Am J Nephrol 2017 Sep 21;46(4):268-275. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Nephrology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
Background: Arteriovenous accesses (AVA) in patients performing hemodialysis (HD) are labeled "permanent" for AV fistulas (AVF) or grafts (AVG) and "temporary" for tunneled central venous catheters (TCVC). Durability and outcomes of permanent vascular accesses based on the sequence in which they were placed or used receives little attention. This study analyzed longitudinal transitions between TCVC-based and AVA-based HD outcomes according to the order of placement. Read More
Am J Nephrol 2017 Sep 21;46(4):260-267. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
Department of Internal Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
Background: Cigarette smoking exacerbates the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite the kidney protection that is achieved by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI). Whether smoking cessation restores ACEI-related kidney protection is not known.
Methods: This 5-year, prospective, prevention trial recruited 108 smokers and 108 nonsmokers with stage-2 nondiabetic CKD with primary hypertension and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (Ualb) >200 mg/g. Read More
Background: Controversy exists regarding the benefits and risks of warfarin therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In this study, we assessed mortality and cardiovascular outcomes associated with warfarin treatment in patients with stages 3-5 CKD and ESRD admitted to the University of California-Irvine Medical Center.
Methods: In a retrospective matched cohort study, we identified 59 adult patients with stages 3-6 CKD initiated on warfarin during the period 2011-2013, and 144 patients with stages 3-6 CKD who had indications for anticoagulation therapy but were not initiated on warfarin. Read More
Background: There is an ongoing debate if and how kidney and liver volume are associated with pain and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Since both kidney and liver volume could interact, we investigated whether combined total kidney and liver volume had stronger associations with ADPKD-related pain and GI symptoms than the volumes of the organs separately.
Methods: We used baseline data from the DIPAK-1 study, which included ADPKD patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 30 and 60 mL/min/1. Read More
Background: Immunopathologic features predict renal function at baseline and follow-up in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (GN). The interstitial infiltrate consists predominantly of T lymphocytes, but their pathophysiologic significance is unclear, especially in light of the success of B-cell-directed therapy.
Methods: Renal biopsies from 33 patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC; n = 17) or rituximab (RTX; n = 16) in the RTX in ANCA-associated vasculitis (RAVE) trial were classified according to the new ANCA GN classification. Read More
Background: Restless legs syndrome, also known as Willis/Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), is a sleep-related, sensorimotor disorder with a high prevalence among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) (about 15-40%). Whether RLS/WED in uremic patients influences cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of RLS/WED and mortality in a population of chronically dialyzed patients. Read More
Background: The relationship between serum potassium, mortality, and conditions commonly associated with dyskalemias, such as heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) is largely unknown.
Methods: We reviewed electronic medical record data from a geographically diverse population (n = 911,698) receiving medical care, determined the distribution of serum potassium, and the relationship between an index potassium value and mortality over an 18-month period in those with and without HF, CKD, and/or DM. We examined the association between all-cause mortality and potassium using a cubic spline regression analysis in the total population, a control group, and in HF, CKD, DM, and a combined cohort. Read More
Background: Among the general population, low circulating testosterone levels are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death. While testosterone deficiency is common in dialysis patients, studies of testosterone and mortality in this population are ambiguous and overlapping. We hypothesized that lower testosterone levels are associated with higher mortality in male dialysis patients. Read More
Background: Data are limited regarding risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). This observational study was performed to examine temporal trends in AKI incidence according to the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Renal Disease (pRIFLE) criteria, identify independent risk factors for AKI after cardiac surgery, and examine associations between AKI and long-term mortality.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 418 patients (259 males, 159 females; median age, 5 months) who underwent cardiac surgery for CHD between April 2007 and August 2013. Read More
Am J Nephrol 2017 Aug 22;46(3):187-194. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
Department of Hematology, Nephrology, and Rheumatology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.
Background: The present study investigated interstitial fibrosis (IF) in 144 kidney recipients 0 h and 1 year post transplantation and assessed relationships with Banff code scores, clinical parameters, and long-term graft function.
Methods: A quantitative analysis of IF was performed using the computer-assisted imaging of Sirius red-stained biopsy samples. Percent IF (%IF) in the cortical region was assessed at 0 h and 1 year, and an increase in the ratio of %IF from 0 h to 1 year was calculated. Read More
Background: Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disease, which terminates in end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) that requires either dialysis or kidney transplantation for the patient to survive. There is an alarming trend in the disparities of ESRD in African Americans (AAs). Currently, AAs represent more than 30% of incident ESRD cases, yet they constitute 15% of the overall US population. Read More
Background: African Americans (AAs) suffer the widest gaps in chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes compared to Caucasian Americans (CAs) and this is because of the disparities that exist in both health and healthcare. In fact, the prevalence of CKD is 3.5 times higher in AAs compared to CAs. Read More
Background: The persistent challenges of bridging healthcare disparities for African Americans (AAs) in need of kidney transplantation continue to be unresolved at the national level. This healthcare disparity is multifactorial: stemming from limited kidney donors suitable for AAs; inconsistent care coordination and suboptimal risk factor control; social determinants, low socioeconomic status, reduced access to care; and mistrust of clinicians and the healthcare system.
Summary: There are numerous opportunities to significantly lessen the disparities in kidney transplantation for AAs through the following measures: the adoption of new care and patient engagement models that include education, enhanced practice-level cultural sensitivity, and timely referral as well as increased research on the impact of the environment on genetic risk, and implementation of new transplantation-related policies. Read More
Background: The chronic use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blocker has been associated with hyperkalemia in patients with reduced renal function even after the initiation of hemodialysis. Whether such medications may cause a similar effect in peritoneal dialysis patients is not well established. So, the aim of our study was to analyze the impact of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors on the serum levels of potassium in a national cohort of peritoneal dialysis patients. Read More
Acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a manifestation of an underlying severe illness that commonly involves other organ systems. Pulmonary, cardiac, and hepatic failures are the most prevalent. This article provides a simplified review of the technical aspects of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary and liver support devices used in the adult ICU patient, as well as a summary of the most relevant and up-to-date clinical evidence that supports their use. Read More
Background: Inflammation plays a crucial role in renal interstitial fibrosis, the pathway of chronic kidney diseases. Necroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death, which plays a potential role in inflammation and renal diseases. The small molecule necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a specific inhibitor of necroptosis. Read More
Background: We hypothesized that in the very elderly dialysis patients in the United States, institutionalization in nursing homes would increase mortality in addition to age alone.
Methods: Incident dialysis patients from 2001 to 2008 above the age of 70 were included. Patients above 70 were categorized into 4 groups according to age as 70-75, 76-80, 81-85, and >85 years and further divided into institutionalized and noninstitutionalized. Read More
Background: Higher serum ferritin levels may be influenced by iron use and inflammation, and are associated with higher mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We hypothesized that a major rise in serum ferritin is associated with a higher risk of mortality, irrespective of baseline serum ferritin in incident HD patients.
Methods: In a cohort of 93,979 incident HD patients between 2007 and 2011, we examined the association of change in serum ferritin from the baseline patient quarter (first 91 days from dialysis start) to the subsequent quarter with mortality. Read More
Background: C3 glomerulopathy (C3GP) is a recently identified and described disease that has a high risk of progressing into end-stage renal disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of various immunosuppressive regimens on C3GP progression because there are conflicting data on the treatment modalities.
Methods: In this retrospective study of 66 patients with C3GP, 27 patients received mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based treatment, 23 received non-MMF-based treatment (prednisolone or cyclophosphamide), and 16 received conservative care. Read More
Am J Nephrol 2017 13;46(2):108-113. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
Center of Research of Immunopathology and Rare Diseases - Coordinating Center of the Network for Rare Diseases of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
Background: A beneficial effect of rituximab (RTX) on focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in pediatric patients or in transplant recipients has been reported in isolated cases. However, the use of RTX in adult patients with idiopathic FSGS needs further investigation.
Methods: Eight patients who had biopsy-proven FSGS (63. Read More
Background: Little information is available regarding the type of dialyzer which results in good prognosis. This study is aimed at investigating the association between 7 types of dialyzers and 2-year mortality.
Methods: We conducted a cohort study using data from a nationwide registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Read More
Background: The role of myeloperoxidase in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its association with coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial. In this study, we compared myeloperoxidase and protein-bound 3-chlorotyrosine (ClY) levels in subjects with varying degrees of CKD and tested their associations with CAD.
Methods: From Clinical Phenotyping Resource and Biobank Core, 111 patients were selected from CKD stages 1 to 5. Read More
Background: Recent data suggest that there is a pathogenic role for CXC ligand 16 (CXCL16) in cardiovascular diseases. Little is known about circulating CXCL16 in patients with kidney dysfunction. We explored the relationships of plasma CXCL16 with cardiac injury markers in a group of dialysis patients. Read More
Am J Nephrol 2017 21;46(1):47-54. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
Division of Nephrology, Centro Hospitalar de Setúbal, Setúbal, Portugal.
Background: Volume overload is frequent in diabetics undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), and may play a significant role in the excess mortality observed in these patients. The characteristics of peritoneal water transport in this population have not been studied sufficiently.
Method: Following a prospective, single-center design we made cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of peritoneal water transport in 2 relatively large samples of diabetic and nondiabetic PD patients. Read More
Background: Few genetic studies have focused on unilateral renal agenesis (URA), which is a disorder with insidious clinical manifestations and a tendency to result in renal failure. We aimed to detect pathogenic mutations in nephrogenesis-related genes, which were identified by a literature review conducted among a large cohort of Chinese Han patients with URA.
Methods: Totally, 86 unrelated URA patients were included. Read More
Background: Arterial calcification (AC) is frequent in patients with end stage renal disease and is also considered a risk factor for later morbidity and mortality. However, long-term factors associated with the process are not well known. We analyzed the trends over time of biomarkers related with development and progression of AC in incident patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Read More
Background: The importance of vasopressin and/or urine concentration in various kidney, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases has been emphasized recently. Due to technical constraints, urine osmolality (Uosm), a direct reflect of urinary concentrating activity, is rarely measured in epidemiologic studies.
Methods: We analyzed 2 possible surrogates of Uosm in 4 large population-based cohorts (total n = 4,247) and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, n = 146). Read More
Background: Hypothesizing that statins may be useful as adjuvant treatment for renal anemia, we examined the association between statin prescription (Rx) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) hyporesponsiveness in Japanese hemodialysis (HD) patients prescribed ESAs.
Methods: We examined 3,602 patients in 60 HD facilities dialyzed 3 times/week for ≥4 months from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study phases 3-5 (2005-2015). Statin Rx was reported at the end of a 4-month interval (baseline) for each patient. Read More
Background: Recent reports have highlighted that diabetic patients with kidney failure are at increased risk of technique failure and transfer to haemodialysis within 90 days of initiating peritoneal dialysis (PD). We wished to determine whether there were differences between diabetic and non-diabetic patients within the first 3 months of starting PD.
Methods: We reviewed results of corresponding bioimpedance and the 1st test of peritoneal membrane function (PET) in consecutive patients, 6-10 weeks after initiating PD electively. Read More
Background: Increased mortality and morbidity are reported in association with high ultrafiltration rate (UFR) and with long dialysis recovery time (DRT). We studied the association between UFR and DRT.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational study was conducted. Read More
Background: Urgent-start dialysis is a major problem for incident dialysis population. Urgent start on hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of infectious or mechanical complications, and its mortality is equal to or higher than that of urgent start on peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, compared to patients starting PD in a planned setting, those on urgent-started PD have an increased risk of mechanical complications and lower technique survival. Read More
Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients have high hospitalization rates. This nonrandomized trial tested the effect of a bundle of renal-specific "Right TraC™" strategies on 30-day all-cause readmission rates and, secondarily, 90-day readmissions and overall admissions among HD patients.
Methods: Twenty-six Fresenius clinics in West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky participated in the interventions. Read More
Background: Previous studies have established a relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cataract, but the relationship between the severity of renal impairment and risk of cataract is uncertain. This study investigates the relationship between the severity of renal disease and cataract in a nationwide sample from Taiwan.
Methods: The cohort from 1-million National Health Insurance beneficiaries from Taiwan was retrospectively analyzed. Read More
Background: Hyperkalemia is observed in chronic kidney disease patients and may be a risk factor for life-threatening arrhythmias and death. Race/ethnicity may be important modifiers of the potassium-mortality relationship in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients given that potassium intake and excretion vary among minorities.
Methods: We examined racial/ethnic differences in baseline serum potassium levels and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazard models and restricted cubic splines in a cohort of 102,241 incident MHD patients. Read More
Background: Commencing hemodialysis (HD) using a catheter is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes, and early conversion from central-venous catheter (CVC) to arteriovenous fistula/graft (non-CVC) improves outcomes. We investigated CVC prevalence and conversion, and their effects on outcomes during the first year of HD in a multinational cohort of elderly patients.
Methods: Patients ≥70 years from the MONDO Initiative who commenced HD between 2000 and 2010 in Asia-Pacific, Europe, North-, and South-America and survived at least 6 months were included in this investigation. Read More
Background: This analysis compared efficacy, renal function, and histology in kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus (TAC) combined with everolimus (EVR) or mycophenolate (MPS).
Methods: This was a retrospective analysis from a randomized trial in kidney transplant recipients who received a single 3 mg/kg dose of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), TAC, EVR, and prednisone (PRED; r-ATG/EVR, n = 85), basiliximab (BAS), TAC, EVR, and PRED (BAS/EVR, n = 102) or BAS, TAC, MPS, and PRED (BAS/MPS, n = 101). We evaluated the incidence of de novo donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigens antibodies (DSA) and histology on protocol biopsies at 12 months, and the incidence of acute rejection, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria at 36 months. Read More
Background: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a critical transcription factor for the antioxidative stress response and it activates a variety of cytoprotective genes related to redox and detoxification. NRF2 activity is regulated by the oxidative-stress sensor molecule Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) that induces proteasomal degradation of NRF2 through ubiquitinating NRF2 under unstressed conditions. Because oxidative stress is a major pathogenic and aggravating factor for kidney diseases, the KEAP1-NRF2 system has been proposed to be a therapeutic target for renal protection. Read More
Background: Previous reports showed an increased early mortality after chronic dialysis initiation among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. We hypothesized that ESRD patients in the Military Health System (MHS) would have greater access to pre-ESRD care and hence better survival rates during this early high-risk period.
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, using the US Renal Data System database, we identified 1,256,640 patients initiated on chronic dialysis from January 2, 2004 through December 31, 2014, from which a bootstrap sample of 3,984 non-MHS incident dialysis patients were compared with 996 MHS patients. Read More
Background: Endothelial dysfunction is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases to occur in end-stage renal disease patients. Febuxostat, being a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is apparently having a beneficial role in improving the endothelial dysfunction; however, data among hemodialysis patients are still limited.
Methods: A prospective, placebo-controlled, block-randomized, double-blinded study was carried out to evaluate the effect of oral febuxostat on the endothelial dysfunction in hemodialysis patients. Read More