1,053 results match your criteria American journal of mental retardation : AJMR[Journal]


Peer interactions and academic engagement of youth with developmental disabilities in inclusive middle and high school classrooms.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Nov;113(6):479-94

Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Special Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

We examined the peer interactions and academic engagement of 23 middle and high school students with developmental disabilities within inclusive academic and elective classrooms. The extent to which students with and without disabilities interacted socially was highly variable and influenced by instructional format, the proximity of general and special educators, and curricular area. Peer interactions occurred more often within small group instructional formats, when students were not receiving direct support from a paraprofessional or special educator, and in elective courses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:479-494DOI Listing
November 2008
1 Read

Gatekeepers of science: attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Nov;113(6):466-78

University of Illinois at Chicago, USA.

Researchers and Institutional Review Board (IRB) members' attitudes influence scientific knowledge about individuals with intellectual disability. We recruited 260 intellectual disability researchers and IRB members to develop a measure of attitudes toward the research participation of adults with intellectual disability, the Participation in Research Attitude Scale. Findings suggest three conceptual domains: Opportunity and Choice, Help in Decision Making, and Beneficence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:466-478DOI Listing
November 2008
2 Reads

Memory skills of boys with fragile X syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Nov;113(6):453-65

Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599-3270, USA.

Multiple aspects of memory were examined in 42 boys with fragile X syndrome and a comparison group of 42 typically developing boys matched on MA. Working memory, incidental memory, and deliberate memory were assessed with a battery that included both free-recall and recognition tasks. Findings indicated that boys with fragile X syndrome performed more poorly than their matches on most measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:453-465DOI Listing
November 2008
3 Reads

Evidence for latent classes of IQ in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Nov;113(6):439-52

University of Washington, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Autism is currently viewed as a spectrum condition that includes strikingly different severity levels; IQ is consistently described as one of the primary aspects of the heterogeneity in autism. To investigate the possibility of more than one distinct subtype of autism based on IQ both latent class analysis and taxometrics methods were used to classify Mullen IQs in a sample of 456 children with autism spectrum disorder. We found evidence for multiple IQbased subgroups using both methods. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991056PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:439-452DOI Listing
November 2008
4 Reads

Autism profiles of males with fragile X syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Nov;113(6):427-38

M.I.N.D. Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Autism, which is common in individuals with fragile X syndrome, is often difficult to diagnose. We compared the diagnostic classifications of two measures for autism diagnosis, the ADOS and the ADI-R, in addition to the DSM-IV-TR in 63 males with this syndrome. Overall, 30% of the subjects met criteria for autistic disorder and 30% met criteria for PDD-NOS. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2629645PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:427-438DOI Listing
November 2008
3 Reads

Functional analysis of the early development of self-injurious behavior: incorporating gene-environment interactions.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Sep;113(5):403-17

Tizard Centre, University of Kent, United Kingdom.

The analysis of the early development of self-injurious behavior (SIB) has, to date, reflected the wider distinction between nature and nurture. Despite the status of genetic factors as risk markers for the later development of SIB, a model that accounts for their influence on early behavior-environment relations is lacking. In the current paper we argue that the investigation of gene-environment interactions (GxE) and other forms of gene-environment interplay could potentially enhance current approaches to the study of self-injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:403-417DOI Listing
September 2008

Symptoms and behavior problems of adolescents and adults with autism: effects of mother-child relationship quality, warmth, and praise.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Sep;113(5):387-402

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Using a cross-lagged panel design, we investigated the impact of positive family processes on change in autism symptoms and behaviors. A sample of 149 co-residing mothers and their adolescent or adult child with autism was drawn from a large, longitudinal study. Maternal warmth and praise were measured using coded speech samples in which mothers talked about their son or daughter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:387-402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826841PMC
September 2008
2 Reads

Selective attention deficits associated with mild cognitive impairment and early stage Alzheimer's disease in adults with Down syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Sep;113(5):369-86

New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY 10314-6399, USA.

Adults with Down syndrome and early stage Alzheimer's disease showed decline in their ability to selectively attend to stimuli in a multitrial cancellation task. They also showed variability in their performance over the test trials, whereas healthy participants showed stability. These changes in performance were observed approximately 2 years prior to a physician's diagnosis of possible Alzheimer's disease, which was made when they were exhibiting declines in episodic memory suggestive of mild cognitive impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:369-386DOI Listing
September 2008
1 Read

Parent training for young children with developmental disabilities: randomized controlled trial.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Sep;113(5):356-68

department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA.

A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a parent training intervention for caregivers with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities. The 21 families in the experimental group received usual care plus the 12-week Incredible Years Parent Training Program with developmental delay modifications. Families in the control group (n = 23) received usual care, including early childhood education and related services. Read More

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http://www.aaiddjournals.org/doi/10.1352/2008.113%3A356-368
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:356-368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2784887PMC
September 2008
1 Read

Strategies and correlates of jigsaw puzzle and visuospatial performance by persons with Prader-Willi syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Sep;113(5):343-55

Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203-5721, USA.

Some individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome exhibit strengths in solving jigsaw puzzles. We compared visuospatial ability and jigsaw puzzle performance and strategies of 26 persons with Prader-Willi syndrome and 26 MA-matched typically developing controls. Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome relied on piece shape. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113:342-355DOI Listing
September 2008
5 Reads

Choice-making among Medicaid HCBS and ICF/MR recipients in six states.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Sep;113(5):325-42

Research and Training Center on Community Living, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Choice in everyday decisions and in support-related decisions was addressed among 2,398 adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities receiving Medicaid Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) and Intermediate Care Facility (ICF/MR) services and living in non family settings in six states. Everyday choice in daily life and in support-related choice was considerably higher on average for HCBS than for ICF/MR recipients, but after controlling for level of intellectual disability, medical care needs, mobility, behavioral and psychiatric conditions, and self-reporting, we found that choice was more strongly associated with living in a congregate setting than whether that setting was HCBS- or ICF/MR-financed. Marked differences in choice were also evident between states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/2008.113.325-342DOI Listing
September 2008

Social comparison and depression: people with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jul;113(4):307-18

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

There has been limited research on the role of sociocognitive factors in depression with people who have a mild intellectual disability. However, an association has been found between negative social comparison and depressed mood. We extend previous work by including individuals with clinical depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[307:SCADPW]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
July 2008
1 Read

Face processing and facial emotion recognition in adults with Down syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jul;113(4):292-306

University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Face processing and facial expression recognition was investigated in 17 adults with Down syndrome, and results were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. On the tasks involving faces without emotional content, the adults with Down syndrome performed significantly worse than did the controls. However, their performance was good on the tests with complete faces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[292:FPAFER]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
July 2008
1 Read

Prevalence of autism spectrum phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jul;113(4):278-91

University of Birmingham, UK.

Autism spectrum disorder characteristics have not been evaluated in Cornelia de Lange and Cri du Chat syndromes using robust assessments. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Social Communication Questionnaire were administered to 34 participants with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and a comparison group of 23 participants with Cri du Chat syndrome (M ages 12.4 [SD = 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[278:POASPI]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
July 2008
8 Reads

Stability and change in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among adults with and without Down syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jul;113(4):263-77

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Changes in health, functional abilities, and behavior problems among 150 adults with Down syndrome and 240 adults with mental retardation due to other causes were examined with seven assessments over a 9-year period. Adults were primarily younger than 40, the age at which declines begin to be evident in individuals with Down syndrome. Adults with Down syndrome were advantaged in their functional abilities and lack of behavior problems, comparable in health, and exhibited comparable rates of change on these measures as adults with mental retardation due to other causes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[263:SACIHF]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2836825PMC
July 2008
3 Reads

Combined sensory impairment (deaf-blindness) in five percent of adults with intellectual disabilities.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jul;113(4):254-62

Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Our purpose in this cross-sectional study with 1,598 adult clients who had intellectual disabilities was to obtain valid prevalences of sensory impairments and to identify associations. The diagnoses were made through ophthalmologic and audiometric assessments, applying WHO/IASSID definitions. Re-weighted prevalences were 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[254:CSIDIF]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
July 2008
1 Read

Role of Special Olympics for mothers of adult athletes with intellectual disability.

Authors:
Jonathan A Weiss

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jul;113(4):241-53

Centre for Addiction for Mental Health, Dual Diagnosis Program, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The role of Special Olympics in the lives of mothers of adult athletes was examined. Forty-six mothers participated in a longitudinal study, completing a parenting stress questionnaire, a measure of their child's maladaptive behavior, and a survey of athlete involvement in Special Olympics at two time periods, 42 months apart. Results confirm that involvement in Special Olympics is negatively correlated with mothers' role restriction, isolation, depression, and problems with competence and attachment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[241:ROSOFM]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing

Interrater reliability of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS).

Am J Ment Retard 2008 May;113(3):231-7

Special Education, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790, USA.

The interrater reliability of the Supports Intensity Scale (SIS) was investigated under the condition that interviewers had to have been trained and/or experienced in its administration and scoring. Both corrected and noncorrected Pearson's product-moment coefficients were generated to assess interinterviewer, interrespondent, and mixed interrater reliability. The correlation coefficients for the SIS Support Needs Index Score and SIS subscale scores were considerably higher than coefficients reported in the SIS Users Manual that were derived from a similar study conducted with untrained, inexperienced interviewers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[231:IROTSI]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing

Signaling noncomprehension of language: a comparison of fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 May;113(3):214-30

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Signaling noncomprehension of the spoken messages of others was examined for youth with fragile X or Down syndrome in comparison with each other and nonverbal MA-matched typically developing children. A direction-following task was used in which some of the directions were inadequate. Both syndrome groups signaled noncomprehension less often than did the typically developing children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[214:SNOLAC]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5610960PMC
May 2008
5 Reads

Veridical and false pictorial memory in individuals with and without mental retardation.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 May;113(3):201-13

Department of Psychology, Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648, USA.

Veridical and false pictorial recognition were assessed in individuals with mental retardation; groups were matched for MA and CA. Pictures were viewed in either a generative or static format at acquisition. The individuals with mental retardation and those in the MA-matched group had higher rates of false memories for critical items and lower hit rates than did their CA-matched peers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[201:VAFPMI]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
May 2008
4 Reads

Short-term memory coding in children with intellectual disabilities.

Authors:
Lucy Henry

Am J Ment Retard 2008 May;113(3):187-200

Department of Psychology, London South Bank University, London, United Kingdom.

To examine visual and verbal coding strategies, I asked children with intellectual disabilities and peers matched for MA and CA to perform picture memory span tasks with phonologically similar, visually similar, long, or nonsimilar named items. The CA group showed effects consistent with advanced verbal memory coding (phonological similarity and word length effects). Neither the intellectual disabilities nor MA groups showed evidence for memory coding strategies. Read More

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http://www.aaiddjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[187:SMCICW]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
May 2008
1 Read

Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis for the adaptive behavior assessment system-II parent form, ages 5-21.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 May;113(3):178-86

University of Florida, Florida, USA.

The AAIDD has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model stressing 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. In previous studies on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II), researchers found support for a model including both 10 adaptive skills and three conceptual domains. To extend this review, we examined gender-invariant structure of adaptive behavior using the ABAS-II Parent Form, Ages 5-21, to answer four questions: Do the skill areas in this measure display the same pattern of factor loadings and the same factor loadings? Are intercepts of the observed skill areas equal? Do skill areas measure the corresponding factors with the same accuracy? Results show a similar one-factor structure for males and females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[178:MCFAFT]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
May 2008
4 Reads

Perceived quality of life in mothers of children with fragile X syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 May;113(3):159-77

FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8180, USA.

A mixed method approach was used to explore quality of life of 101 mothers of children with fragile X syndrome. Mothers completed a self-report of personal quality of life and measures of mental health and well-being. A subset was interviewed about quality of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[159:PQOLIM]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
May 2008
3 Reads
14 Citations

Outcomes and costs of community living: semi-independent living and fully staffed group homes.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Mar;113(2):87-101

Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Wales, UK.

In a matched-groups design, costs and quality of life outcomes for adults with intellectual disabilities with relatively low support needs were compared between those in fully staffed group homes (n = 35) and in semi-independent living (n = 35). Data were collected on participant characteristics, setting organization, various lifestyle outcomes, and costs. There were no differences in the majority of lifestyle outcome measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[87:OACOCL]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2008
3 Reads

Maladaptive behaviors related to dementia status in adults with Down syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Mar;113(2):73-86

Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, USA.

Changes in maladaptive behaviors related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 251 adults 45 years of age and older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate clear differences in maladaptive behaviors at various stages of dementia. Generally, individuals with no signs or symptoms of dementia displayed fewer and less severe maladaptive behaviors than individuals in the early and mid-stages of dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[73:MBRTDS]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2008
1 Read

Self-reported well-being of women and men with intellectual disabilities in England.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Mar;113(2):143-55

Lancaster University, UK.

We investigated the association between indicators of subjective well-being and the personal characteristics, socioeconomic position, and social relationships of a sample of 1,273 English adults with intellectual disabilities. Mean overall happiness with life was 71% of the scale maximum, a figure only marginally lower than typically reported among the general population. Variation in subjective well-being was strongly and consistently related to indicators of socioeconomic position and, to a lesser extent, social relationships. Read More

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http://www.aaiddjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[143:SWOWAM]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2008
1 Read

Profiles of women who have mental retardation with and without a documented history of abuse.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Mar;113(2):133-42

Center for Opportunities and Outcomes for People with Disabilities, Teachers College, Columbia University, NY, NY 10027, USA.

Thirty-six women with mental retardation were divided into two groups on the basis of whether they had a documented history of abuse during the preceding 5 years. The women with this history were more likely than the women with no documented history of abuse to be employing passive/avoidant decision-making strategies, reporting higher levels of stress, having dual diagnoses, be receiving counseling, and relying on others to go out into the community. We recommend that special attention be paid to designing interventions that are tailored to the specific needs of these women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[133:POWWHM]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing

Dual-task processing as a measure of executive function: a comparison between adults with Williams and Down syndromes.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Mar;113(2):117-32

Department of Psychology, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, NY 10313, USA.

Behavioral phenotypes of individuals with Williams syndrome and individuals with Down syndrome have been contrasted in relation to short-term memory. People with Down syndrome are stronger visuospatially and those with Williams syndrome are stronger verbally. We examined short-term memory, then explored whether dual-task processing further characterized behavioral phenotypes in 53 older adults with Down syndrome, 10 with Williams syndrome, and 39 controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[117:DPAAMO]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2008
1 Read

Public health approach to the study of mental retardation.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Mar;113(2):102-16

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0212, USA.

We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with the highest individual-level risk, but the impact varied considerably, depending on maternal educational level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[102:PHATTS]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
March 2008
1 Read

Screening individuals with intellectual disability for psychiatric disorders: comparison of four measures.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jan;113(1):54-70

Nordland Hospital Trust, Nelse Nord RHF/Northern Norway Regional Health Authority, Bodø, Norway.

Convergences and divergences between four of the most commonly used checklists for psychiatric disorders (the Reiss Screen, The Mini PAS-ADD, the DASH-II, and the ADD) were examined. We screened 181 individuals with intellectual disability for psychiatric disorders with the four checklists and compared the results on the checklists. The concordance of the overall scores on the four checklists was high; but the agreement on specific psychiatric disorders was limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[54:SIWIDF]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
January 2008
4 Reads

Compulsive, self-injurious, and autistic behavior in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jan;113(1):44-53

Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, CA 94305-5795, USA.

Compulsive, self-injurious, and autistic behaviors were examined in 31 boys and 29 girls with fragile X syndrome aged 5 to 20 years. Self-injurious behavior occurred in 58% of boys and 17% of girls, whereas compulsive behavior occurred in 72% of boys and 55% of girls and did not appear to be associated with self-injurious behavior. Fifty percent of boys and 20% of girls met diagnostic criteria for autism on the ADOS-G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[44:CSAABI]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
January 2008
3 Reads

Emotional competence in children with Down syndrome: negativity and regulation.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jan;113(1):32-43

School of Social and Family Dynamics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-3701, USA.

Although often described as temperamentally "easy" and sociable, children with Down syndrome also exhibit behavior problems. Affective development is important for social and behavioral competence. We examined negative affective expressions and a range of emotion regulation/coping strategies during a frustrating task in a sample of children with Down syndrome, nonspecific mental retardation, and typical development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[32:ECICWD]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
January 2008
20 Reads

Mothers' social communicative adjustments to young children with mild developmental delays.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jan;113(1):1-18

Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7920, USA.

The social communication and compliance patterns of 63 mothers interacting with their young children who had mild developmental delays in social play and instructional tasks were examined in a longitudinal study. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that mothers appropriately adjust their social communications in accordance with children's developmental characteristics and task demands. The extent of scaffolding specificity that mothers used in the instructional task also indicated a high level of sensitivity to children's developmental characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2008)113[1:MSCATY]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
January 2008
2 Reads

Use of medication for the management of behavior problems among adults with intellectual disabilities: a clinicians' consensus survey.

Am J Ment Retard 2008 Jan;113(1):19-31

University of Birmingham, West Midlands, UK.

Current prescribing preferences among relevant experts regarding the use of psychotropic medication for the management of behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities in the absence of a diagnosed psychiatric illness was defined. We used a questionnaire design to synthesize the preferences of a large group, namely, clinical psychiatrists, thereby establishing a consensus. A total of 108 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/06-034.1DOI Listing
January 2008
2 Reads

Prokinetic therapy reduces aspiration pneumonia in tube-fed patients with severe developmental disabilities.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Nov;112(6):467-71

University of Mississippi Medical Center, Digestive Diseases, Jackson 39216, USA.

To evaluate the clinical benefit of prokinetic therapy in aspiration pneumonia in patients with developmental disabilities, we conducted a retrospective study; records of 22 tube-fed patients were reviewed from December 1990 to October 1998 for a mean of 22.7 months before and 38.9 months during Cisapride therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[467:PTRAPI]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
November 2007

Impact of postcensal versus intercensal population estimates on prevalence of selected developmental disabilities--metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, 1991-1996.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Nov;112(6):462-6

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Prevalence estimates often use U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the population as denominator data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[462:IOPVIP]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
November 2007
6 Reads

Predictors of perceived negative impact in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Nov;112(6):450-61

University of Michigan, Autism and Communication Disorders Center, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.

Mothers of 110 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were interviewed with the Child and Adolescent Impact Assessment when their children were approximately 9 years old. Regression analyses revealed that African American mothers reported lower levels of perceived negative impact of having a child with ASD than did Caucasian mothers. Higher repetitive behavior scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, lower adaptive behavior scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and less perceived social support were also significant predictors of higher perceived negative impact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[450:POPNII]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
November 2007
2 Reads

Level of intellectual functioning predicts patterns of associated symptoms in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Nov;112(6):439-49

Autism Center, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA.

The relation between level of intellectual functioning and risk for associated symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was investigated. Cognitive ability and associated symptoms were assessed directly and/or via parent report in 74 children with ASD at 6 and 9 years of age. Participants were classified as lower and higher functioning using Nonverbal and Verbal IQ and Communication scores on the Vineland at age 6. Read More

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http://www.aaiddjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[439:LOIFPP]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
November 2007
10 Reads

Early intensive behavioral intervention: outcomes for children with autism and their parents after two years.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Nov;112(6):418-38

Centre for Behavioural Research Analysis and intervention in Developmental Disabilities, School of Psychology, University of Southampton, UK.

An intervention group (n=23) of preschool children with autism was identified on the basis of parent preference for early intensive behavioral intervention and a comparison group (n=21) identified as receiving treatment as usual. Prospective assessment was undertaken before treatment, after 1 year of treatment, and again after 2 years. Groups did not differ on assessments at baseline but after 2 years, robust differences favoring intensive behavioral intervention were observed on measures of intelligence, language, daily living skills, positive social behavior, and a statistical measure of best outcome for individual children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[418:EIBIOF]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
November 2007
4 Reads

Transition and change in adolescents and young adults with autism: longitudinal effects on maternal well-being.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Nov;112(6):401-17

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison 53705, USA.

We investigated how change in the characteristics of 140 adolescents and young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would predict subsequent change in maternal well-being and in the quality of the mother-child relationship. Overall patterns of improvement in maternal well-being and mother-child relationship quality were observed during the study. When the son or daughter had declining behavior problems, were prescribed more psychotropic medications, and exited from high school during the study period, mothers' well-being and perception of relationship quality improved to a greater extent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[401:TACIAA]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
November 2007
2 Reads

Dietary intake of adults with mental retardation who reside in community settings.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Sep;112(5):392-400

Oregon State University, USA.

The dietary intake of adults with mental retardation among three different community residential settings was described and compared. Two dietary screeners were administered to 325 adults. The women's Fruit and Vegetable Screener scores from group homes were significantly higher than scores from those with family members and in semi-independent settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[0392:DIOAWM]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
September 2007
4 Reads

Prediction of social skills in 6-year-old children with and without developmental delays: contributions of early regulation and maternal scaffolding.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Sep;112(5):375-91

The Pennsylvania State University, Psychology, Child Study Center, University Park 16802, USA.

Children's emotion dysregulation and maternal scaffolding at age 4 were examined as predictors of social skills at age 6, for 66 children with and 106 without early developmental delays. Observed scaffolding and regulation during frustrating laboratory tasks related to later mother, father, and teacher social-skill ratings for children with delays and were stronger predictors of social skills within this group than were developmental level and early behavior problems. In contrast, fewer associations were found for typically developing children, with early behavior problems providing the only unique prediction to social skills. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[0375:POSSIY]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
September 2007
18 Reads

Collaborative learning: comparison of outcomes for typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Sep;112(5):361-74

Simon Laurie House, Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Collaborative learning is widely used in mainstream education but rarely utilized with children who have intellectual disabilities, possibly on the assumption that the metacognitive skills on which it capitalizes are less likely to be available. Effects of collaborative learning experience on a core cognitive skill, sorting by category, were investigated in three child groups: typically developing (TD) children, children with nonspecific intellectual disabilities (NSID) and children with Down syndrome (DS). Following collaboration, sorting performance improved significantly in lower ability partners in TD-TD pairings, with this pattern reversed in NSID-NSID pairings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[0361:CLCOOF]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
September 2007

Contribution of social and information-processing factors to eye-gaze avoidance in fragile X syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Sep;112(5):349-60

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

The influence of social and information-processing demands on eye-gaze avoidance in individuals with fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, or typical development were examined by manipulating those demands in a structured-language task. Participants with fragile X syndrome exhibited more gaze avoidance than did those in the comparison groups, but no group differences in avoidance were found between a social and nonsocial condition. Task difficulty affected gaze avoidance in the nonsocial but not in the social condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[0349:COSAIF]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
September 2007
6 Reads

Positive impact of intellectual disability on families.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Sep;112(5):330-48

Graduate School of Education, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA.

Understanding positive, as well as negative, impact of a child with mental retardation will lead to a more balanced view of families and disability. In two studies we examined parents' perceived positive impact of a child with MR/DD. Study 1 involved 282 young adults with severe mental retardation; Study 2 involved 214 young children with, or without, developmental delays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[0330:PIOIDO]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
September 2007
1 Read

A good friend is hard to find: friendship among adolescents with disabilities.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Sep;112(5):319-29

Center for Culture and Health, University of California, Los Angeles 90024-1759, USA.

We asked 27 Euro American teens ages 16 to 17 with developmental disabilities in Los Angeles to describe friendships. Eleven characteristics of friendship reported in the research literature (similarity, proximity, transcending context, companionship, reciprocity, mutuality, intimacy, support, trust/loyalty, conflict management, and stability) were mentioned by at least some teens. However, most teens focused on companionship, doing activities across contexts, similarity in interests/personality, sheer proximity, and stability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[0319:AGFIHT]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
September 2007

Mental rotation of unfamiliar stimuli by teenagers with mental retardation: role of feature salience.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Sep;112(5):311-8

Laboratoire Psitec, Université de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

Teenagers with mental retardation and two groups of children without mental retardation matched on MA or CA carried out mental rotation tasks of unfamiliar stimuli. Three shapes composed of four arms were used. For each shape, there was a version with a salient feature (F+), and a version with no salient feature (F-). Read More

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http://www.aaiddjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[0311:MROUSB]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
September 2007
2 Reads

Tremor frequency profile as a function of level of mental retardation.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Jul;112(4):300-7

College of Health and Human Development, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

The characteristic slowness of movement initiation and execution in adult individuals with mental retardation may be driven by the slower frequency profile of the dynamics of the system. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined the resting and postural finger tremor frequency profile (single and dual limb) of adults as a function of level of mental retardation (moderate, severe, profound). There was a progressive increase in the contribution of slow frequency components to the enhanced amplitude of tremor as a function of mental retardation, particularly in the group with profound mental retardation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[300:TFPAAF]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing

Narrative development in adolescents and young adults with fragile x syndrome.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Jul;112(4):289-99

Department of Communication Sciences and Special Education, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

The narratives of 18 adolescents and young adults with fragile X syndrome were compared to those of 23 adolescents with Down syndrome and 21 typically developing children matched for nonverbal MA. Narratives were elicited using a wordless picture book and analyzed for use of narrative evaluation, linguistic productivity, and complexity. Results revealed that the individuals with fragile X syndrome produced significantly fewer different types of narrative evaluation, but more grammatically acceptable utterances than did the youth with Down syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[289:NDIAAY]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing
July 2007
2 Reads

Measuring parental daily rewards and worries in the transition to adulthood.

Am J Ment Retard 2007 Jul;112(4):275-88

Department of Psychology, St. Mary's College of Maryland, St. Mary's City, MD 20686, USA.

Psychometric properties are described for an inventory that measures the daily rewards and worries that parents experience as their sons and daughters transition to adulthood. In a series of 4 studies involving 847 respondents, we explored and confirmed the factor structure of the Transition Daily Rewards and Worries Questionnaire (TDRWQ) in a sample that included transitioning individuals with and without disabilities. The final questionnaire includes 28 items in 4 factors: Positive Future Orientation, Community Resources, Financial Independence, and Family Relations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[275:MPDRAW]2.0.CO;2DOI Listing