objective: Stark health inequalities exist in the present day between the North and South of England, with people in the South, overall, experiencing better health across a range of parameters (e.g., life expectancy and number of years spent in good health). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajpa.23817
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23817DOI Listing
May 2019
5 Reads

Diachronic changes in craniofacial morphology among the middle-late Holocene populations from Hehuang region, Northwest China.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 9;169(1):55-65. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

Buffalo Human Evolutionary Morphology Lab, Department of Anthropology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, 14261, New York.

Objectives: This study analyzes craniofacial shape variation in the Hehuang region of Northwest China within a population genetic framework, and takes a diachronic approach to explore the relationship betwee cultural discontinuity and biological continuity/discontinuity in the Hehuang region during the middle to late Holocene.

Materials And Methods: The sample comprises 76 adult skulls from five archaeological sites, ranging from 4,500 to 1,530 BP. 3D geometric morphometrics, multivariate statistics, quantitative evolutionary genetic and biodistance analyses were performed to study the diachronic variation in craniofacial morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23807DOI Listing

Sagittal suture maturation: Morphological reorganization, relation to aging, and reliability as an age-at-death indicator.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 8;169(1):78-92. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Objectives: The sagittal suture (SS) is assumed to be an initial site for the commencement of cranial suture closure as well as the most frequent spot of isolated craniosynostosis. The present study aimed to inspect the reorganization of the SS at the microlevel to assess the relation between its closure and aging and to establish whether it could be used as a reliable indicator in age-at-death prediction.

Materials And Methods: The SS was investigated in 68 dry contemporary adult male skulls of known age-at-death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23810DOI Listing

Ecogeographic patterns in fetal limb proportions.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 8;169(1):93-103. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri - Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri.

Objectives: Humans generally comply with the ecological rule of Allen (1877), with populations from tropical environments exhibiting body proportions in which limb segments are long relative to trunk height compared to temperate groups. This study tests whether ecogeographic differences in intralimb proportions are identifiable among two modern fetal samples of differing ancestry.

Materials And Methods: Data are derived from radiographic measurements of long bone diaphyseal length and crown-heel length (CHL) of contemporary, spontaneously aborted fetuses of African Americans ("black") of assumed African (tropical) ancestry and European Americans ("white") of assumed European (temperate) ancestry (n = 184). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23814DOI Listing

The body center of mass in primates: Is it more caudal than in other quadrupedal mammals?

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 6;169(1):170-178. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Zoological and Botanical Park of Mulhouse, Mulhouse, France.

Objectives: Whole body center of mass (BCoM) position values are lacking for a comparative sample of primates. Therefore, it still remains unknown whether the BCoM in primates is more posteriorly located than in other mammals. The aim of the present report is to provide data for a large sample of primate species and to compare the position of the BCoM in primates to non-primate mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23813DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

The effect of in-field measurement protocol on resting metabolic rate results.

Authors:
Cara Ocobock

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 6;169(1):199-201. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Anthropology, University at Albany, Albany, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23812DOI Listing

Carotid foramen size in the human skull tracks developmental changes in cerebral blood flow and brain metabolism.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 1;169(1):161-169. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Objectives: In humans, neuronal processes related to brain development elevate the metabolic rate of brain tissue relative to the body during early childhood. This phenomenon has been hypothesized to contribute to slow somatic growth in preadolescent Homo sapiens. The uncoupling of the brain's metabolic rate from brain size during development complicates the study of the evolutionary emergence of these traits in the fossil record. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23809DOI Listing

Evaluating elbow osteoarthritis within the prehistoric Tiwanaku state using generalized estimating equations (GEE).

Authors:
Sara K Becker

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 1;169(1):186-196. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California.

Objectives: Studies of osteoarthritis (OA) in human skeletal remains can come with scalar problems. If OA measurement is noted as present or absent in one joint, like the elbow, results may not identify specific articular pathology data and the sample size may be insufficient to address research questions. If calculated on a per data point basis (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23806DOI Listing

Dust affects chewing efficiency and tooth wear in forest dwelling Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 1;169(1):66-77. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: In humans it has been shown that abrasive particles in the diet result in increased tooth wear and less intense chewing behavior, both of which decrease chewing efficiency. This behavioral response may also exist in non-human primates as a means to reduce the wear effect of dust-laden food. Here we tested whether the periodical occurrence of abrasive dust particles in the diet of Western chimpanzees affects tooth wear and reduces chewing efficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23808DOI Listing

Aggressive or funerary cannibalism? Skull-cup and human bone manipulation in Cueva de El Toro (Early Neolithic, southern Iberia).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 25;169(1):31-54. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Microbiología, Biología Celular y Genética. Área de Genética, Universidad de La Laguna, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain.

Objective: We analyze the processing sequence involved in the manufacture of a skull-cup and the manipulation of human bones from the Early Neolithic of Cueva de El Toro (Málaga, Spain).

Materials And Methods: The Early Neolithic material studied includes human remains found in two separate assemblages. Assemblage A consists of one skull-cup, a non-manipulated adult human mandible, and four ceramic vessels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23805DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Investigating the effect of endocranial volume on cranial shape in platyrrhines and the relevance of this relationship to interpretations of the fossil record.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 25;169(1):12-30. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

NYCEP Morphometrics Group, New York, New York.

Objectives: Fossils have been linked to Alouatta based on shared cranial morphology and small brain size. However, the relationship between endocranial volume and cranial shape is unclear; it is possible that any platyrrhine with a small brain may exhibit "Alouatta-like" features due to being "de-encephalized." We test two hypotheses: (a) there are aspects of cranial shape related to encephalization common to all platyrrhines; (b) it is these cranial traits that unite the small-brained "Alouatta-like" fossils. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23804DOI Listing

Revisiting traumatic injury risk and agricultural intensification: Postcranial fracture frequency at Cerro Oreja in the Moche Valley of north coastal Peru.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 19;169(1):143-151. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania.

Objectives: In Lambert and Welker (2017) we explored the association between subsistence economy and postcranial fracture prevalence, finding that low-intensity agriculturalists exhibited significantly lower fracture rates than foragers or high-intensity agriculturalists. Here, we explore the impacts of sampling strategy on fracture rates in a sample of high-intensity agriculturalists from the Moche Valley, Peru, and further test the hypothesis that postcranial fracture risks are higher for intensive agriculture.

Materials And Methods: The long bones and clavicles of 102 individuals from an Early Intermediate Period cemetery (400 B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23801DOI Listing

Assessing subsistence and its relationship to cultural complexity in the late prehistoric upper Midwest: A new perspective provided by dental health.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 19;168(4):750-763. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Religious Studies and Anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

Objective: Previous researchers have assumed that the Late Prehistoric Oneota were less reliant on maize agriculture than their Middle Mississippian neighbors to the south. This assumption is based on the idea that intensive maize agriculture is related to sociopolitical complexity, and that the climate of the Great Lakes region was less conducive to full-scale agriculture than that of the American Bottom. Here, we assess the diet of the Oneota using dental pathology to test the hypothesis that the Oneota in Eastern Wisconsin were highly reliant on maize agriculture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23794DOI Listing

Standard methods for creating digital skeletal models using structure-from-motion photogrammetry.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 19;169(1):152-160. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, Dorset, United Kingdom.

Objectives: This article assesses best practices for producing 3D digital cranial models through structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry, and whether the metric accuracy and overall presentation of photogrammetric models are comparable to physical crania. It is intended to present a user-friendly standard method of creating accurate digital skeletal models using Agisoft PhotoScan.

Materials And Methods: Approximately 200 photographs were taken of three different crania, and were separated into series consisting of 50, 75, 100, 150, and approximately 200 photos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23803DOI Listing

Structural effects of variation in the human clavicle.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16;168(4):687-704. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: Purported evolutionary shifts in shoulder structure have been linked to changes in hominin behavior and adaptation. Researchers use clavicle morphology to infer these shifts. However, there is a lack of empirical data underlying such predictive relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23787DOI Listing

The impact of terrain on lower limb bone structure.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16;168(4):729-743. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts.

Objectives: Lower limb diaphyseal geometry is often used to evaluate mobility in past populations. Diaphyseal dimensions such as high shape (I /I ) indices generally thought to reflect high mobility may also result from walking over rough terrain. This study investigates the possible effects of terrain on lower limb diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric dimensions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23790DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in relation to socioeconomic status during development and early adulthood.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 16;169(1):3-11. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Child and Brain Development Program, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a powerful determinant of health, but the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigates whether levels of DNA methylation at CpG sites across the genome are associated with SES in a cohort of young adults in the Philippines.

Methods: DNA methylation was assayed with the Illumina HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip, in leukocytes from 489 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (mean age = 20. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23800DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

Letter to the editor concerning external auditory bony growths in pre-Colombian inhabitants of Panama.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16;168(4):809. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Otolaryngology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23793DOI Listing

Growth response of dental tissues to developmental stress in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa).

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16;168(4):764-788. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To compare relative response of enamel, dentin and bone to developmental stressors between attritional and catastrophic mortality assemblages of pigs.

Materials And Methods: Heads from 70 Sus scrofa of known sex, weight and age comprising an attritional sample of 50 sick pen (SP) pigs that died prematurely versus 20 control pigs slaughtered at 6 months (Catastrophic assemblage). Hard tissue changes (alveolar bone thinning), abnormal bone formation (Harris lines) and re-modeling (auditory bullae) were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23795DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Isolated teeth from La Ferrassie: Reassessment of the old collections, new remains, and their implications.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 16;169(1):132-142. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Département Homme et environnement, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Musée de l'Homme, UMR 7194 CNRS, Université de Perpignan "Via Domitia", EPCC-CERP de Tautavel, Paris, France.

Objectives: We provide the description and comparative analysis of six new teeth from the site of La Ferrassie. Our goal is to discuss their taxonomic attribution, and to provide an updated inventory of Neandertal and modern human remains from La Ferrassie in their associated archeological context.

Materials And Methods: We use external and internal anatomy, classic morphometrics, and geometric morphometrics. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ajpa.23798
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23798DOI Listing
May 2019
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Technical note: Comparing dental topography software using platyrrhine molars.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 May 15;169(1):179-185. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas.

Objectives: There remain many idiosyncrasies among the values calculated for varying dental topography metrics arising from differences in software preferences among research groups. The aim of this work is to compare and provide potential conversion formulae for dental topography metrics calculated using differing software platforms.

Methods: Three software packages: ArcGIS, Surfer Manipulator, and molaR were used to calculate orientation patch count rotated (OPCR), Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), occlusal relief (OR), slope (m), and angularity (a) on platyrrhine second upper molars. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23797DOI Listing
May 2019
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Quantitative genetic analyses of postcanine morphological crown variation.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar;168(3):606-631

Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objectives: This article presents estimates of narrow-sense heritability and bivariate genetic correlation for 14 tooth crown morphological variants scored on permanent premolars, first molars, and second molars. The objective is to inform data collection and analytical practices in dental biodistance and to provide insights on the development of molar crowns as integrated structures.

Materials And Methods: African American dental casts from the Menegaz-Bock collection were recorded for the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23778DOI Listing
March 2019
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Response to Todd and Graham's "Letter to the editor concerning external auditory bony growths in pre-Columbian inhabitants of Panama".

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 11;168(4):810-811. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancón, Panamá, Republic of Panamá.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23792DOI Listing

Body size and social status in medieval Alba (Cuneo), Italy.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 4;168(3):595-605. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Anthropology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objectives: Previous work by Vercellotti et al. in 2011 found significant status-related differences in body size in males but not in females from the Italian bioarchaeological assemblage of San Michele di Trino (8th-14th centuries CE). The purpose of the present work is twofold: (a) to determine if status-related body size differences could be observed in the nearby collection of San Lorenzo di Alba (7th-15th centuries CE) and (b) to add to the emerging narrative of medieval Italians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23776DOI Listing
March 2019
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Infant handling by female mountain gorillas: Establishing its frequency, function, and (ir)relevance for life history evolution.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 31;168(4):744-749. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objectives: Infant handling describes cases in which youngsters are temporarily removed from the care of their mothers and "taken care of" (held, carried, etc.) by other conspecifics. Handlers may gain indirect fitness benefits from these actions and can practice mothering skills, thereby improving the odds of survival of their own infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23791DOI Listing

Age-related decline in urine concentration may not be universal: Comparative study from the U.S. and two small-scale societies.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 31;168(4):705-716. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objectives: Evidence from industrialized populations suggests that urine concentrating ability declines with age. However, lifestyle factors including episodic protein intake and low hypertension may help explain differences between populations. Whether this age-related decline occurs among small-scale populations with active lifestyles and non-Western diets is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23788DOI Listing

Stable isotope variation in savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) indicate avoidance of energetic challenges through dietary compensation at the limits of the range.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 29;168(4):665-675. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: Food scarcity is proposed to be a limitation to chimpanzees at the limits of their range; however, such a constraint has never been investigated in this context. We investigated patterns of δ C and δ N variation along a latitudinal gradient at the northwestern West African chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) range limit with the expectation that isotope ratios of chimpanzees at the range limit will indicate different dietary strategies or higher physiological constraints than chimpanzees further from the edge.

Materials And Methods: We measured δ C and δ N values in hair (n = 81) and plant food (n = 342) samples from five chimpanzee communities located along a latitudinal gradient in Southeastern Senegal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23782DOI Listing

The genetic legacy of the Yaghnobis: A witness of an ancient Eurasian ancestry in the historically reshuffled central Asian gene pool.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 29;168(4):717-728. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Laboratories of Physical Anthropology and Ancient DNA, Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy.

Objectives: The Yaghnobis are an ethno-linguistic minority historically settled along the Yaghnob River in the Upper-Zarafshan Valley in Tajikistan. They speak a language of Old Sogdian origin, which is the only present-day witness of the Lingua Franca used along the Silk Road in Late Antiquity. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the genetic history of this community in order to shed light on its isolation and genetic ancestry within the Euro-Asiatic context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23789DOI Listing
April 2019
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Comparative observations on the premolar root and pulp canal configurations of Middle Pleistocene Homo in China.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Mar 29;168(3):637-646. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Laboratory AMIS, UMR 5288 CNRS, Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, France.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore the root and root canal morphology of Homo fossil occupying China during the Middle Pleistocene period. Human occupation and evolutionary dynamics in East Asia during the Middle Pleistocene period is one of the most intriguing issues in paleoanthropology, with the coexistence of multiple lineages and regional morphs suggesting a complex population interaction scenario. Although premolar root and canal morphology has certain phylogenetic, taxonomic, and functional implications, its morphological diversity, possible evolutionary trend and characteristics regarding Middle Pleistocene hominins inhabiting East Asia are still insufficiently understood; where these populations fits within the Homo lineage (with respect to root and pulp canal structure) needs to be explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23777DOI Listing