332,934 results match your criteria American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council[Journal]


Cardiovascular and Metabolic Risk in Women in the First Year Postpartum: Allostatic Load as a Function of Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, UCLA Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  Allostatic load (AL) represents multisystem physiological "wear-and-tear" reflecting emerging chronic disease risk. We assessed AL during the first year postpartum in a diverse community sample with known health disparities.

Methods:  The Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Community Child Health Network enrolled 2,448 predominantly low-income African-American, Latina, and White women immediately after delivery of liveborn infants at ≥20 weeks' gestation, following them over time with interviews, clinical measures, and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence and associated risk factors of periodic limb movement in sleep in two German population-based studies.

Sleep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.

Study Objectives: Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) are frequent motor phenomena; however, population-based data are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of PLMS and factors associated with PLMS within two German population-based cohorts, the SHIP-TREND and BiDirect.

Methods: Single-night polysomnography was performed on 1107 subjects recruited from the general population (mean age: 52. Read More

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December 2018

New Directions in the Historiography of Psychiatry.

J Hist Med Allied Sci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of History, University of Rochester.

Gerald Grob's work in the history of psychiatry over the course of almost fifty years created a model for how historians might successfully situate mental health in its social and political context, and how inseparable it was from this context. Over the last twenty years, the field has grown tremendously. Historians have incorporated categories of analysis like gender and race, methodologies like cultural history and intellectual history, and sought to continue Grob's quest to understand American mental health history as a critical component of American history writ large. Read More

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December 2018
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Enhanced hypovirus transmission by engineered super donor strains of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, into a natural population of strains exhibiting diverse vegetative compatibility genotypes.

Virology 2018 Dec 11;528:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Electronic address:

Horizontal transmission of virulence attenuating hypoviruses of Cryphonectria parasitica is restricted by an allorecognition system termed vegetative incompatibility (vic). A super donor formulation of two engineered C. parasitica strains (SD328/SD82) with gene disruptions at four of six vic loci transmitted hypovirus to strains in the laboratory independent of vic genotype. Read More

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December 2018

Diversification of the genus Apogon (Lacepède, 1801) (Apogonidae: Perciformes) in the tropical eastern Pacific.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratorio de Biología Acuática, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio "R" planta baja, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacán, 58030, México; Laboratorio Nacional de Análisis y Síntesis Ecológica para la Conservación de Recursos Genéticos de México, Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores, Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 27-3 (Xangari), 58089, Morelia, Michoacán, México.

We examined the role of geographic barriers and historical processes on the diversification of Apogon species within the tropical eastern Pacific (TEP). Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used in Bayesian and Maximum likelihood analyses to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for Apogon species. Bayesian inferences were used to date the cladogenetic events. Read More

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December 2018

When is a "cryptic" species not a cryptic species: A consideration from the Holarctic micro-landsnail genus Euconulus (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-61137, Brno, Czechia. Electronic address:

Naive use of molecular data may lead to ambiguous conclusions, especially within the context of "cryptic" species. Here, we integrated molecular and morphometric data to evaluate phylogenetic relationships in the widespread terrestrial micro-snail genus, Euconulus. We analyzed mitochondrial (16S + COII) and nuclear (ITS1 + ITS2) sequence across 94 populations from Europe, Asia and North America within the nominate species E. Read More

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December 2018

Evolutionary analysis of the Chikungunya virus epidemic in Mexico reveals intra-host mutational hotspots in the E1 protein.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209292. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

División de Laboratorios de Vigilancia e Investigación Epidemiológica, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico.

The epidemic potential of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently made evident by its introduction and rapid expansion in the Caribbean and the Americas. We sought to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic in Mexico, the country with the highest number of confirmed CHIKV cases in the Americas, and to characterise viral evolution at the population and intra-host level. Analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of 2,739 diagnosed cases in Mexico from December 2014 to December 2015 showed a rapid nationwide expansion of the epidemic with focalisation in the South West of the country. Read More

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December 2018
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Interventions to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in children: A systematic review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 14;12(12):e0006986. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unidad Clínica de Leishmaniasis, Centro Internacional de Entrenamiento e Investigaciones Médicas (CIDEIM), Cali, Colombia.

Background: Case management in children with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is mainly based on studies performed in adults. We aimed to determine the efficacy and harms of interventions to treat CL in children.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies, assessing treatments of CL in children (≤12 years old). Read More

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December 2018
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A Survey of Mohs Tissue Tracking Practices.

Dermatol Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Background: There are little data regarding error within the multistep process of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS).

Objective: A survey of Mohs surgeons was performed to evaluate variation in tissue handling and processing within the MMS process.

Methods And Materials: A 9-question electronic survey was distributed to members of the American College of Mohs Micrographic Surgery. Read More

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December 2018
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Endometrial Carcinoma Diagnosis: Use of FIGO Grading and Genomic Subcategories in Clinical Practice: Recommendations of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2019 Jan;38 Suppl 1:S64-S74

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (R.A.S, K.J.P.) Department of Pathology, Stony Brook Hospital, SUNY, Stony Brook (C.T.), New York Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (A.M.) Pathology Department, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova and University Hospital of Bellvitge, Biomedical Research Institute, and Bellvitge Biomedical Institute, University of Lleida, CIBERONC, Spain (X.M.-G.) Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (E.O.) Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine and the Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut (V.P.) Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet and Department of Pathology and Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden (J.C.) Department of Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, UK (W.G.M.) Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (C.B.G.).

In this review, we sought to address 2 important issues in the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma: how to grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas and how to incorporate the 4 genomic subcategories of endometrial carcinoma, as identified through The Cancer Genome Atlas, into clinical practice. The current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grading scheme provides prognostic information that can be used to guide the extent of surgery and use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy. We recommend moving toward a binary scheme to grade endometrial endometrioid carcinomas by considering International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics defined grades 1 and 2 tumors as "low grade" and grade 3 tumors as "high grade. Read More

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January 2019

CE: Addressing Food Insecurity in Vulnerable Populations.

Am J Nurs 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Heather L. Flores is an NP at the John and Ella Byrd McCain Health and Counseling Center, Alabama A&M University, Huntsville. Azita Amiri is an assistant professor of nursing at the University of Alabama, Huntsville. Contact author: Heather L. Flores, The authors and planners have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

A review of risk factors, health effects, screening, and resources. ABSTRACT: Food insecurity affects people of all ages, in every area in which nurses work or volunteer. The U. Read More

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December 2018

Succinylcholine Use and Dantrolene Availability for Malignant Hyperthermia Treatment: Database Analyses and Systematic Review.

Anesthesiology 2019 Jan;130(1):41-54

From The North American Malignant Hyperthermia Registry of the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Mercy Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2000 through 2017; M.G.L., B.W.B.) Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (2018; M.G.L.) Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (T.T.K., M.T.V., S.K.) Department of Nurse Anesthesia, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2016 through 2018; B.W.B.) Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine (K.G.B., T.W.K., J.C.) School of Public Health (K.G.B.), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (E.L.S.) Department of Anesthesiology (A.H.), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (J.L.) Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (S.R.) Department of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Egleston Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia (D.M.). Current positions: Dr. Larach is now at the Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Dr. Sivak is now at the Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Department of Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Beaumont Health, Dearborn, Michigan Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, Michigan Beaumont Health, Farmington Hills, Michigan Beaumont Health, Grosse Pointe, Michigan Bronson Healthcare, Battle Creek, Michigan Bronson Healthcare, Kalamazoo, Michigan CHOC Children's Hospital, Orange, California Anesthesiology Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan Henry Ford Health System, West Bloomfield, Michigan Holland Hospital, Holland, Michigan Mercy Health, Muskegon, Michigan Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Care, and Pain Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon St. Joseph Mercy, Ann Arbor, Michigan St. Joseph Mercy Oakland, Pontiac, Michigan St. Mary Mercy Hospital, Livonia, Michigan Sparrow Health System, Lansing, Michigan Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado Department of Anesthesiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Department of Anesthesiology, University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, Tennessee Department of Anesthesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Department of Anesthesiology, University of Vermont, Larner College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

What We Already Know About This Topic: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Although dantrolene effectively treats malignant hyperthermia (MH), discrepant recommendations exist concerning dantrolene availability. Whereas Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States guidelines state dantrolene must be available within 10 min of the decision to treat MH wherever volatile anesthetics or succinylcholine are administered, a Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia protocol permits Class B ambulatory facilities to stock succinylcholine for airway rescue without dantrolene. The authors investigated (1) succinylcholine use rates, including for airway rescue, in anesthetizing/sedating locations; (2) whether succinylcholine without volatile anesthetics triggers MH warranting dantrolene; and (3) the relationship between dantrolene administration and MH morbidity/mortality. Read More

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January 2019

Strategies to improve bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from ethyl ester concentrates.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Midwest Biomedical Research, Center for Metabolic & Cardiovascular Health, Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To describe recent strategies that have been developed to enhance absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from dietary supplements.

Recent Findings: The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have important physiologic functions, and numerous potential health benefits have been suggested by results from observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. EPA and DHA intakes in the average American diet are substantially below recommended levels. Read More

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December 2018
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Diet and colon: what matters?

Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Purpose Of Review: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Diet has a significant impact on the risk of developing CRC, but though processed meat is a known positive contributor, the effects of other dietary components are largely mixed. This review focuses on dietary patterns to describe the complexity of dietary diversity and overall food consumption and to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of CRC. Read More

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December 2018
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Replication of newly proposed TNM staging system for medullary thyroid carcinoma: a nationwide study.

Endocr Connect 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

C Godballe, Department of ORL Head and Neck Surgery and Audiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

A recent study proposed new TNM groupings for better survival discrimination among stage groups for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and validated these groupings in a population-based cohort in the United States. However, it is unknown how well the groupings perform in populations outside the United States. Consequently, we conducted the first population-based study aiming to evaluate if the recently proposed TNM groupings provide better survival discrimination than the current American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system (seventh and eighth edition) in a nationwide MTC cohort outside the United States. Read More

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December 2018

Pharmacist insights into adolescent human papillomavirus vaccination provision in the United States.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a Department of Epidemiology , Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , NC.

HPV vaccination coverage in the United States (US) falls short of the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% coverage among 13-15 year-old adolescents. Pharmacies are a promising alternative vaccine delivery site that may increase access to HPV vaccination. Our objective was to assess pharmacists' insights into HPV vaccination provision to adolescents. Read More

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December 2018

Decrease in American birth rates makes it imperative for the United States to implement state mandated fertility coverage.

J Med Econ 2018 Dec 14:1-5. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

a McGill University Reproductive Center , 888 Boulevard de Maisonneuve East , Montréal , QC H2L 4S8 , Quebec , Canada.

In recent years, the prevalence of infertility has increased due to delayed child bearing and increase in the rate of male infertility. Given the high cost of fertility treatment, this option is not valid for families with low income, and those who can afford it usually choose to have multiple embryo transfers, which has led to an increase in multiple birth rates and increase in the cost of perinatal care. Due to the expected increase in infertility and decrease in the national live birth rate, the United States should set a plan to fund infertility treatment and lead a policy for single embryo transfer. Read More

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December 2018

How mindfulness training promotes positive emotions: Dismantling acceptance skills training in two randomized controlled trials.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec;115(6):944-973

Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University.

Mindfulness meditation interventions-which train skills in monitoring present-moment experiences with a lens of acceptance-have shown promise for increasing positive emotions. Using a theory-based approach, we hypothesized that learning acceptance skills in mindfulness interventions helps people notice more positive experiences in daily life, and tested whether removing acceptance training from mindfulness interventions would eliminate intervention-related boosts in positive affect. In 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stressed community adults, mindfulness skills were dismantled into 2 structurally equivalent interventions: (a) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor + Accept) and (b) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only) without acceptance training. Read More

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December 2018

[Interpretation of updated version of BPPV clinical practice guideline: treatment and patient education].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Sep;32(18):1367-1371

In 2008, American Academy of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery(AAOHNSF) published the first clinical practice guideline for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), in which 13 key action statements for BPPV diagnosis, treatment, and patient education were proposed. The updated version of guideline was published in 2017. This article aimed at interpreting the updated guideline with particular focus on BPPV treatment and patient education. Read More

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September 2018

[Position of the Latin American Society of Nutrition (SLAN) on the management of conflict of interest.]

Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):592-597

Centro de Investigación en Nutrición y Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Cuernavaca, México.

There is solid evidence documenting relationships between the food and beverage industry and academia that shows that industry sponsored research is likely to bias results in favor of industry. In Latin America, examples of these situations have been documented in Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador, among others. Due to the urgent need for studying and managing relationships between the food and beverage industry and the field of health and nutrition research, in 2017, the President of the Latin American Society of Nutrition (SLAN) appointed a Conflict of Interest Committee (CCI). Read More

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Prenatal alcohol exposure prevalence as measured by direct ethanol metabolites in meconium in a Native American tribe of the southwest.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Community Environmental Health Program, University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Background: Although fetal alcohol spectrum disorders represent a significant public health problem, Native Americans are underrepresented in population and targeted screening programs. Prior reports suggest that Native American tribal communities may have a higher prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy; however, systematic examination using ethanol biomarkers is lacking.

Methods: This study utilized data collected through the Navajo Birth Cohort Study (NBCS)-a birth cohort study of a Southwestern tribal community. Read More

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December 2018
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Bleeding TAPs out.

J Thromb Haemost 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

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December 2018

Toward zonally tailored scaffolds for osteochondral differentiation of synovial mesenchymal stem cells.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York.

Synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) are an emerging cell source for regenerative medicine applications, including osteochondral defect (OCD) repair. However, in contrast to bone marrow MSCs, scaffold compositions which promote SMSC chondrogenesis/osteogenesis are still being identified. In the present manuscript, we examine poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG)-based scaffolds containing zonally-specific biochemical cues to guide SMSC osteochondral differentiation. Read More

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December 2018

Reimbursement pricing for new medical devices in Japan: Is the evaluation of innovation appropriate?

Int J Health Plann Manage 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Economics, Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: In Japan, strong reimbursement pricing control measures for existing medical device products have rendered new medical device reimbursement pricing critical for manufacturers. Few studies have been conducted on this aspect; therefore, this paper (1) clarifies whether evaluation of innovation is appropriate or not and (2), if not, investigates its background.

Methods: In this research, 319 C1/C2 government decisions for new medical devices in the 10 years from April 2008 to March 2018 were analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

Pre-medical majors in the humanities and social sciences: impact on communication skills and specialty choice.

Med Educ 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Context: Medical school admissions committees use a variety of criteria to determine which candidates to admit to their programmes. Effective communication is increasingly considered a key requisite to the practice of effective medicine. Medical students with pre-medical backgrounds in the humanities and social sciences may be more likely to acquire skills relevant to patient-centred communication, either prior to or during medical school. Read More

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December 2018

Zinc Transport in the Mammalian Intestine.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):59-74. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Military Nutrition Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts, USA.

Zinc homeostasis is primarily maintained in the proximal small intestine. Sophisticated transport mechanisms maintain zinc homeostasis by controlling the uptake and efflux of zinc in intestinal absorptive epithelial cells. Zrt-irt-like proteins (ZIPs) and zinc transporters (ZnTs) function in a coordinated manner to assimilate zinc from the lumen of the small intestine, subcellular compartments within the absorptive epithelial cell, and circulation. Read More

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December 2018
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Amino Acid Transport Across the Mammalian Intestine.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):343-373. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.

The small intestine mediates the absorption of amino acids after ingestion of protein and sustains the supply of amino acids to all tissues. The small intestine is an important contributor to plasma amino acid homeostasis, while amino acid transport in the large intestine is more relevant for bacterial metabolites and fluid secretion. A number of rare inherited disorders have contributed to the identification of amino acid transporters in epithelial cells of the small intestine, in particular cystinuria, lysinuric protein intolerance, Hartnup disorder, iminoglycinuria, and dicarboxylic aminoaciduria. Read More

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December 2018
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Motor Neuroprostheses.

Authors:
Arthur Prochazka

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):127-148. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute (NMHI), School of Molecular & Systems Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Neuroprostheses (NPs) are electrical stimulators that activate nerves, either to provide sensory input to the central nervous system (sensory NPs), or to activate muscles (motor NPs: MNPs). The first MNPs were belts with inbuilt batteries and electrodes developed in the 1850s to exercise the abdominal muscles. They became enormously popular among the general public, but as a result of exaggerated therapeutic claims they were soon discredited by the medical community. Read More

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December 2018
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Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Regulation and Its Actions in Skeletal Muscle.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):413-438. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, College of Health and Human Performance, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is essential for promoting growth and survival of virtually all tissues. It bears high homology to its related protein insulin, and as such, there is an interplay between these molecules with regard to their anabolic and metabolic functions. Skeletal muscle produces a significant proportion of IGF-1, and is highly responsive to its actions, including increased muscle mass and improved regenerative capacity. Read More

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December 2018
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Genome-Wide Maps of Transcription Regulatory Elements and Transcription Enhancers in Development and Disease.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):439-455. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Blood Research Institute, BloodCenter of Wisconsin, a part of Versiti, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

Gene expression is regulated by numerous elements including enhancers, insulators, transcription factors, and architectural proteins. Regions of DNA distal to the transcriptional start site, called enhancers, play a central role in the temporal and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression through RNA polymerase II. The identification of enhancers and other cis regulatory elements has largely been possible due to advances in next generation sequencing technologies. Read More

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December 2018
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Lymphatic Vessel Network Structure and Physiology.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):207-299. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

The lymphatic system is comprised of a network of vessels interrelated with lymphoid tissue, which has the holistic function to maintain the local physiologic environment for every cell in all tissues of the body. The lymphatic system maintains extracellular fluid homeostasis favorable for optimal tissue function, removing substances that arise due to metabolism or cell death, and optimizing immunity against bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other antigens. This article provides a comprehensive review of important findings over the past century along with recent advances in the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of lymphatic vessels, including tissue/organ specificity, development, mechanisms of lymph formation and transport, lymphangiogenesis, and the roles of lymphatics in disease. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Renal Chloride Channels in Relation to Sodium Chloride Transport.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):301-342. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, INSERM, Centre de recherche des Cordeliers, Equipe Métabolisme et Physiologie Rénale, Paris, France.

The many mechanisms governing NaCl absorption in the diverse parts of the renal tubule have been largely elucidated, although some of them, as neutral NaCl absorption across the cortical collecting duct or regulation through with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases have emerged only recently. Chloride channels, which are important players in these processes, at least in the distal nephron, are the focus of this review. Over the last 20-year period, experimental studies using molecular, electrophysiological, and physiological/functional approaches have deepened and renewed our views on chloride channels and their role in renal function. Read More

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December 2018
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Exercise Training in Cancer Control and Treatment.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):165-205. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism (CIM) and Centre for Physical Activity Research (CFAS), Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Exercise training is playing an increasing role in cancer care, as accumulating evidence demonstrates that exercise may prevent cancer, control disease progression, interact with anti-cancer therapies, and improve physical functioning and psychosocial outcomes. In this overview article, we present the current state of the field of exercise oncology, which currently comprises of nearly 700 unique exercise intervention trials with more than 50,000 cancer patients. First, we summarize the range of these interventions with regard to diagnoses, clinical setting, timing, and type of intervention. Read More

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December 2018
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Mechanisms of Sex Disparities in Cardiovascular Function and Remodeling.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):375-411. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Physiology and Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.

Epidemiological studies demonstrate disparities between men and women in cardiovascular disease prevalence, clinical symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Enrollment of women in clinical trials is lower than men, and experimental studies investigating molecular mechanisms and efficacy of certain therapeutics in cardiovascular disease have been primarily conducted in male animals. These practices bias data interpretation and limit the implication of research findings in female clinical populations. Read More

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December 2018
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Regulation of Red Blood Cell Volume with Exercise Training.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):149-164. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Physical Activity Research, University Hospital Copenhagen, Denmark.

Hypervolemia is a hallmark of endurance training (ET) and manifests by similar elevations in plasma (PV) and red blood cell volume (RBCV) so that hematocrit largely remains unaltered following weeks/months of training. While the mechanisms facilitating PV expansion with ET have been previously reviewed extensively this is not the case for RBCV. Endurance champions may have 40% more RBCV than controls and RBCV may increase up to 10% following months of regular exercise training in healthy individuals. Read More

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December 2018
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Myocardial Cell Signaling During the Transition to Heart Failure: Cellular Signaling and Therapeutic Approaches.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):75-125. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Cardiovascular disease leading to heart failure (HF) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Improved pharmacological and interventional coronary procedures have led to improved outcomes following acute myocardial infarction. This success has translated into an unforeseen increased incidence in HF. Read More

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December 2018
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1.685 Impact Factor

Contribution of Adipose Tissue Inflammation to the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):1-58. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

The objective of this comprehensive review is to summarize and discuss the available evidence of how adipose tissue inflammation affects insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Low-grade, chronic adipose tissue inflammation is characterized by infiltration of macrophages and other immune cell populations into adipose tissue, and a shift toward more proinflammatory subtypes of leukocytes. The infiltration of proinflammatory cells in adipose tissue is associated with an increased production of key chemokines such as C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins 1β and 6 as well as reduced expression of the key insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin. Read More

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December 2018
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Aggressive subcutaneous trichoblastomas successfully treated with Mohs micrographic surgery.

Australas J Dermatol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology, Advocate Illinois Masonic Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

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December 2018
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AHNS series: Do you know your guidelines? Diagnosis and management of salivary gland tumors.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Otolaryngology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

This article is the next installment of the series "Do you know your guidelines" presented by the Education Committee of the American Head and Neck Society. Guidelines for the workup and management of tumors of the major and minor salivary glands are reviewed. Read More

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December 2018
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Diet and Physical Activity of Korean Female Adolescents in Their Peer Networks.

J Nurs Scholarsh 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The University of Iowa, College of Nursing, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the diet and physical activity behaviors of female adolescents and their friends within classroom-based peer networks in Korea.

Design: Complete social network analysis was used to examine the influence of classroom-based peers on adolescents' diets and physical activity. Data were collected by self-report from 99 female adolescents in three classrooms. Read More

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December 2018
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Pediatric tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton soudanense in Rochester, Minnesota, United States.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Tinea capitis is a common pediatric dermatophyte infection. Its main pathogen in the United States is Trichophyton tonsurans accounting for greater than 95% of the infections. Other pathogens including Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton soudanense are common in Africa. Read More

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December 2018
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Scavenger birds exploiting rubbish dumps: Pathogens at the gates.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Grupo de Investigaciones en Biología de la Conservación, Laboratorio Ecotono, INIBIOMA (Universidad Nacional Del Comahue - CONICET), Quintral 1250 (R8400FRF), San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina.

Different bacteria are present in rubbish dumps used as food resources by various bird species. Birds may be good indicators of the presence of zoonotic diseases in these sites since they can be infected with zoonotic pathogens by foraging on organic waste, and can also act as carriers. We studied if foraging in rubbish dumps increases the occurrence of Salmonella spp. Read More

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December 2018
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Volumetric F-FDG-PET parameters as predictors of locoregional failure in low-risk HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer after definitive chemoradiation therapy.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, US.

Background: We sought to investigate the prognostic value of volumetric positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and a ≤10 pack-year smoking history treated with chemoradiation.

Methods: A total of 142 patients were included. Maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumor, involved regional lymph nodes, and total lesion were calculated. Read More

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December 2018

C4: The future of solid organ transplantation from the perspective of young transplant professionals.

Am J Transplant 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

With great interest, we read the first C4 Article titled "Current opinions in organ allocation", the result of pioneering work by the editorial board of the American Journal of Transplantation. The effort of the editorial board to realize their four C's goal, establishing a crowdsourced collaboration on current and controversial subjects, has resulted in a state-of-the-art review. Over a hundred transplant professionals contributed to this project, making it a one-of-a-kind, interdisciplinary and cross border collaboration. Read More

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December 2018

Mutational profiles of persistent/recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background: We sought to describe targeted DNA sequencing data of persistent/recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to compare gene-specific alteration frequencies with that of primary, untreated LSCC specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

Methods: The tumors of 21 patients with persistent/recurrent LSCC were subjected to targeted DNA sequencing using the Ion AmpliSeq Comprehensive Cancer Panel. Gene-specific alteration frequencies were compared (Chi-Square test) to primary, untreated LSCC sequencing data from TCGA using the cBioPortal platform. Read More

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December 2018
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Global patterns in excess body weight and the associated cancer burden.

CA Cancer J Clin 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Scientific Vice President, Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA.

The prevalence of excess body weight and the associated cancer burden have been rising over the past several decades globally. Between 1975 and 2016, the prevalence of excess body weight in adults-defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m -increased from nearly 21% in men and 24% in women to approximately 40% in both sexes. Notably, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m ) quadrupled in men, from 3% to 12%, and more than doubled in women, from 7% to 16%. Read More

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December 2018
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Doubled lifespan and patient-like pathologies in progeria mice fed high-fat diet.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 12:e12852. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri.

Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a devastating premature aging disease. Mouse models have been instrumental for understanding HGPS mechanisms and for testing therapies, which to date have had only marginal benefits in mice and patients. Barriers to developing effective therapies include the unknown etiology of progeria mice early death, seemingly unrelated to the reported atherosclerosis contributing to HGPS patient mortality, and mice not recapitulating the severity of human disease. Read More

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December 2018
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African biogeographical ancestry, atopic and non-atopic asthma and atopy: A study in Latin American children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Collective Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

Background: Genetic variants underlying African ancestry have been suggested be implicated in the ethnic-racial inequalities reported for asthma and allergies.

Objectives: To investigate the association between individual African ancestry and asthma symptoms, atopic and non-atopic asthma, and atopy in children.

Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing 1190 individuals was conducted. Read More

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December 2018
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American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 2018.

J Diabetes 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Close Concerns, California, USA.

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December 2018
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