Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    39553 results match your criteria American journal of obstetrics and gynecology[Journal]

    1 OF 792

    Dilemmas in Genetic Counseling for Low-Penetrance Neuro-Susceptibility Loci Detected on Prenatal Chromosomal Microarray Analysis.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Genetic Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, 6 Weizmann Street, Tel Aviv-Yafo, 6423906, Israel and The Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo, 6997801, Israel.
    Background: Chromosomal microarray analysis is standard of care in fetuses with malformations, detecting clinically significant copy number variants in 5-7% of cases over conventional karyotyping. However, it also detects variants of uncertain significance in 1.6% - 4. Read More

    Medical Abortion Reversal: Science and Politics Meet.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 12. Epub 2017 Nov 12.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
    Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early non-surgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one-third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. Read More

    Low-dose betamethasone-acetate for fetal lung maturation in preterm sheep.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Division of Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati - OH, USA.
    Background: Antenatal steroids (ANS) are standard of care for women at risk of preterm delivery; however ANS dosing and formulation have not been adequately evaluated. The standard clinical 2-dose treatment with betamethasone-acetate+betamethasone-phosphate (Beta-P+Beta-Ac) is more effective than 2 doses of Beta-P for inducing lung maturation in preterm fetal sheep. We hypothesized that the slowly-released Beta-Ac component induces similar lung maturation to Beta-P+Beta-Ac with decreased dose and fetal exposure. Read More

    Genetic predisposition to preeclampsia is conferred by fetal DNA variants near FLT1, a gene involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:
    Preeclampsia risk is influenced by both the mother's genetic background, as well as the genetics of her fetus; however, the specific genes responsible for conferring preeclampsia risk have largely remained elusive. Evidence that preeclampsia has a genetic predisposition was first detailed in the early 1960's, and overall preeclampsia heritability is estimated at ∼55%. Many traditional gene discovery approaches have been employed to investigate the specific genes that contribute to preeclampsia risk, but these have largely not been successful or reproducible. Read More

    Aspirin for the prevention of preterm and term preeclampsia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Harris Birthright Research Centre of Fetal Medicine, Fetal Medicine Research Institute, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have reported contradictory results concerning the effect of aspirin in the prevention of preeclampsia both in terms of the gestational age at the onset of treatment and the dose of the drug. The controversy may be resolved by a meta-analysis that includes several recently published trials and particularly the large Combined Multimarker Screening and Randomized Patient Treatment with Aspirin for Evidence-Based Preeclampsia Prevention (ASPRE) trial and by examining whether there is a difference of the effect of aspirin on preterm vs. term preeclampsia. Read More

    Defining failed induction of labor.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.
    Background: While there are well-accepted standards for the diagnosis of arrested active-phase labor, the definition of a "failed" induction of labor remains less certain. One approach to diagnosing a failed induction is based on the duration of the latent phase. However, a standard for the minimum duration that the latent phase of a labor induction should continue, absent acute maternal or fetal indications for cesarean delivery, remains lacking. Read More

    Randomized trial of high- and low-fidelity simulation to teach intrauterine contraception placement.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Affiliates Risk Management Services, Inc.
    Background: High fidelity simulation creates conditions that resemble real circumstances, and can help teach procedures such as intrauterine contraception placement. Its impact on skill retention has not been studied.

    Objective: To evaluate novice learners' skills, attitudes, and knowledge on placement of intrauterine contraception when trained using a high-fidelity commercially available simulator compared with a low-fidelity simulator. Read More

    Mortality and Pulmonary Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Exposed to Antenatal Corticosteroids.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Background: Antenatal corticosteroids are given primarily to induce fetal lung maturation but results from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have not shown mortality or pulmonary benefits for extremely preterm infants although these are the infants most at risk of mortality and pulmonary disease.

    Objective: To determine if exposure to antenatal corticosteroids is associated with a lower rate of death and pulmonary morbidities by 36 weeks' postmenstrual age.

    Study Design: Prospectively collected data on 11,022 infants 22 0/7 to 28 6/7 weeks' gestational age with a birth weight of 401 g and above born between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014 were analyzed. Read More

    Prenatal chromosomal microarray analysis in fetuses with congenital heart disease: a prospective cohort study.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:
    Backgroud: Currently, chromosomal microarray analysis is considered as the first-tier test in pediatric care and prenatal diagnosis. However, the diagnostic yield of CMA for prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease has not been evaluated based on a large cohort.

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of chromosomal microarray as the first-tier test for chromosomal abnormalities in fetuses with congenital heart disease. Read More

    Medical contraindications to estrogen and contraceptive use among women veterans.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Center for Health Equity, Research, and Promotion, Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Health Care System, Pittsburgh, PA; Center for Research on Health Care, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
    Background: Women veterans have high rates of medical comorbidities and may be particularly vulnerable to adverse health outcomes associated with unintended pregnancy.

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of medical contraindications to estrogen-containing combined hormonal contraception among women veterans of reproductive age and to evaluate the relationship between contraindications and contraceptive use.

    Study Design: This was a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional, telephone-based survey with a national sample of 2302 female veterans, aged 18-45 years, who use the Veterans Administration Healthcare System for primary care. Read More

    Risk of operative delivery for intrapartum fetal compromise in small-for-gestational-age fetuses at term: an internally validated prediction model.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Fetal Medicine Unit, St George's Hospital, St George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Background: Small-for-gestational-age fetuses are at an increased risk of intrapartum fetal compromise requiring operative delivery. Factors associated with the risk of intrapartum fetal compromise are yet to be established, and a comprehensive model accounting for both the antenatal and intrapartum variables is lacking.

    Objective: We aimed to develop and validate a predictive model for the risk of operative delivery for presumed intrapartum fetal compromise in fetuses suspected to be small for gestational age at term. Read More

    Maternal Hemodynamics: A Method to Classify Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Physiology, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium, EU; Department of Obstetrics, Ziekenhuis Oost Limburg, Genk, Belgium, EU.
    Background: The classification of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is based on the time at the onset of hypertension, proteinuria, and other associated complications. Maternal hemodynamic interrogation in HDP considers not only the peripheral blood pressure but also the entire cardiovascular system, and it might help to classify the different clinical phenotypes of this syndrome.

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine cardiovascular parameters in a cohort of patients affected by HDP according to the clinical phenotypes that prioritize fetoplacental characteristics and not the time at onset of HDP. Read More

    Oxidative stress-induced miR-27a targets the redox gene nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in diabetic embryopathy.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:
    Background: Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects, and oxidative stress is a causal factor for maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects. The redox gene nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is the master regulator of the cellular antioxidant system.

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine whether maternal diabetes inhibits nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 expression and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-controlled antioxidant genes through the redox-sensitive miR-27a. Read More

    Delayed Versus Early Umbilical Cord Clamping for Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 30. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:
    Objective: To compare the effects of delayed versus early cord clamping on hospital mortality (primary outcome) and morbidity in preterm infants using Cochrane Collaboration Neonatal Review Group methodology.

    Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Chinese articles, cross-referencing citations, expert informants and trial registries to 31 July 2017.

    Study Eligibility: RCTs of delayed (≥ 30 seconds) vs early (<30 seconds) clamping in infants born <37 weeks gestation. Read More

    First-trimester screening for early and late preeclampsia using maternal characteristics, biomarkers, and estimated placental volume.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Fetal Medicine Foundation USA, Dayton, OH; Wright State University, Dayton, OH.
    Background: Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. First-trimester screening has been shown to be effective in selecting patients at an increased risk for preeclampsia in some studies.

    Objective: We sought to evaluate the feasibility of screening for preeclampsia in the first trimester based on maternal characteristics, medical history, biomarkers, and placental volume. Read More

    How shall we transfuse Hippolyta?
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
    The US Department of Defense recently made the decision to open direct ground combat roles to women. Blood product transfusion is an essential component of the US Military guidelines for tactical combat casualty care and damage control resuscitation, but blood transfusion carries with it the specific side effect of alloimmunization-a uniquely significant side effect for young women who may desire subsequent pregnancies. Presently to be considered are the changes that may need to be made to blood transfusion in the setting of battlefield medicine to optimally care for combat-injured women, as a majority of the existing data regarding the risks of transfusion in the trauma setting involve predominantly men. Read More

    Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Consult Series #44: management of bleeding in the late preterm period.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Washington, DC. Electronic address:
    Third-trimester bleeding is a common complication arising from a variety of etiologies, some of which may initially present in the late preterm period. Previous management recommendations have not been specific to this gestational age window, which carries a potentially lower threshold for delivery. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on management of late preterm (34 0/7-36 6/7 weeks of gestation) vaginal bleeding. Read More

    Anticipated pain as a predictor of discomfort with intrauterine device placement.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology; Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN. Electronic address:
    Background: Intrauterine devices have been gaining popularity for the past 2 decades. Current data report that >10% of women who use contraception are using an intrauterine device. With <1% failure rates, the intrauterine device is 1 of the most effective forms of long-acting reversible contraception, yet evidence shows that fear of pain during intrauterine device placement deters women from choosing an intrauterine device as their contraceptive method. Read More

    Risk of complication during surgical abortion in obese women.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA.
    Background: ••••.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether obesity is a risk factor for major complications in surgical abortions.

    Methods: A quality control database from a single outpatient center was analyzed to determine rates of major complications during surgical abortions in relation to obesity class. Read More

    Male partner reproductive coercion among women veterans.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, VA Pittsburgh Health Care System; Center for Research on Health Care, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
    Background: Male partner reproductive coercion is defined as male partners' attempts to promote pregnancy through interference with women's contraceptive behaviors and reproductive decision-making. Male partners may try to promote pregnancy through birth control sabotage such as taking away or destroying their partners' contraceptives, refusing to wear condoms, and/or verbally pressuring their partners to abstain from contraceptive use. Reproductive coercion is associated with an elevated risk for unintended pregnancy. Read More

    Predicting risk of pelvic floor disorders 12 and 20 years after delivery.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Germany.
    Background: Little progress has been made in the prevention of pelvic floor disorders, despite their significant health and economic impact. The identification of women who are at risk remains a key element in targeting prevention and planning health resource allocation strategies. Although events around the time of childbirth are recognized clinically as important predictors, it is difficult to counsel women and to intervene around the time of childbirth because of an inability to convey a patient's risk accurately in the presence of multiple risk factors and the long time lapse, which is often decades, between obstetric events and the onset of pelvic floor disorders later in life. Read More

    Risk of metachronous ovarian cancer after ovarian conservation in young women with stage I cervical cancer: methodologic issues.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Managerial Epidemiology Research Center, Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

    Trends in pelvic inflammatory disease emergency department visits, United States, 2006-2013.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, Atlanta, GA.
    Background: Pelvic inflammatory disease is a female genital tract disorder with severe reproductive sequelae. Because of the difficulties in diagnosing pelvic inflammatory disease, it is not a reportable condition in many states. Females seeking care in emergency departments are a sentinel population for pelvic inflammatory disease surveillance. Read More

    Comparison of conventional 2D ultrasound to magnetic resonance imaging for prenatal estimation of birthweight in twin pregnancy.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 16. Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Brugmann, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Background: During prenatal follow-up of twin pregnancies, accurate identification of birthweight and birthweight discordance is important to identify the high-risk group and plan perinatal care. Unfortunately, prenatal evaluation of birthweight discordance by 2-dimensional ultrasound has been far from optimal.

    Objective: The objective of the study was to prospectively compare estimates of fetal weight based on 2-dimensional ultrasound (ultrasound-estimated fetal weight) and magnetic resonance imaging (magnetic resonance-estimated fetal weight) with actual birthweight in women carrying twin pregnancies. Read More

    New labor management guidelines and changes in cesarean delivery patterns.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 14. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.
    Background: In 2010 the Consortium on Safe Labor published labor curves. It was proposed that the rate of cesarean delivery could be lowered by avoiding the diagnosis of arrest of dilation before 6 cm. However, there is little information on the uptake of the guidelines and on changes in cesarean delivery rates that may have occurred. Read More

    A low angiogenic index-1 (placental growth factor/soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 ratio) at 24-28 weeks of gestation is a biomarker to identify the patient at risk for subsequent fetal death.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Perinatology Research Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development/National Institutes of Health/Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, and Detroit, MI; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
    Objective: We sought to determine if maternal plasma concentrations of angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors measured at 24-28 weeks of gestation can predict subsequent fetal death.

    Study Design: A case-cohort study was designed to include 1000 randomly selected subjects and all remaining fetal deaths (cases) from a cohort of 4006 women with a singleton pregnancy, enrolled at 6-22 weeks of gestation, in a pregnancy biomarker cohort study. The placentas of all fetal deaths were histologically examined by pathologists who used a standardized protocol and were blinded to patient outcomes. Read More

    Surgical outcomes among elderly women with endometrial cancer treated by laparoscopic hysterectomy: a NRG/Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 14. Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Section of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK.
    Objective: Tolerance of and complications caused by minimally invasive hysterectomy and staging in the older endometrial cancer population is largely unknown despite the fact that this is the most rapidly growing age group in the United States. The objective of this retrospective review was to compare operative morbidity by age in patients on the Gynecologic Oncology Group Laparoscopic Surgery or Standard Surgery in Treating Patients With Endometrial Cancer or Cancer of the Uterus (LAP2) trial.

    Study Design: This is a retrospective analysis of patients from Gynecologic Oncology Group LAP2, a trial that included clinically early-stage uterine cancer patients randomized to laparotomy vs laparoscopy for surgical staging. Read More

    Bowel endometriosis: diagnosis and management.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Nezhat Surgery for Gynecology/Oncology, Lynbrook, NY; Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY; Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY; Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery and Robotics, Winthrop University Hospital, Winthrop University Hospital. Electronic address:
    The most common location of extragenital endometriosis is the bowel. Medical treatment may not provide long-term improvement in patients who are symptomatic, and consequently most of these patients may require surgical intervention. Over the past century, surgeons have continued to debate the optimal surgical approach to treating bowel endometriosis, weighing the risks against the benefits. Read More

    Positive predictive value estimates for cell-free noninvasive prenatal screening from data of a large referral genetic diagnostic laboratory.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Baylor Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Departments of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address:
    Background: Since its debut in 2011, cell-free fetal DNA screening has undergone rapid expansion with respect to both utilization and coverage. However, conclusive data regarding the clinical validity and utility of this screening tool, both for the originally included common autosomal and sex-chromosomal aneuploidies as well as the more recently added chromosomal microdeletion syndromes, have lagged behind. Thus, there is a continued need to educate clinicians and patients about the current benefits and limitations of this screening tool to inform pre- and posttest counseling, pre/perinatal decision making, and medical risk assessment/management. Read More

    Chronic pelvic pain in an interdisciplinary setting: 1-year prospective cohort.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; BC Women's Center for Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Chronic pelvic pain affects ∼15% of women, and presents a challenging problem for gynecologists due to its complex etiology involving multiple comorbidities. Thus, an interdisciplinary approach has been proposed for chronic pelvic pain, where these multifactorial comorbidities can be addressed by different interventions at a single integrated center. Moreover, while cross-sectional studies can provide some insight into the association between these comorbidities and chronic pelvic pain severity, prospective longitudinal cohorts can identify comorbidities associated with changes in chronic pelvic pain severity over time. Read More

    Refractory urgency urinary incontinence treatment in women: impact of age on outcomes and complications.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    Background: Women with refractory urgency urinary incontinence (ie, unresponsive to behavioral and pharmacological interventions) are treated with onabotulinumtoxinA or sacral neuromodulation.

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare treatment efficacy and adverse events in women <65 and ≥65 years old treated with onabotulinumtoxinA or sacral neuromodulation.

    Study Design: This study was a planned secondary analysis of a multicenter, randomized trial that enrolled community-dwelling women with refractory urgency urinary incontinence to onabotulinumtoxinA or sacral neuromodulation treatments. Read More

    In an in-vitro model using human fetal membranes, 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate is not an optimal progestogen for inhibition of fetal membrane weakening.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Department of Reproductive Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:
    Background: The progestogen 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) is 1 of only 2 agents recommended for clinical use in the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery, and studies of its efficacy have been conflicting. We have developed an in-vitro model to study the fetal membrane weakening process that leads to rupture in preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes (pPROM). Inflammation/infection associated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induction and decidual bleeding/abruption associated thrombin release are leading causes of preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Read More

    Altered angiogenesis as a common mechanism underlying preterm birth, small for gestational age, and stillbirth in women living with HIV.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    SAR Laboratories, Sandra Rotman Center for Global Health, University Health Network-Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Tropical Disease Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Angiogenic processes in the placenta are critical regulators of fetal growth and impact birth outcomes, but there are limited data documenting these processes in HIV-infected women or women from low-resource settings.

    Objective: We sought to determine whether angiogenic factors are associated with adverse birth outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women started on antiretroviral therapy.

    Study Design: This is a secondary analysis of samples collected as part of a clinical trial randomizing pregnant women infected with HIV to lopinavir/ritonavir-based (n = 166) or efavirenz-based (n = 160) antiretroviral therapy in Tororo, Uganda. Read More

    Research to knowledge: promoting the training of physician-scientists in the biology of pregnancy.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Common disorders of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, and fetal growth abnormalities, continue to challenge perinatal biologists seeking insights into disease pathogenesis that will result in better diagnosis, therapy, and disease prevention. These challenges have recently been intensified with discoveries that associate gestational diseases with long-term maternal and neonatal outcomes. Whereas modern high-throughput investigative tools enable scientists and clinicians to noninvasively probe the maternal-fetal genome, epigenome, and other analytes, their implications for clinical medicine remain uncertain. Read More

    Detailed muscular structure and neural control anatomy of the levator ani muscle: a study based on female human fetuses.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    UMR 1195, University Paris Sud, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France; Urology Department, Hopitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, APHP, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France.
    Background: Injury to the levator ani muscle or pelvic nerves during pregnancy and vaginal delivery is responsible for pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Objective: We sought to demonstrate the presence of smooth muscular cell areas within the levator ani muscle and describe their localization and innervation.

    Study Design: Five female human fetuses were studied after approval from the French Biomedicine Agency. Read More

    Validity of utility measures for women with pelvic organ prolapse.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Division of Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
    Background: Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition that frequently coexists with urinary and fecal incontinence. The impact of prolapse on quality of life is typically measured through condition-specific quality-of-life instruments. Utility preference scores are a standardized generic health-related quality-of-life measure that summarizes morbidity on a scale from 0 (death) to 1 (optimum health). Read More

    Contraception after medication abortion in the United States: results from a cluster randomized trial.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
    Background: Understanding how contraceptive choices and access differ for women having medication abortions compared with aspiration procedures can help to identify priorities for improved patient-centered postabortion contraceptive care.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in contraceptive counseling, method choices, and the use between medication and aspiration abortion patients.

    Study Design: This subanalysis examines data from 643 abortion patients from 17 reproductive health centers in a cluster, randomized trial across the United States. Read More

    Are amniotic fluid neutrophils in women with intraamniotic infection and/or inflammation of fetal or maternal origin?
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Perinatology Research Branch, Division of Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Division of Intramural Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, and Detroit, MI; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.
    Background: Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells found in the amniotic cavity of women with intraamniotic infection and/or inflammation. The current belief is that these neutrophils are of fetal origin. However, abundant neutrophils have been found in the amniotic fluid of women with a severe acute maternal inflammatory response but without a fetal inflammatory response in the placenta, suggesting that these innate immune cells can also be of maternal origin or a mixture of both fetal and maternal neutrophils. Read More

    Endometrial cancer disparities: a race-conscious critique of the literature.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
    Racial disparities in endometrial cancer are stark and have increased over the past decade. While the disparities are well documented, intervention work to address the mortality gap is nonexistent. This review critiques how race has been conceptualized to explain the causes of endometrial cancer disparities, assesses gaps in knowledge production, and proposes new research priorities. Read More

    1 OF 792